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Dumbarton - Historia

Dumbarton - Historia

Dumbarton

Un condado y una ciudad de Escocia.

(SwStr: t. 636; 1. 204 '; b. 29'; dr. 10 '; s. 10 k .; a. 2 32
pdr., 2 12 pdr. cómo.)

Thistle, un vapor de ruedas laterales, fue capturado por Fort Jackson el 1 de junio de 1864 mientras ejecutaba el bloqueo frente a la costa de Carolina del Norte; enviado a Boston para su condena, comprado en el tribunal de premios el 20 de julio de 1864, rebautizado como Dumbarton; y comisionado el 13 de agosto de 1864, el teniente voluntario interino H. Brown al mando.

La primera tarea de Dumbarton fue buscar al asaltante CSS Tallahassee a lo largo de la costa atlántica. Luego se unió al Escuadrón de Bloqueo del Atlántico Norte en Beaufort, N.C. y sirvió en el bloqueo de Wilmington N.C., hasta el 6 de diciembre de 1864.

Después de estar en Norfolk Navy Yard, Dumbarton sirvió como buque insignia del contraalmirante W. Radford en el río James, Virginia, del 17 de febrero al 27 de marzo de 1865. Estuvo fuera de servicio en Washington Navy Yard hasta el 11 de noviembre de 1865 cuando fue llevada a New York Navy Yard y colocado en ordinario. Fue vendida allí el 15 de octubre de 1867.


Historia de los Jardines

En 1921, Mildred Bliss comenzó a trabajar con la jardinera paisajista Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872-1959) para diseñar el jardín en Dumbarton Oaks. Las dos mujeres trabajaron en estrecha colaboración durante casi treinta años para lograr su visión de jardines y vistas en terrazas, huertos y huertas, y una vasta naturaleza salvaje de prados y senderos boscosos. También trabajaron juntos en el diseño y elección de adornos de jardín: bancos, puertas, remates y esculturas.

La transferencia de Dumbarton Oaks a la Universidad de Harvard en 1940 incluyó aproximadamente dieciséis acres de tierra, incluidos los jardines superiores más formales. Veintisiete acres, incluido el desierto más naturalista, fueron regalados al gobierno de los Estados Unidos para crear Dumbarton Oaks Park. Se vendieron diez acres adicionales para construir la Embajada de Dinamarca.

En 1941, anticipándose a los cambios inevitables que acompañarían a la función diferente del jardín, Farrand comenzó a escribir un Libro de plantas para definir sus intenciones de diseño y sugerir prácticas de mantenimiento adecuadas. Sus sugerencias para la mayordomía todavía resultan útiles en la actualidad.

Después del retiro gradual de Beatrix Farrand en la década de 1940 y su muerte en 1959, otros arquitectos paisajistas trabajaron en cambios en el Dumbarton Oaks Garden. Estos incluyeron a Ruth Havey (1899-1980), Ralph E. Griswold (1894-1981) y Alden Hopkins (1905-1960). El jardín se ha mantenido bajo la dirección de los superintendentes: William Gray de 1922 a 1937, James Bryce de 1937 a 1948, Matthew Kearney de 1948 a 1973, Donald Smith de 1973 a 1992, Philip Page de 1992 a 1996 y Gail Griffin de 1997 a 2018, y Jonathan Kavalier desde 2018 hasta la actualidad.


Qué Dumbarton registros familiares que encontrará?

Hay 793 registros censales disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Como una ventana a su vida cotidiana, los registros del censo de Dumbarton pueden decirle dónde y cómo trabajaron sus antepasados, su nivel de educación, estado de veterano y más.

Hay 105 registros de inmigración disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Las listas de pasajeros son su boleto para saber cuándo llegaron sus antepasados ​​a los EE. UU. Y cómo hicieron el viaje, desde el nombre del barco hasta los puertos de llegada y salida.

Hay 61 registros militares disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Para los veteranos entre sus antepasados ​​de Dumbarton, las colecciones militares brindan información sobre dónde y cuándo sirvieron, e incluso descripciones físicas.

Hay 793 registros censales disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Como una ventana a su vida cotidiana, los registros del censo de Dumbarton pueden decirle dónde y cómo trabajaron sus antepasados, su nivel de educación, estado de veterano y más.

Hay 105 registros de inmigración disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Las listas de pasajeros son su boleto para saber cuándo llegaron sus antepasados ​​a los EE. UU. Y cómo hicieron el viaje, desde el nombre del barco hasta los puertos de llegada y salida.

Hay 61 registros militares disponibles para el apellido Dumbarton. Para los veteranos entre sus antepasados ​​de Dumbarton, las colecciones militares brindan información sobre dónde y cuándo sirvieron, e incluso descripciones físicas.


A merced de los invasores extranjeros: la roca sometida

Los británicos y los pictos estaban inquietos y nunca se sometieron por completo al dominio romano. Una vez que la era romana en Gran Bretaña llegó a su fin, alrededor del 400 d.C., Alcluith volvió a caer en manos de los británicos. Anteriormente, esta ubicación fue la sede de una larga línea de reyes de los británicos de Strathclyde. Estas sucesivas generaciones de británicos siempre llamaron al lugar "Dunbritton", que significa "el Fuerte de los Británicos".

Aproximadamente en el 756 d.C., el castillo se convirtió una vez más en el escenario de una acción acalorada cuando el rey Eadgbert de Northumberland, acompañado por el rey Uengust de los pictos, asedió el castillo de Dumbarton, lo conquistó y lo perdió de nuevo varios días después. El castillo vuelve a aparecer en los archivos históricos en 782 d.C., cuando fue incendiado y saqueado el 1 de enero, aunque las cuentas no mencionan quién lo hizo.

Las siguientes décadas vieron el restablecimiento del asentamiento de Alcluith, y continuó siendo el centro del reino de Alclud. Pero en 872, se escribió una nueva página oscura en su historia. En ese año, una fuerza de vikingos daneses y noruegos, con base en Irlanda, sitió el castillo liderado por sus mezquinos reyes vikingos Ivar Beinlaus el Tullido (Ímar) ​​y Óláfr el Blanco (Amlaíb). El asedio duró cuatro meses. Cuando los suministros de agua del castillo finalmente se agotaron, el castillo cayó en manos vikingas. Los vikingos lo saquearon por completo y lo destruyeron, llevándose consigo una gran cantidad de cautivos. Después de este saqueo, el castillo de Dumbarton no se menciona de nuevo en los archivos hasta el siglo XIII.

La mayoría de las estructuras que se encuentran hoy en día se agregaron más tarde, mientras que las defensas originales de la Edad del Hierro apenas han sobrevivido. El arco Portcullis del siglo XIV (a la izquierda) es la estructura más antigua que se conserva en Dumbarton Rock. (Izquierda: Lairich Rig / CC BY-2.0 Derecha: Tom Parnell / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

El castillo de Dumbarton que podemos ver hoy es casi en su totalidad de construcción medieval. Las defensas originales de la Edad del Hierro han sido excavadas y documentadas arqueológicamente. Las fortificaciones medievales se construyeron o mejoraron simplemente sobre las fortificaciones originales. Además, algunos de los elementos medievales más antiguos del complejo del castillo han sido destruidos a lo largo de los siglos. Los segmentos más antiguos que se conservan son el Portcullis Arch y la caseta de vigilancia. La mayoría de los otros edificios, como los emplazamientos de defensa de artillería, la casa del gobernador, la prisión y los polvorines, se agregaron más tarde y se remontan al siglo XVII. Dumbarton Rock, en cuya base se encuentra el castillo, tiene dos picos notables. Estos se conocen como el pico y el risco de la Torre Blanca.


Dumbarton - Historia

INVASIÓN ROMANA. & # 8212 Cuando los romanos con sus ejércitos victoriosos entraron en Caledonia, la tierra de los pictos, encontramos a sus historiadores, al describir los límites del norte de sus conquistas, aludiendo con frecuencia a esta antigua ciudad, en un período muy temprano, bajo el nombre de Alcluith o Alcluyd. Los Atticotti, una tribu muy poderosa y formidable, que habitaba a lo largo de las orillas del norte del río Clyde, fueron sus poseedores en ese momento. Atticotti es un nombre que importa habitantes a lo largo del extremo de los bosques de Caledonia. Los descendientes de este pueblo nunca fueron completamente suprimidos o desterrados de sus terrenos de caza por sus invasores romanos. Ptolomeo, un escritor romano, dice que los Gadeni, otra tribu de los habitantes originales, habitaban en las orillas del sur del Clyde. Pinkerton, en su investigación sobre las Antigüedades históricas de Escocia, sostiene sin lugar a dudas que la tribu Atticotti eran los antiguos habitantes de Dumbartonshire, y cita a Richard de Cirencester, un historiador antiguo, que lo corrobora. (Véase el libro I., capítulo 6.) La traducción del pasaje, del latín original de Richard, es la siguiente: & # 8212 & quot La tribu Atticotti todavía & # 8226 habitaba algo más abajo en las orillas del Clotto (o Clyde), una nación entonces y después formidable para toda Gran Bretaña. Aquí se vio un gran lago (Lochlomond), cuyo nombre antiguamente era Lyncalidor cerca de la desembocadura de la cual la ciudad de Aicluith, fundada por los romanos, tenía un nombre conferido poco tiempo antes por el general romano Teodosio, quien había retomó la provincia ocupada por los bárbaros. Con esto no se podía comparar ninguna ciudad, porque había soportado hasta el final los asaltos del enemigo romano después de que las demás provincias circundantes hubieran sido completamente subyugadas. ''

Así, la ciudad de Alcluith estaba situada en las inmediaciones y formaba el agradable y encantador suburbio occidental de la extensa muralla romana erigida entre Clyde y Forth. Aunque era una provincia bárbara, parece que al principio se negó noblemente a someterse a la cruel servidumbre de un enemigo extranjero, pero finalmente fue conquistada. Sin embargo, desdeñó convertirse en tributario de sus enemigos y nuevamente se rebeló contra el yugo romano. Poco después fue recuperada nuevamente por los victoriosos soldados romanos, encabezados por su intrépido general Teodosio. Según los autores romanos antiguos y otros, parece que esta "Ciudad de Alcluith" (porque así se llamaba) fue fundada y construida por este general romano.

En el año 367, el emperador romano Valentiniano I envió de nuevo a su general Teodosio a Gran Bretaña contra los pictos y escoceses, quienes no solo los repelieron, sino que se apoderaron de sus tierras entre las murallas y las erigieron en una provincia llamada con el nombre de el Emperador Valencia. Fortificó fuertemente sus fronteras norte y oeste, entre Clyde y Forth y en el año 368 construyó Theodosia o Alcluith como fortaleza y ciudad fronteriza. Por lo tanto, Beda y otros historiadores consideraron posteriormente este lugar como el gran límite entre los británicos y los pictos. (Véase Richard, libro I., capítulo 7.)

Los descendientes de la tribu Atticotti habitaron durante mucho tiempo las fronteras septentrionales y las orillas del Clyde. Después de muchas épocas de guerra y numerosos conflictos con otras tribus, que les envidiaban mucho su atractivo país, fueron muy despojados y aún permanecieron en sus antiguos dominios al fallecimiento de Beda, que era un historiador monacal y que murió en el año. 734. Todavía fueron reconocidos como un pueblo distinto y separado incluso durante algunas edades después.

Los romanos abandonaron voluntariamente Gran Bretaña alrededor del año 409 después de la era cristiana. Los británicos, sin embargo, hacia el año 421, solicitaron su ayuda contra los pictos y los escoceses. El ejército romano llegó y repelió al enemigo, e hizo que los británicos construyeran un muro de césped o una muralla en la marcha entre el Clyde y el Forth, ya que el antiguo lamento había sido derribado por completo. Bode da una descripción muy clara y minuciosa de esta muralla (Sec. Libro I.cap.12), que llega, dice, `` desde las cercanías de la ciudad de Alcluith hasta un lugar a unas dos millas al oeste de Abercorn, situado en la orilla sur del Forth, llamado Cairn-in. '' El muro de Antoninus fue construido con césped sobre una base de piedra, y tenía unos cuatro metros o doce pies de espesor. Las legiones romanas empleadas para erigirlo fueron la segunda, la sexta y la vigésima, y ​​tres legiones cuando estén completas sumarían treinta y seis mil hombres & # 8212 cada legión romana construyó cuatro millas y seiscientos sesenta y seis pasos de este muro. .

Los únicos restos ahora de este muro cruzan las parroquias de Kilsyth y New Kilpatrick, y se pueden ver en Dunglass al borde del Clyde. También hay un puente de dos arcos en el pueblo de Duntocher. Estas antiguas reliquias tienen ahora más de 1400 años. Este puente se deterioró mucho, pero fue mejorado y reparado bajo la dirección y a expensas del difunto Lord Blantyre, quien restauró la inscripción original, que está cincelada en una gran piedra colocada en el edificio & # 8212 su señoría agregando una adición a él, conmemorativo de su loable gusto y celo por las antigüedades clásicas. La inscripción está en latín. La traducción al inglés dice así: - `` Este puente fue construido bajo los auspicios del emperador Titus Elius Antoninus Hadrianus Augustus, padre de su país, por Quintus Lollius Urbicus, su lugarteniente: siendo casi ruinoso, fue restaurado por Lord Blantyre, en el año de nuestro Señor 1772. & quot

La siguiente descripción de los antiguos caledonios la da Dio, un historiador romano del período en que Severo, el emperador romano, invadió su país en el año 183: resultará muy sorprendente e interesante.

Dice & # 8212 & quot; De los bárbaros británicos hay dos grandes naciones, llamadas Caledoni y M

eatse para el resto están generalmente comprendidos en estos. Los Maatte habitan cerca de la gran muralla que divide la isla en dos partes que los caledonios habitan más allá de ellos. Ambos poseen montañas escarpadas y secas y llanuras desérticas llenas de marismas. No tienen castillos ni ciudades, ni cultivan la tierra, sino que viven principalmente de sus rebaños y de su caza y de los frutos de algunos árboles. No comen pescado, aunque es muy abundante. Viven en toscas tiendas de campaña, completamente desnudos y sin buskins. Tienen esposas en común y crían a todos sus hijos en común. Su forma general de gobierno es democrática. Son adictos al robo, pelean en autos y tienen caballos muy pequeños y veloces. Su infantería es notablemente veloz al correr, y también destaca por su audacia y firmeza al enfrentarse al enemigo. Su armadura consiste en un escudo y una lanza corta, en el extremo inferior de la cual hay una gran manzana de bronce, cuyo sonido, cuando se golpea, a menudo aterroriza al enemigo: también tienen dagas. Hambruna, frío y todo tipo de trabajo que puedan soportar, porque incluso permanecerán en sus pantanos durante muchos días en el agua hasta el cuello, y en el bosque vivirán de la corteza y las raíces de los árboles. Preparan un cierto tipo de comida en muchas ocasiones, de las cuales, tomando solo un poco del tamaño de un frijol, no sienten ni hambre ni sed durante mucho tiempo. Así es Gran Bretaña, y así son los habitantes de esa tierra que se enfrentó con tanta valentía a los romanos. Que es una isla se ha demostrado antes. Su longitud es de siete mil ciento treinta y dos estadios (ocho estadios equivalen aproximadamente a una milla inglesa). Su máxima anchura dos mil trescientos diez estadios; su menor anchura trescientos estadios. De esta isla no menos de la mitad es conquistada por Severus, y él, deseando reducir el todo bajo su propio poder, entró en Caledonia. En su marcha se encontró con dificultades indescriptibles, para talar bosques, nivelar eminencias, levantar bancos a través de pantanos y construir puentes a través de ríos, no luchó en batallas, el enemigo nunca apareció en orden de batalla, pero deliberadamente colocó ovejas y bueyes en el camino. de nuestras tropas, que, mientras nuestros soldados intentaban apoderarse de ellos, y por el fraude fueron arrastrados a los desfiladeros, podrían ser más fácilmente cortados. Los lagos también fueron destructivos para nuestros hombres, al dividirlos, de modo que cayeron en emboscadas y, aunque no pudieron ser derribados, fueron asesinados por nuestro propio ejército, para que no cayeran en manos del enemigo. Por estas causas murieron no menos de cincuenta mil de nuestras tropas. Severus, sin embargo, no desistió hasta haber llegado a la parte extrema de la isla, cuando observó diligentemente la diversidad del curso solar y la duración del día y la noche en verano e invierno. Por fin, después de haber sido llevado a través de la mayor parte de la tierra hostil (porque debido a su debilidad generalmente lo llevaban en una litera abierta), regresó a las partes amigas de la isla, los bárbaros británicos del norte se vieron obligados a concluir una especie de alianza, con la condición de que les cediera una pequeña parte de su país ''.

Dio luego relata que Severus, en una conferencia con los caledonios, casi había sido asesinado por su hijo Antoninus Caracalla. Luego agrega & # 8212 & quot; Después de esto, los feroces británicos se rebelaron nuevamente contra lo que Severus, reuniendo a todo su ejército, les ordenó invadir el país y no dar cuartel: repitiendo estas líneas de poesía exterminadoras & # 8212

`` Que nadie escape de tus manos y cruel matanza
Ni siquiera el bebé aún sin culpa en el útero ''.

Herodian, otro historiador, agrega & # 8212 & quot; En primer lugar, Severus se ocupó de cubrir el pantano de forma segura con puentes, 80 para que sus soldados pudieran estar de pie y luchar en tierra firme & # 8212 porque muchos lugares de Gran Bretaña se vuelven pantanosos por las frecuentes inundaciones de el océano ya través de estos pantanos los bárbaros a menudo nadan o vadean, hundidos hasta el estómago en el barro y con frecuencia desnudos, independientemente del limo, porque ignoran el uso de la ropa. Se ciñen el vientre y el cuello con hierro, pensando que esto es un adorno y una prueba de riquezas, como se hace con el oro con otros bárbaros. Además, marcan sus cuerpos con varios dibujos, y las formas de una variedad de animales, por lo que no se visten, por lo menos deberían cubrir las pinturas de sus cuerpos pero son un pueblo de lo más belicoso, y se regocijan en la matanza. Sus brazos consisten en un escudo estrecho y una lanza, con una espada golpeando sus cuerpos desnudos. Casi no están familiarizados con el uso de una cota de malla o un casco, y piensan en estos impedimentos de pasada. a través de sus marismas, que generalmente están cubiertas de vapores y oscuras por las exhalaciones.

Solinus, otro historiador romano, (capítulo 25) dice & # 8212. & quot; Los caledonios y los británicos son salvajes y belicosos. Después de la batalla, los vencedores manchan sus rostros con la sangre de sus enemigos asesinados. Si una mujer da a luz a un hijo varón, su primer alimento se coloca sobre la espada de su marido y se pone suavemente en su boquita con la punta del arma, mientras la madre afectuosa ofrece con seriedad sus votos de que su hijo. puede que no se encuentre con la muerte, sino en el campo de batalla y en armas.

Habiéndole dado una descripción auténtica, por autores romanos, de nuestros antepasados ​​remotos, en su estado salvaje y su apariencia bélica grosera, permítanme ahora agregar un extracto muy breve en cuanto a su idolatría grosera y modo cruel de adoración.

Sammes, un historiador antiguo, en sus antigüedades de Gran Bretaña, observa & # 8212 & quot; Los nativos rindieron homenaje al ídolo Rugyvith, que tenía siete caras al ídolo Porevith, que tenía cinco cabezas y a Porenuth, que tenía cuatro caras pertenecientes a su cabeza, y una cara a su pecho. '' (Página 454.) Este autor, al tratar de los dioses de los antiguos británicos, menciona, entre otras cosas, que sacrificaron seres humanos a sus ídolos. `` Hicieron '', dice él, una estatua o imagen de un hombre de vastas dimensiones, cuyas extremidades consistían en ramitas tejidas a la manera de una canasta que las llenaron con hombres vivos, y luego le prendieron fuego y las consumieron en las llamas. . & quot (Página 104.)

Los caledonios, escoceses y pictos parecían haberse parecido en modales y ferocidad, y haber ejercido esta última cualidad sin escrúpulos sobre los colonos romanos. Estas naciones a menudo convertían su pelo enmarañado y enmarañado en una especie de tocado natural, que servía como casco o máscara, según se consideraba necesario. Sus casas estaban generalmente construidas con barbas, o en épocas más peligrosas excavaban bajo tierra en excavaciones tortuosas, estrechas y largas, algunas de las cuales aún existen, y la idea parece haber sido sugerida por una madriguera de conejos. Incluso sobre esta gente salvaje, que habita en un país tan salvaje como ellos, "el sol de justicia se levantó con curación bajo sus alas".

Hombres buenos, como Columba y sus seguidores, a quienes el nombre de `` santo '' (que no se usaba entonces en un sentido supersticioso) se les otorgó justamente, y a quienes la vida y los placeres de este mundo eran como nada, por lo que solo podían llamar a la muerte. a los pecadores a abrazar el evangelio, & # 8212 tales hombres devotos emprendieron noblemente, bajo la gracia divina, y felizmente triunfaron, en la peligrosa tarea de iluminar a estos ignorantes salvajes en las sublimes verdades del cristianismo.

Hemos presentado ahora a nuestros lectores un breve esbozo de lo que fue originalmente nuestra tierra natal en épocas pasadas, preparando así sus mentes ya bien informadas para la historia temprana de nuestro propio lugar favorito donde nuestros groseros antepasados ​​de Atticotti se extendían por los bosques y desiertos de todos los países. lo salvaje de sus hábitos incivilizados.

¿Cómo deberíamos saludar ahora con sincera gratitud los maravillosos y asombrosos cambios que han tenido lugar en nuestro feliz país desde los primeros albores de la civilización, y especialmente desde que el brillante sol del cristianismo se levantó y brilló sobre las islas británicas? Por lo tanto, unámonos para entregar el bendito evangelio a otras naciones salvajes e idólatras, como se hizo con nuestros antepasados ​​poco después de los albores de la era cristiana.

DUMBARTON. & # 8212 El nombre de esta ciudad parece haber sufrido varios cambios a lo largo de las edades. Parece haber estado estrechamente unido con el de su romántica roca y castillo, que se encuentra en las inmediaciones. Muchos autores antiguos han supuesto que se trataba del Baiclutha de Ossian, que escribió en el siglo IV, cuya caída es tan bellamente descrita por Carthon, su entonces propietario. & quot; He visto las murallas de Balclutha, pero estaban desoladas. El fuego había resonado en los pasillos y la voz del pueblo ya no se oía. La corriente de Clutha fue removida de su lugar por la caída de los muros. El cardo sacude allí su cabeza solitaria. El zorro mira por la ventana, la hierba rancia de las paredes se agita alrededor de su cabeza. Desolada es la morada de Moina, el silencio está en la casa de sus padres. Vengo, dijo el gran Classamor, en mi nave saltadora, a los muros de torres de Balclutha. El viento había rugido detrás de mis velas, y las corrientes de Clutla recibieron mi barco de pecho oscuro. '' (Poemas de Ossian, vol. I. Pp. 78-80.)

La distinguida fortaleza bajo cuya protección la ciudad ha permanecido segura durante siglos, parece haberle dado nombre originalmente .__ Alcluyd o Alcluith Al, en galés, significa Roca. Petracloethe significa la Roca de Clyde. Fue, desde una época muy remota, la sede real o la residencia de una larga sucesión de antiguos reyes de los británicos de Strathclyde, que anteriormente reinaban dentro de los muros del castillo o dentro de los recintos de la ciudad. Chalmers, en su Gazetteer, dice: `` En tiempos muy antiguos había una iglesia aquí, que era la antigua sede del Reguli de los británicos de Strathclyde ''. Es más que probable que esta Iglesia fuera la que se suponía que fue fundada por Columba, y al que se hará referencia inmediata.

Adomnan, que fue elegido abad de Ions, o Icolumbkill, en el año 679, escribió la Vida de San Columba, en tres libros. En el primer libro de los volúmenes manuscritos & # 8212 actualmente en la Advocates 'Library, Edimburgo & # 8212 & # 8212, el capítulo catorceavo dice así: & quot; Una profecía del hombre santo (es decir, San Columba) sobre el rey Roderick, el hijo de Totail, que reinó en Petracloethe. , o la Roca del Clyde. '' Se dice que este rey fue un monarca muy generoso, y fue muy elogiado por sus contemporáneos. Algunos autores lo designan como `` Rhyd-derech-hael, el generoso rey de los británicos en el Cluyd ''.

`` Las generaciones sucesivas de los británicos originales '', dice Camden, uno de los primeros escritores, `` llamó a esta ciudad Dunbritton, o el Fuerte de los Británicos ''. Aprendemos del venerable historiador Bede, que en su época los belicosos británicos seguían siendo predominantes en el Clyde. . (Como se cita en Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. Iii. P. 856.)

Iloveden y Camden, quienes escribieron después de él, dicen que el año 756 fue la época de la conquista de Alcluith o Dunbritton por Eadgbert, rey de Northumberland, y Uengust, rey de los pictos, quienes con sus fuerzas conjuntas sitiaron el castillo. , y lo llevó a un extremo tan desesperado que les fue entregado por composición. Los términos de la rendición parecerían ser los del tributo.

En 782, Alcluyd fue reducido a cenizas, el 1 de enero, pero quien no aparece, ya que la historia no registra los nombres de los invasores destructivos.

Fue asediado de nuevo noventa años después, a saber. en el año 872, por los daneses y noruegos, bajo el mando de Olive e Ivar, sus pequeños reyes que, después de asediarlo cuatro meses, finalmente lo destruyeron. Había una tradición sobre este tiempo, que durante este período las nubes llovieron sangre durante siete. días en toda Gran Bretaña, y que incluso la leche, el queso y la mantequilla se convirtieron en sangre.

Esta antigua ciudad parece haber sido en un período muy temprano la residencia real y sede de los reyes de los británicos de Strathclyde, y el teatro de sus sangrientas guerras y conflictos con otras tribus y naciones rudas. Rhyd-derech-hael, el Generoso, luchó en una batalla con dos de sus pequeños príncipes vecinos & # 8212Guendolaw y Aedan, quienes se habían rebelado por su lealtad a su trono. Guendolaw, que cayó en esta batalla, fue un cálido mecenas de "Merlín el salvaje", que era un poeta nativo de Alcluith y que generalmente vivía en él, de quien el lector oirá pronto. Roderick, como se comentó antes, era un monarca tan generoso, que tenía el epíteto `` Hael '' agregado a su nombre, que significa liberal, generoso y lo era en todas sus palabras y acciones, por lo que fue muy elogiado y elogiado. (Ver Antigüedades de Escocia de Pinkerton).

En Life of Gildas, publicado por Mabilon, un escritor francés, el autor afirma que Gildas nació en Aleluith a principios del siglo V y que su padre era un rey de ese país, y fue sucedido por su hijo mayor Hoel. Supone que el reino de los británicos de Strathclyde incluía Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire y la parte superior de Lanarkshire y se extendía por toda la Valentia de los romanos, con unas ochenta millas de largo y cuarenta de ancho. Theodosia o Aicluith se consideraba generalmente como la ciudad principal de la provincia y su fuerte fortaleza, naturalmente inexpugnable, se veía desde lejos elevándose, como la Acrópolis de Corinto, en la cima de una alta roca que se elevaba desde una llanura llana. Por lo tanto, se convirtió, por supuesto, en la capital del reino. La siguiente es una lista cronológica de los antiguos reyes que reinaron en Alcluith sobre los británicos de Strathclyde, según los anales de Ulster, según lo citado por Pinkerton en sus Antigüedades de Escocia:

1. Cauno, rey de Aicluith, reinó alrededor del año 390 d.C.
2. Inwald reinó como rey de Strathclyde, en Alcluith, en la época de San Ninnian, o alrededor del año 412.
3. Morti Arthur reinó alrededor del año 460.
4. Constantino reinó alrededor del año 510.
5. Guendolaw reinó alrededor del año 540.
6. Rodericus, Roderick o Rhyd-derech-hael, reinó en 560. [Jocelyn, un monje papista, de Furness, en Lancashire, que escribió en 1180, afirma que "Langueth" era el nombre de la reina de Roderick.]
7. Urien reinó en 575.
8. Hoel, hijo de Roderick, reinó alrededor de 585.
9. Morkin reinó en el año 590.
10. Guiret, rey de Aiclyde, murió en el año 660.
11. Donal, hijo de Owen, rey de Aicluith, murió en el año 693.
12. Bile, rey de los británicos de Strathcluyd, murió en el año 724.
13. Artga, rey de los británicos de Strathcluyd, fue asesinado por Constantino, segundo rey de los pictos, en 874.
14. Dunwallon, el último rey de los británicos de Strathcluyd, en 972, fue a Roma y murió allí poco después.

Creo que algunos de mis lectores ni siquiera imaginaron hasta ahora que nuestro pequeño y acogedor burgo y sus alrededores es un terreno real y consagrado, en el que reinó una larga lista de antiguos reyes, y donde guerreros salvajes lucharon y cayeron. Sí, en esa singular roca se han producido muchas escenas extrañas y sanguinarias, y si las piedras y la roca fueran vocales, podrían contar muchas historias trágicas de crueldad y aflicción bárbaras, perpetradas en días de oscuridad desde hace mucho tiempo, así como en el pasado. período más refinado de una edad posterior. Pero, sin moralizar más en la actualidad, procedemos ahora a enumerar una lista de historiadores a los que ha dado a luz nuestra antigua ciudad y sus suburbios.

Se dice que los siguientes escritores e historiadores antiguos tuvieron su lugar de nacimiento en Alcluith o en sus inmediaciones:

1er. San Patricio nació en Nemthur, cerca de Aicluith o Dunbritton. (Nemthur es el nombre romano de Old Kilpatrick, un pueblo en la ribera norte del Clyde, cerca de la terminación de la antigua muralla romana.) Por su propio nombre Patricius, parece haber sido originalmente de extracción romana. Nació alrededor del año 400, cuando el ejército romano poseyó a Valentia. Sin embargo, algunos historiadores han sostenido enérgicamente que nació en la ciudad de Alcluith. (Ver Historia de Escocia de Aikman, vol. I. p. 220 y nota # 8212).

2d. Gildas Albanius, o el Gildas británico, nació en Aicluith alrededor del año 426. Su padre Caunus era rey de ese país, quien también era padre de Anuerin. Este Gildas fue un piadoso monje e historiador.

3d. Anuerin, hermano del último nombrado, fue poeta. Sus poemas fueron traducidos y publicados a finales del siglo XVII.

4to. Merlin Caledonius, o "Merlín el salvaje", era un nativo de Aicluith. Este personaje tan extraordinario floreció en la época de Roderick Hail, el generoso rey de los británicos, y por lo tanto fue un contemporáneo con Kentigern o San Mungo, que erigió la Iglesia Catedral de Glasgow, hace casi 1300 años, y que vivió alrededor del año 670. Aún existe una curiosa vida de Merlín el Salvaje, en verso latino, por Geofrey de Monmouth. Por sus hábitos y modales singulares, al andar al descubierto tanto en la cabeza como en los pies, con solo un pedazo suelto de tela áspera o piel de animal peluda envuelta alrededor de su cuerpo desnudo y por vivir generalmente en bosques y cuevas, con otras singularidades, adquirió en esas edades rudas la reputación de un profeta. El habitante moderno de Dumbarton, en la imaginación, puede pensar que lo ve caminando lentamente por las calles y veredas ahora inundadas de la antigua Aicluith, ataviado con las toscas vestimentas de la vida salvaje, expresando sentimientos religiosos y cepas de poesía nativa, que probablemente impresionaron a los oyentes. con reverencia y asombro. John Fordun, que escribió su historia de Escocia en el año 1420, tiene una larga historia sobre Merlín el salvaje. (Libro 3, p. 31, 32.) Varias páginas de los poemas de Merlín muestran claramente que su lugar de nacimiento fue Aicluith, y que su país natal fue Caledonia, la tierra de los pictos. Guendolaw, un rey mencionado anteriormente, era un cálido patrón de Merlín el Salvaje.

La poesía fue muy cultivada en un período temprano por los antiguos escoceses y británicos. Lo siguiente es un espécimen y la traducción de dos estrofas:

& quotVirgen de bello rostro, aprende mis versos:
Te acuerdas de ellos, engañarán tus horas lánguidas,
Cuando tu amante está lejos y cuando la juventud de tu corazón
Aparecerá en tu memoria.

`` Estábamos juntos sobre la hierba grees cuando
La doncella de bellos cabellos y dulce semblante,
Abrazándome con sus brazos, lloró amargamente
Y con un lino más blanco que la nieve, ella
Se secó las gruesas lágrimas que caían de sus radiantes ojos.

En el año 575, y durante el reinado del rey Urien, florecieron en sus cortes estos tres famosos bardos, Taliesin, Anuerin, ya mencionado, y Lynarch-Ken. El historiador Evans ha publicado muestras de su poesía grosera. These are a few of our native ancient poets and writers who arose, flourished, and faded on our own soil, and whose names have been thus collected from the rubbish of antiquity, and snatched from the grave of oblivion, to which they were quickly descending.

As a proof that learning was much cultivated at a very early period in Scotland, the abbots, priors, and monks of Iona, and other seminaries, excelled much in literature. Mackinnon and Mackenzie, two of the famed Ionian abbots, have their names inscribed on their tomb-stones on that island. An abbess, whose remains are said to moulder side by side, is designed, "Ann, the daughter of Donald, the son of Charles." The inscription is in Latin and Gaelic, and is still quite legible, although executed with the rude chisel more than a thousand years ago.

The public was greatly interested in the preservation of Ions, as it was at one period the repository of most of the Scottish records. The Ionian library—if we can depend on the testimony of Boethius, who was first principal of Aberdeen college must have been invaluable. From that author we learn that Fergus Second, who assisted Alaric the Goth in the sacking of Rome, brought away a chest full of books, which he presented to the monastery of Ions. A small parcel of them was, in 1525, carried to Aberdeen, and great pains were taken to unfold and decipher them, but through great age very little of them could be read. The register and records of the island, however, were all written on parchment, and it is probable that they, along with more antique and valuable records, were all destroyed by the violent changes which took place at the Reformation, which, in many instances, was a war against history and science, as it was against idolatry and superstition. (See Pennant's Second Tour, page 167.) Genuine religion, science, and literature, were beyond a doubt nourished and cultivated in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries, by Saint Columba and his Ionian disciples, even to a considerable extent yet in the succeeding centuries there followed a dark historical night, when scarcely a glimmering star appeared. But even amidst the darkness of the middle ages there was always a faint twilight, like that auspicious gleam which in a summer's night fills up the interval between the setting and the rising sun. In Scotland not a native writer arose from the eighth till nearly the commencement of the thirteenth century. From 843 till 106 is the most obscure period of Scottish history, and is often denominated "the leaden age." Thus there was a long dark night previous to the dawn of a clearer day. Indeed, over all Europe, as is well known, the ninth and tenth centuries form the deepest gloom between ancient and modern day. In the eighth century obscure night closes in upon us but, in the twelfth and thirteenth, a new morning arises and shines onward to the bright effulgence of meridian day.

The terrors of war, during even the fifth and sixth centuries, drove the Christian Scots and Britons to seek refuge in the extremities of the island. From this period genuine religion began to decline in the country, and was fast approaching to a complete exit, when two circumstances, concomitant with the labours of Columba, contributed to its revival and establishment. Ethelbert, King of Kent, had married a Christian princess of the house of Clovis: in her marriage stipulations she had secured her right to maintain inviolate her religion. This event was a happy preparative to the mission which Gregory was induced to set on foot, from a circumstance which transpired some time before his elevation to the Pontificate. Walking in the market-place at Rome one day, he observed a number of youths exposed to sale: struck with their fine ruddy appearance, he asked their country being told they were Angles, he replied, "They might with propriety be called angels. It is a pity (added he) that the Prince of Darkness should hold so fair a prey." Inquiring further into their province, he was informed that they came from Dclii (that is, Northumberland): "Deiri! (replied he) that is happy they shall be snatched from God's wrath, and made heirs of mercy." Asking the name of their king, he was informed it was Ella: "Alleluia! (cried he) God's praises shall be sung in that country."

This association of ideas, however fanciful, produced considerable impression upon the mind of Gregory, and he offered himself as a missionary to Britain but the Roman Church at that time opposing his wishes, he declined to insist on the experiment. But it seems that Gregory lost not the impulse for soon after his consecration, he looked out some agents whom he thought fit to carry forward the grand design.

In the year 597, Gregory matured his plan, and sent over forty monks or missionaries, with one at their head named Austin, a man of very singular qualifications. After combating many difficulties and many fears, these holy men arrived in the dominions of Ethelbert, and laid before him the design of their embassy. The prince received them courteously, and appointed them a suitable place of abode in the isle of Thanet. After a little time they were admitted to an audience, and suffered to open more fully the great object of their mission. Austin proceeded to lay before the king the principal doctrines of the Christian faith, and zealously urged the monarch to embrace that glorious dispensation which revealed a kingdom eternal in the heavens. "Your speech and promises," said Ethelbert, "are fair but as they are novel and untried, I cannot yield my assent, and give up the principles so long embraced by my ancestors. You are at liberty, however, to continue here, without fear of molestation and as you have performed so great a journey, entirely, as it seems, for what you believe to be for our advantage, I will that you be furnished with every necessary supply, and permit you to hold forth the faith of your religion to my subjects." Ethelbert accordingly appointed them a mansion in the royal city Dorobernium, now called Canterbury. Thus settled, Austin and his colleagues, attended with the auspices of the queen, proceeded to discharge the great duties of Christian missionaries, and the effect was that many were prevailed on to renounce idolatry and to be baptised into the faith of Christ. Among these converts was the king himself, which acquisition contributed greatly to forward the Christian cause. Thus, after toiling through a long dismal night of superstitious and heathen darkness, and regions of the shadow of death, a beam of gospel day, as the morning spread upon the mountains, revives the fainting spirit. (See Sabines' Church History.)

The Dalriads, a colony of the ancient Scoti, from Ireland, settled in Argyllshire at an early period, and thus became next neighbours to the early Britons in Strathclyde. They latterly formed a mutual alliance, and protected each other for a long period although, in very early ages, their petty kings, with their respective navies, had many a deadly and sanguinary battle on the Firth of Clyde. The ancient Sooti were continually passing and repassing the firth in their rude shaped "shallops, curracha, and crearies," to annoy and molest the courageous Britons on their own shores. The promontory and lands of Argyll, as possessed by this early tribe, was anciently called Dalriada. It is a singular fact, that Jocelyn, a monkish historian, mentioned already, who wrote in the eleventh century, says, "that the city of Glasgow, in the early ages of antiquity, was called Cathures "—probably this was its Roman name-.– and it was then only a small village: it is now supposed to be the largest city of the Empire. During the Roman period, and long after their departure, the original inhabitants, viz. the Atticotti and Dairiad tribes, inhabited the whole country from Lochflne the Lilamonius of Richard, on the west to the eastward, beyond the river Leven, and bounded by the Longcraig and Dumbuck, which were the southern termination of the range of the Grampian Mountains, in the vicinity of the Roman wall. These two races, however, were latterly immerged into, and incorporated with, and, in the course of ages, became undistinguished from, the Picts and Britons.

ACCOUNT OF THE BRITONS.—Their boats were usually made of osiers interwoven and covered with skins of wild beasts, being about five feet long and three broad, as appears from the historians Solinus, Gildas, and Ninius. Their Dress.—Gildas mentions (chap. 15) the Picts and Britons as being partly clothed, or at least generally girt about the middle with a kind of cloth: this was in the fifth century. In the sixth century, when Saint Columba lived, Adomnan his biographer drops no hint whatever of dress. It appears that the Caledonians, like the ancient Germans, went almost naked. Roman writers sometimes mention them as being naked and, indeed, if we saw a savage with only a wild deer's skin thrown loosely over his shoulders, and the rest of his body quite uncovered, we would, like those writers, be inclined to call them naked. The primitive Celtic dress was only a skin loosely thrown over the shoulders, and a piece of coarse rude-made cloth tied round the middle. In the thirteenth century, however, the women among the ancient Scots were rather elegantly dressed. The bishop of Ross says, "that they were clothed with purple and embroidery of the most exquisite workmanship, with bracelets and necklaces on their arms and necks, so as to make a most graceful appearance."

FUNERAL RITES.—The bodies of the common people and of enemies were buried those of chiefs and kings burned, if opportunity allowed. When burned, the ashes were put into earthen urns, as was done among the Greeks and Romans.

AGE OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS.—"It is a very striking circumstance," says an early historian, "that the ancient Britons and Caledonians generally lived to a very great age-140 and 150—and many instances of some of them having lived to 160 years." This may be accounted for, in a great measure, by their having lived chiefly on the produce of the chase, and their drink being the pure unadulterated water of the running brook: in a word, they were real teetotalers.

SAINT COLUMBA.—Columba the apostle, as he has been called, of the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, was the founder and first abbot of the famous monastery of Iona. Iona means "the Island of the Waves." It early became the light of the western world, whence savage nations derived the benefits of knowledge and the blessings of the Christian religion: it stands nine miles from Staffa, and is separated from the island of Mull by a small strait. In any other situation the remains of Iona would be consigned to neglect and oblivion but standing as it does the solitary monument of the religion and literature of past ages, its silent and ruined structures are, by the tourist and the traveller, contemplated with profound awe and veneration.

An account of the life of Columba was written in Latin by two of his successors, Cummin and Adomnan. The former wrote about sixty, and the latter about eighty-three years after his death. Their writings are often interspersed with marvellous details of visions and prophecies, to many of which the modern historian ought to pay little or no regard. Dr. Smith, late minister of Campbelton, wrote a history of the life of Columba, about the beginning of this century, from which some of the following short notices are gleaned:—We make these extracts from the life of this singular man, under the firm conviction and deep impression that the "College Bow" is an ancient Gothic vestige of one of Columba's religious and scientific seminaries and under whose benign influence many were erected, in the dark ages of the fifth and sixth centuries, in the west of Scotland, of which the Ionian was the principal and the origin. It is remarked by ancient writers, especially by Jocelyn, (chap. 89,) that Columba erected more than 300 churches, colleges, and monasteries, in Scotland and Ireland. Saint Constantine, one of his disciples, is said, by Fordun the historian, to have presided over the monastery of Govan, upon the Clyde and to have converted the people of Kintyre to the Christian faith, where he nobly suffered martyrdom. The college at Aicluith or Dumbarton is apparently of a very remote age, and most probably was founded by Columba, or some of his religious successors, under the auspices of Brudius the Seventh, a Pictish king, in 842, who, history says, erected the church and college of Lochleven. (See Pinkerton's Antiquities of Scotland.) In the chartularies of Lennox and Paisley our vicinity is expressly called Lochleven. (See charters of Lennox and Paisley.) The church, chapel, and adjoining hospital, which more modern historians refer to as being founded here by the Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox in the year 1450, relate to the Old Parish Church and steeple, &c. on the site of which the present new church and steeple were erected in the year 1811. With the authorities above referred to, and from the zealous labours of Columba and his followers to promulgate the pure gospel, and raise seminaries of religion and learning at an early period in Scotland, and from the apparent age of the "College Bow," we draw the unhesitating conclui. that it must have been reared in an early age by him or i some of his monastic Christian brethren of Iona. it is likely that Saint Cairan, who was cotemporary with Columba, superintended the College of Aicluith'as we find the fountain of our public wells, at Levengrove, called Saint Cheryes or Saint Cairan's Well. (See Burgh Records, 1709.) Saint Cairan was also, for a short time, coadjutor with Saint Constantine in presiding over the monastery at Govan.

Bode tells us expressly that Columba arrived at Iona when Brudius, a most powerful king, reigned over the Picts and it was in the ninth year of his reign and that he converted that nation and the Scots to the faith of Christ by his zealous preaching and example. The Ionian monastery and college was a very different society from the later Roman Catholic monkish institutions for although the Ionian brethren had certain rules, and might deem certain religious regulations necessary, yet their grand and primary design was, by communicating instruction, to train up others for the sacred work of the ministry. These societies, which sprung from them, became the foundation seminaries of the Church of Scotland. They lived, after the example of the venerable fathers and early Christian pastors, by the labour of their own hands.

Columba was originally a native of Ireland, descended from the royal family of that kingdom, and nearly allied to the kings of Scotland: he was born in the year 521: he laboured in the cause of the Saviour for many years in his native country, and was the means of diffusing the Gospel far and wide. Ireland had then, for a long time previously, enjoyed the light of the Gospel, while the Isles and northern parts of Scotland were still covered with heathen darkness, superstition, and idolatry. On these dismal regions Columba looked with a pitying eye, and resolved to become the apostle of the savage Western Isles. Accordingly, in the year 563, he set out from Ireland in a wicker boat covered with hides, accompanied by twelve of his followers and friends, and landed on the island of Iona. He was now in the forty-second year of his age, and required all the vigour of body and mind he possessed to encounter the very great difficulties which presented themselves. The barbarous state of the nation—the opposition of the priests and Druids—the situation of the country, wild, woody, mountainous, and infested with wild beasts—the austerity of his own manners, sometimes fasting for whole days, and even watching and praying for whole nights, were all against his philanthropic mission. He often denied himself the comforts and enjoyments of life. Even at his seventy-sixth year, in his various travellings, his bed was often the bare ground, and a stone his pillow. These were all circumstances very unfavourable in appearance to his making many proselytes. Columba was also primate, and superintended all the affairs of the Pictish, Scottish, and Irish churches, with all their dependencies, and was highly reverenced not only by the king of the Picts, but also by all the neighbouring princes, who courted his acquaintance, and liberally assisted him in all his expensive undertakings. Wherever he visited abroad he was received with the highest demonstration of respect and joy. Crowds attended him on the public highways, and to the places where he lodged at night the respective neighbourhoods sent stores of provisions of every kind to entertain him. When at home he was resorted to for aid and advice, as a physician of both soul and body, by vast multitudes of every rank and denomination: even the little Ionian islet, the place of his more perrnanent residence, was considered as peculiarly sacred and holy and to repose in the dust of it became for ages an object of ambition to kings, princes, and potentates. According to Buchanan the historian, forty-eight kings of Scotland, four of Ireland, and eight of Norway, were interred in Iona—in all sixty kings!! This monastery was perhaps the chief seminary of Christians at the time in Europe, and the famed nursery from which not only all the other monasteries, and above three hundred and eight churches which he himself had established, but also many of the neighbouring nations, were supplied with learned divines and able pastors. It must also be observed, that Columba had a very extraordinary share of address,.of personal accomplishments, and colloquial talents, when he so effectually recommended himself wherever he went, and gained such ascendancy over so many princes, as to be revered and patronised by them all, even when they were in a state of barbarism, and were seldom at peace amongst themselves. To his many other talents, accompanied with the most engaging manners and a cheerful countenance, was joined another very essential property in a preacher, a most powerful and commanding voice, which Adomnan says he could raise on occasions so as to resemble peals of thunder, and make it to be heard distinctly a mile's distance when he chanted psalms.

His natural endowments were highly cultivated by the best education which the times could afford and though we have no particular account transmitted to us of his studies, it would seem they were not entirely confined to the profession which he followed, but extended to the general circle of science. Such was his knowledge of physic that his cures were often considered as Ting partially miraculous.

But a still more striking part of Columba's character was his early, uniform, and strong spirit of deep piety. Devoted from his birth to the service of God, and evidently bent on the pursuit of holiness, he seems to have reached the goal before others think of starting in the race. Far from resting in any measure of sanctity acquired in early life, he laboured often to gain still higher and higher degrees of it even to his latest day.

Next to the salvation of souls, the object which most engaged the heart of Columba was charity. Saint Mobith, who had just built a church, brought Saint Cairan, Saint Kenneth, and Saint Columba to see it, and desired each of them to say with what things he would have it filled, if he had the accomplish- meet of his wish. Cairan, who spoke first, said he would wish to have it filled with holy men ardently engaged in celebrating the praises of God. Kenneth said, his wish would be to have it filled with sacred books, which should be read by many teachers, who would instruct multitudes, and stir them up to the service of God. And I, said Columba, would wish to have it filled with silver and gold, as a fund for erecting monasteries, and churches, and colleges, and for relieving the necessities of the poor and needy.

It is a curious fact in ancient Scottish ecclesiastical hitory, though not so generally known as it deserves, that a large body of pastors and people from this island and other mountains of Scotland, like the ancient Waldenses among the Alps and valleys of Piedmont, maintained, at an early period, the true worship of God in its native simplicity, and preached the gospel in its purity for ninny generations, when it was greatly corrupted in other places. A change much to the worse began to take place amongst them about the beginning of the ninth century, when almost all the men of Ions were destroyed or dispersed by the Danish freebooters, and when those misfortunes commenced which afterwards endured for ages. Society was greatly unhinged by war, anarchy, and desolation, and a seminary in such a state could not be expected to stand the shock of such revolutions. Yet some of the good seed seems to have been still preserved and propagated in the country by the ancient Culdees, who sprung from the schools and seminaries of Columba. Let us now turn our attention for a little to the closing scene of Columba's long and useful life.

A few weeks previous to his death, he went out along with his faithful Christian servant Dermit, and entering the barn, where he saw two heaps of corn, he expressed great satisfaction, and thanked God, whose bounty had thus provided a sufficiency of bread for his dear monks in this year in which he was finally to leave them. "During this year," said Dermit, wiping his eyes, "you have made us all sad by the mention of your death." "Yes, Dermit," said the holy Saint, "but I will now be more explicit with you, on condition that you promise to keep what I tell you a secret till I die." Dermit promised to do so, and the Saint went on. "This day, in the sacred volume, is called 'the Sabbath '—that is 'rest'—and it will be indeed a Sabbath of rest to me, for it is to me the last day of this toilsome life—the day on which I am to rest from all my labour and trouble for on this sacred night of the Lord, at the midnight hour, I go the way of my fathers?' Dennit then wept bitterly, and the Saint administered to him all the consolation in his power.After a little time, Dermit being somewhat composed, they left the barn. Columba afterwards ascended a little eminence on the island, immediately above his monastery, where he stood, and lifting both his eyes and hands to heaven, prayed God to bless and prosper it. He then went to evening service in the church, and, after coming home, sat down on his bed, and gave it in charge to Dermit to deliver the following to his disciples as his last words:-" My dying charge to you, my dear children, is, that you all live in peace, and sincerely love one another and if you do this, as becometh saints, the God who comforts and upholds the good will help you and now that I am going to dwell with him, will request that you may both have a sufficient supply of the necessaries of the present transitory life, and a share in that everlasting bliss which he has prepared fQr those who observe his laws."

After this he rested or remained quiet till the bell was rung for prayers, at the hour of midnight, which was the general practice of Christians in very early ages. Hastily rising and going to the church, he arrived there before any other, and kneeled down before the altar to pray. When Dermit, who did not walk or run so quick, approached the church, he perceived it—as did others—all illuminated, and as it were filled with a heavenly glory or angelic light, which, on his entering the door, immediately vanished upon which Dermit cried with a mournful voice—O, my father, where art thou!! My father, where art thou!! and groping, without waiting for lamps, found the Saint lying before the altar in a praying posture. Dermit, attempting to raise him up a little, sat beside him, supporting the Saint's head upon his bosom, till lights came in. When the brethren saw their father dying, they raised all at once a very doleful cry. Upon this the Saint, whose soul had not yet departed, lifted up his eyes and—as Adomnan, his biographer, relates—looked around him with inexpressible cheerfulness and joy of countenance, seeing no doubt the holy angels come to meet his departing spirit. He then attempted, with Dermit's assistance, to raise his right hand to bless the monks, who were then all about him but his voice having failed, he made with his hand alone the motion which he used in pronouncing his usual benediction: after which heimme- diately breathed out his spirit, still retaining some tranquil smiles. By the brightness and the fresh look of his countenance, he had not the least appearance of one who was dead, but only sleeping. After the spirit had departed, and when the morning hymns were ended, the sacred body was carried from the church to the house of the brethren, amidst the loud singing of psalms and three days and three nights were spent in the sweet praises of God. "The venerable body of our holy and blessed patron," says Adomnan, "was wrapped in fair linen sheets, and put into a coffin prepared for it, and was buried with all due respect, to rise as a luminary in eternal glory on the day of the resurrection. Such was the close of our venerable patron's life, who is now, according to the Scriptures, associated with the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, and thousands of saints, who are clothed in white robes washed in the blood of the Lamb, and who follow him whithersoever he goeth. Such was the grace vouchsafed to his pure and spotless soul by Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with the Father and Holy Spirit, be honour and power, praise and glory, and eternal dominion, for ever and ever."

Thus, on the 9th of June, 597, and in the seventy-seventh year of his age, died Columba, the Christian Apostle of Iona a man whose extraordinary piety and usefulness,—accompanied with a perpetual serenity of mind, cheerfulness of countenance, simplicity of manners, benevolence of heart, and sweetness of disposition,—have deservedly raised him to the first rank of saints and holy men. His life, so zealously devoted to the cause and spread of early Christianity, was very singular and the extent of his usefulness, and the happy results of his labours and exertions, will remain hid till the judgment of the great day unfold them.

Adomnan gives a beautiful and classical description of two ora or dinary visions, which he says had been seen on the night on which Columba died. One of them by a holy man in Ireland, who told to his friends next morning that he had a vision through the previous night, declaring that Columba was dead and the other by a number of fishermen, who had been that night fishing on a loch called Glenfende, from some of whom Adomnan had the relation when he was a boy. The purport of it was—" That on the night and hour on which Columba, the founder of so many churches, had departed, a pillar of fire, which illuminated all the sky with a light brighter than that of the mid-day sun, was seen to arise from Iona, while loud and sweet sounding anthems of innumerable choirs of angels ascending with his soul were distinctly heard, and that when this column reached the heavens the darkness again returned, as if the sun had suddenly set at noonday."

Such lively pictures of the religious opinions of former times will not displease the antiquary, nor appear insignificant to the good and the pious. The cold sceptic may perhaps smile at the credulity of former ages, but credulity is more favourable to the happiness of man and to the interests of society than scepticism. In the history of all ages and nations, we read of some such extraordinary appearances in certain stages of society shall we then refuse all credit to human testimony, or shall we allow that a kind Providence may have adapted itself to the dark state of society, and given such visible and striking proofs of the connection and communication between this world and a world of spirits, as may be properly withheld from more enlightened times, which may need them less, and perhaps less deserve them. Adomnan remarks, that even in his time a heavenly light and manifestation of angels was frequently seen on Iona at Columba's grave.

These latter remarks remind me much of a visit paid to the island of Icolumbkill, or Iona, in the year 1825, by the late Rev. Leigh Richmond, Rector of Turvey, in Bedfordshire, as recorded in his memoirs:—On that occasion he met with upwards of two hundred children, and addressed them and their parents, through the medium of a Gaelic interpreter, on their eternal interests. Before leaving the island, however, he ordered a kind of feast to be prepared for the children on the grassy banks of the sea-shore, for there was no house large enough to contain them on the island. The principal dish at this singular juvenile banquet was the fattest sheep that could be procured on the island, value 68. and two lambs at Is. each and, for lack of eating implements, the children selected fine shells from the sea-shore to supply the deieney of knives and forks. The following beautiful hymn was composed by the reverend gentleman, and sung on the occasion:-

The revolution of ages hurries on imperceptibly, with almost the rapidity of lightning. While our eyes scan over the pages of past history, we are apt to heave an involuntary sigh over the ruins of time, the ravages of death, and the desolations of empires. Where are now the Persian, the Assyrian, and the Roman empires? Where is Tyre, and Nineveh, and Babylon? Where are the ancient cities of Baalbeck, Tadmor in the Desert, and Palmyra ?—supposed to be built by Solomon—the ruins of whose gorgeous buildings appear to have exceeded his famed Temple of Jerusalem. The answer i&-they have all perished in the wreck of ages. The ploughshare of time has erased even their very foundations and no trace of them is now to be found, but some huge pillars and broken columns and capitals strewn along the Palmyrian desert. Such is the history of the empires and cities of our globe. And in a few centuries hence where shall populous London, Empress of the Thames, be found ?—or commercial Glasgow, Queen of the far-famed Clyde? Their names, indeed, may be inscribed on the page of history by the pen of the historian but there will not be found, amongst their present stately buildings, " one stone Left on another that shall not be thrown down." Not only empires and cities are doomed to decay and ruin, to destruction and oblivion, but the fair fabric of this vast universe itself is rapidly hastening to a final end. Sí,


Chronology

1703 The Maryland Assembly grants Scottish immigrant Ninian Beall a tract of 795 acres for his services “[against] all incursions and disturbances of neighboring Indians.” Beall names the property “Rock of Dumbarton,” after the distinctive geologic feature near Glasgow in his native Scotland.

1717 Ninian Beall dies and the property descends in the family.

1751 The Maryland Legislature charters a new town, named George-Town, that includes part of the original Rock of Dumbarton.

Rock of Dumbarton

1796 Thomas Beall, grandson of Ninian, sells approximately four acres of his inheritance (where Dumbarton House now stands) to Peter Casenave, mayor of Georgetown. After two months, Casenave sells to General Uriah Forrest for 20 percent more.

1797 Forrest sells to Isaac Polack for five times what he paid for it.

1798 Polack sells to Samuel Jackson, a merchant from Philadelphia, for less than half what he paid.

1799 Jackson builds a large “two-story brick house with a passage through the center, four rooms on a floor and good cellars” just before our nation’s capital is moved from Philadelphia to Washington. Jackson mortgages the property.

1804 The United States, having acquired the mortgage, sells the property at public auction. Joseph Nourse purchases the property for $8,581.67 as a home for his family.

1813 Nourse sells the property to Charles Carroll, a cousin of the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll names the house Bellevue, after his former plantation near Hagerstown, Maryland.

1814 On August 24, Charles Carroll, at President James Madison’s request, goes to the president’s house to urge Dolley Madison to leave, as the Americans are retreating from Bladensburg and the British will soon be entering Washington. Dolley, together with Eleanor Jones, wife of the Secretary of the Navy, flees to Carroll’s Bellevue, before going to Virginia to meet Madison.

1815 Carroll vacates Bellevue and over the course of the next 26 years it is occupied by a succession of tenants.

1841 Charles Carroll’s heirs sell the house.

1915 Bellevue is moved about 100 feet to the north. The house had always been located in the middle of today’s Q Street. With the construction of the Dumbarton Bridge connecting Q Street in Washington and Georgetown, however, it was decided that that street should also be made continuous within Georgetown. To avoid demolishing the unfortunately located Bellevue, the house was moved out of the way to its present site.

1928 The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America purchases the property.

1932 The property opens as Dumbarton House, a Federal period historic house museum and headquarters of The National Society, following restoration of its Federal character under the direction of Horace Peaslee, second vice president of the American Institute of Architects, and nationally renowned architectural historian Fiske Kimball.


History Lessons

Restoration of the North Garden Niche

Preservation requires understanding the history and construction of the object or structure being preserved if it is to be done correctly. If not careful, our …

The Hidden Figures of Dumbarton House: Slavery and Servitude within the Nourse family Household

For over a decade interns, volunteers, and staff at Dumbarton House have been researching the question—did the Nourse family have any enslaved workers or indentured …

Digitizing the NSCDA Archives

By Cheyenne Laux, Archives Intern October-December 2020 A small historic house museum, Dumbarton House has been the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Globe Amaranth

Gomphrena Globosa Globe amaranth, scientifically known as gomphrena globosa, is native to South and Central America and is a member of the Amaranthaceous family. It is …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Cedar

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Yoshino’ The Japanese Cedar is native to forested areas in Japan and China and is a species in the Redwood family. The foliage …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Snowbell

Styrax japonicus Japanese Snowbell is native to China and Japan. It is a graceful, compact, deciduous flowering tree that grows to 20-30 feet tall with …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Chaste Tree

Vitex agnus castus The Chaste Tree is a native of China and India but has become naturalized throughout the South. Peter Henderson, an early American …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Scholar Tree, Pagoda Tree

Sophora japonica Sophora japonica is native to China and Korea, but not Japan. The common name, Pagoda Tree, recognizes the early use of the tree in …


Dumbarton - History

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress it has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The rock was the centre of the Kingdom of the Britons, that stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Known as Dun Breatann - ‘Fortress of the Britons’ or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde). It was the centre of a flourishing Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric, which is now almost entirely forgotten.

Dumbarton Rock Factsheet

    Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress’s well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a ‘great host’ of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships. The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the ‘greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea’. As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf’s luck didn’t hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.


The Kingdom of the Britons

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress Dumbarton Rock has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The Kingdom of the Britons stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Dumbarton Rock, known as Dun Breatann - 'Fortress of the Britons' or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde), was the stronghold of the Strathclyde Britons and a flourishing centre of a Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric - a language now almost entirely forgotten.

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Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

A fascinating account of the Britonnic Scots is provided by Scotland's earliest poetry. 'The Gododdin', written by the Welsh bard Aneirin, tells the tale of a disastrous raid by the warband of the Britons of Edinburgh on the Angles, revelling in their deeds and mourning the loss of so many fine warriors.

By the mid 7th century only Dumbarton, of all the Britonnic Kingdoms of Scotland, had survived the Angles' onslaught. This has left us with the image of the Britons as doomed, heroic losers of the Dark Ages - an image depicted by their own poetry and their seemingly hopeless strategic position, trapped between the powerful Picts to the north and the Angles to the south. However, this is a mistaken image. The Britons were perfectly capable of defeating even the mightiest of their opponents.

For most of the 9th century Dumbarton seems to have avoided the worst of the Viking attacks which ravaged Scotland, that is until 866 AD, when Olaf the White, the Norse King of Dublin, brought a raiding army to plunder Scotland.

Olaf was married to Aud the Deep-minded, whose family controlled the Hebrides, and it seems likely that many Hebridean Vikings joined Olaf's army. For three years Olaf's army wreaked havoc, plundering and extorting money from Picts and Britons alike.

In 869 AD the Britons must have breathed a sigh of relief when Olaf returned to Ireland to curb Irish attacks on Viking Dublin. Never the less, Olaf swiftly returned to achieve one of his greatest feats.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress's well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a 'great host' of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships.

The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the "greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea". As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf's luck didn't hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.

For the Britons worse was to follow. Their king, Artgal, had escaped Dumbarton's destruction, perhaps fleeing to the seeming safety of Pictland but there he too met his end, slain, it was said, 'on the counsel of Constantine'.

It was the end of the road for the Kingdom of Dumbarton but not for the Britons as a people. A new kingdom, further up the river, 'Strathclyde', would soon emerge.

It stretched along the Clyde valley and from Govan in Glasgow down to Penrith in Cumbria. Its royal centre was at Cadzow, near Hamilton, with Partick, in Glasgow, serving as a royal hunting forest.

In 878 the Britons may have gained revenge on the house of MacAlpin when Eochaid, son of Rhun, and his foster father, Giric, forced the house of MacAlpin from the Kingship of Pictland, however, in 889 they returned and expelled Giric and Eochaid.

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For the Britons this may have been a disaster. The following year, Welsh sources note, the men of Strathclyde who didn't accept the new order, went into exile and settled in Gwynedd (or Wales). Following this exodus, Strathclyde seems to have become a sub-kingdom of the new Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba, with its royal line related to the Kings of Alba.

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The last king of Strathclyde, Owein the Bald, died fighting for Malcolm II, King of Alba, at the Battle of Carham.


Dumbarton Oaks Conference

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Dumbarton Oaks Conference, (August 21–October 7, 1944), meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., where representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom formulated proposals for a world organization that became the basis for the United Nations.

This conference constituted the first important step taken to carry out paragraph 4 of the Moscow Declaration of 1943, which recognized the need for a postwar international organization to succeed the League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals (Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization) did not furnish a complete blueprint for the United Nations. They failed to provide an agreed arrangement on such crucial questions as the voting system of the proposed Security Council and the membership provisions for the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. These issues were resolved at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, which also resulted in the proposal of a trusteeship system under the new agency to take the place of the League of Nations mandate system (ver Trusteeship Council). The proposals, as thus supplemented, formed the basis of negotiations at the San Francisco Conference, out of which came the Charter of the United Nations in 1945.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.


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