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Perón depuesto en Argentina

Perón depuesto en Argentina

Después de una década de gobierno, el presidente argentino Juan Domingo Perón es depuesto en un golpe militar. Perón, un demagogo que llegó al poder en 1946 con el respaldo de las clases trabajadoras, se volvió cada vez más autoritario a medida que la economía argentina decaía a principios de la década de 1950. Su mayor recurso político fue su carismática esposa, Eva “Evita” Perón, pero murió en 1952, señalando el colapso de la coalición nacional que lo había respaldado. Habiendo antagonizado con la iglesia, los estudiantes y otros, los militares lo obligaron a exiliarse en septiembre de 1955. Se instaló en España, donde sirvió como líder en el exilio de los "peronistas", una poderosa facción de argentinos que permanecieron leales para él y su sistema.

Nacido en una familia de clase media baja en 1895, Juan Domingo Perón construyó una carrera en el ejército y finalmente ascendió al rango de coronel. En 1943, era líder de un grupo de conspiradores militares que derrocaron al ineficaz gobierno civil de Argentina. Solicitando para sí mismo el puesto aparentemente menor en el gabinete de secretario de trabajo y bienestar social, comenzó a construir un imperio político basado en los sindicatos. En 1945, también fue vicepresidente y ministro de guerra en el régimen militar.

En 1945, Perón supervisó el regreso de las libertades políticas en el país, pero esto provocó disturbios y manifestaciones masivas por parte de los grupos de oposición. Los enemigos de Perón en la Marina aprovecharon la oportunidad y lo arrestaron el 9 de octubre. Los sindicatos organizaron huelgas y mítines en protesta por su encarcelamiento, y la bella amante de Perón, la actriz de radio Eva Duarte, fue sumamente eficaz para atraer al público a la causa. El 17 de octubre, Perón fue liberado y esa noche se dirigió a una multitud de unas 300.000 personas desde el balcón del palacio presidencial. Prometió llevar al pueblo a la victoria en las próximas elecciones presidenciales. Cuatro días después, Perón, viudo, se casó con Eva Duarte, o Evita, como la conocieron cariñosamente.

En la siguiente campaña presidencial, Perón reprimió a la oposición liberal y su Partido Laborista obtuvo una estrecha, pero completa, victoria electoral. El presidente Perón destituyó a los opositores políticos de sus cargos en el gobierno, los tribunales y las escuelas, nacionalizó los servicios públicos y mejoró los salarios y las condiciones laborales. Aunque restringió las libertades constitucionales, se ganó el apoyo abrumador de las masas de trabajadores pobres, a quienes Evita Perón llamó los descamisados, o los "sin camisa". Evita desempeñó un papel importante en el gobierno, dirigiendo extraoficialmente el Departamento de Bienestar Social y asumiendo el papel de su esposo como cuidadora de las clases trabajadoras. Fue llamada la "Primera Trabajadora de Argentina" y "Señora de la Esperanza", y fue fundamental para lograr la aprobación de una ley de sufragio femenino.

En 1950, el auge de las exportaciones argentinas de posguerra disminuyó y la inflación y la corrupción aumentaron. Después de ser reelegido en 1951, Perón se volvió más conservador y represivo y tomó el control de la prensa para controlar las críticas a su régimen. En julio de 1952, Evita murió de cáncer y el apoyo al presidente Perón entre las clases trabajadoras se volvió decididamente menos pronunciado. Su intento de forzar la separación de la iglesia y el estado se enfrentó a una controversia considerable. En junio de 1955, los líderes de la iglesia lo excomulgaron, alentando a una camarilla de oficiales militares a planear su derrocamiento. El 19 de septiembre de 1955, el ejército y la marina se rebelaron y Perón se vio obligado a huir a Paraguay. En 1960 se instala en España.

Mientras tanto, una serie de gobiernos civiles y militares no lograron resolver los problemas económicos de Argentina. La memoria del régimen de Perón mejoró con el tiempo, y Peronismo se convirtió en la fuerza política más poderosa del país. En 1971, el régimen militar del general Alejandro Lanusse anunció su intención de restaurar la democracia constitucional en 1973, y a Perón se le permitió visitar Argentina en 1972. En marzo de 1973, los peronistas ganaron el control del gobierno en las elecciones nacionales y Perón regresó en junio en medio de gran agitación pública y luchas entre las facciones peronistas.

En octubre de 1973, Perón fue elegido presidente en una elección especial. Su esposa, Isabel Perón, una bailarina argentina con la que se casó en 1961, fue elegida vicepresidenta. Ella estaba muy resentida por millones que todavía se dedicaban a la memoria de Evita Perón.

Los problemas económicos continuaron durante la segunda presidencia de Perón y se agravaron con el embargo petrolero árabe de 1973 y un brote de fiebre aftosa que devastó la industria de la carne de res de Argentina. Cuando Perón murió el 1 de julio de 1974, su esposa se convirtió en presidenta de una nación que sufría de inflación, violencia política y disturbios laborales. En marzo de 1976, fue destituida en un golpe de estado liderado por la fuerza aérea, y una junta militar de derecha tomó el poder que gobernó brutalmente a Argentina hasta 1982.


Historia Argentina

Científico Descubrimiento

1832-09-22 Durante su viaje HMS Beagle Charles Darwin descubre una gran cantidad de fósiles en Punta Alta en Argentina

    HMS Beagle llega a Bahía Blanca, Argentina Charles Darwin llega a Buenos Aires después de viajar por el interior argentino con los guachos Camila O'Gorman y Ladislao Gutiérrez son ejecutados por orden del dictador argentino Juan Manuel de Rosas

Batalla de Cerro Corá

1870-03-01 La Guerra de la Triple Alianza finalmente termina con la Batalla de Cerro Corá y la muerte del dictador paraguayo Francisco Solano López luego de más de 5 años de derramamiento de sangre entre Paraguay y Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay.

    Primera conexión telegráfica en Argentina. Indígenas tobas matan a 20 miembros de la expedición francesa en Argentina Muerte del político argentino Domingo Sarmiento, tras quien se elige el Día del Maestro Latinoamericano.

Evento de Interesar

1893-03-11 Carlos Gardel y su madre, Berthe Gardès, llegan a Buenos Aires, Argentina

    6,960 m (22,834 pies) Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina) 1er ascenso por expedición europea liderada por el montañista británico Edward FitzGerald Se funda el Racing Club de Avellaneda, uno de los cinco grandes de Argentina. El Reino Unido vende una estación meteorológica en las Islas Orcadas del Sur a Argentina. Las islas fueron posteriormente reclamadas por el Reino Unido en 1908. Estatua de bronce de Cristo en la frontera entre Argentina y Chile dedicada a 120 ° F (49 ° C), Rivadavia, Argentina (Sur Récord estadounidense) -27 ° F (-33 ° C), Sarmiento, Argentina (récord sudamericano) Argentina vence al MCC en su primer partido de cricket de primera clase en el Buenos Aires Cricket Club pierde el segundo y tercer juego de la serie

Evento de Interesar

1914-04-25 Argentina, Brasil y Chile persuaden al presidente estadounidense Woodrow Wilson para que acepte la mediación en el conflicto con México

Golpe de Estado

1930-09-06 El presidente argentino electo democráticamente Hipólito Yrigoyen es depuesto en un golpe militar.

    British Open Men's Golf, Carnoustie: El escocés estadounidense Tommy Armour supera a José Jurado de Argentina por 1 golpe para ganar su único título Open y su tercer y último gran campeonato Argentina gana la medalla de oro de polo al vencer a Gran Bretaña 11-0 en la final de la Juegos Olímpicos de Berlín última vez que el deporte se disputa en los Juegos Olímpicos Rie Mastenbroek de los Países Bajos nada un récord olímpico 1: 05.9 para ganar los 100 metros estilo libre femenino en los Juegos Olímpicos de Berlín, venciendo a Jeannette Campbell de Argentina por 0:05

Evento de Interesar

1943-06-04 Argentina asumida por el general Rawson y el coronel Juan Perón

    Ministro de Guerra Juan Perón lidera un golpe de Estado en Argentina Día de la Lealtad en Argentina, manifestaciones masivas para liberar a Juan Perón El general Juan Perón, primer presidente electo de Argentina Delfo Cabrera de Argentina gana un maratón dramático en 2:34: 51.6 en los Juegos Olímpicos de Londres British Open masculino Golf, Royal Troon: Bobby Locke de Sudáfrica retiene el título por 2 golpes de Roberto De Vicenzo de Argentina Se abren los primeros Juegos Panamericanos (Buenos Aires Argentina)

Evento de Interesar

1951-04-04 El príncipe holandés Bernhard visita al presidente argentino Juan y Eva Perón en Buenos Aires

    British Open Men's Golf, Royal Portrush GC: El inglés Max Faulkner gana por 2 golpes a Antonio Cerdá de Argentina Juan Manuel Fangio de Argentina gana el Campeonato Mundial de Pilotos de Fórmula 1 al llevarse el Gran Premio de España en Pedralbes en un Alpha Romeo gana por 6 puntos Alberto Ascari de Italia Juan Manuel Fangio de Argentina logra su segundo Campeonato del Mundo de Pilotos de Fórmula 1 al ganar el Gran Premio de Suiza en Bremgarten en un Maserati El británico Mike Hawthorne gana la temporada finalizando el Gran Premio de España en Pedralbes El piloto argentino de Maserati Juan Manuel Fangio es el segundo piloto del Mundo de Fórmula 1 Campeonato por 17 puntos del compatriota José Froilán González Minas Gerais Túnel argentino cuevas en 30 mueren El parlamento argentino acepta la separación de Iglesia y Estado

'La banalidad del mal'

1960-05-23 Israel anuncia captura del nazi Adolf Eichmann en Argentina

Evento de Interesar

1960-06-08 El gobierno argentino exige la liberación de Adolf Eichmann

    Argentina se queja ante la ONU por el traspaso ilegal israelí de Eichmann Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) completa el primer nado "doble" del Canal de la Mancha en 43 horas y 10 minutos a las 42 horas. Balón de Oro: el delantero argentino de la Juventus, Omar Sívori, gana el premio al mejor jugador de fútbol de Europa por delante del centrocampista español Luis Suárez y el delantero inglés Johnny Haynes

Golf británico Abierto

1967-07-15 Golf masculino del British Open, Royal Liverpool GC: el argentino Robert De Vicenzo de 44 años gana su único campeonato importante, 2 golpes de ventaja sobre el campeón defensor Jack Nicklaus

    El portaaviones holandés Karel Doorman (antes británico HMS Venerable) vendido a Argentina Disturbios civiles en Rosario, Argentina, también conocido como Rosariazo, tras la muerte de un estudiante de 15 años. Huelga general en Córdoba, Argentina, que lleva a los disturbios civiles de Cordobazo Tren de cercanías atascado embestido por expreso en Argentina, 139 mueren junta militar argentina bajo Juan Carlos Lanusse derroca al presidente Juan Carlos Onganía El boxeador argentino Carlos Monzón derrota al campeón defensor Nino Benvenuti de Italia en la 12a ronda KO en Roma para ganar títulos de peso mediano del CMB, AMB Gran Bretaña y Argentina firman un acuerdo sobre las Islas Malvinas El peronista Héctor Cámpora instalado como presidente de Argentina Juan Perón regresa del exilio a Argentina después de 18 años de la masacre de Ezeiza en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los francotiradores disparan contra los peronistas de izquierda. Al menos 13 muertos y más de 300 heridos Héctor de Campora renuncia como presidente de Argentina Elecciones generales argentinas - el ex presidente argentino Juan Perón regresa al poder Héctor José Cámpora es elegido presidente de Argentina El peor incendio de la historia argentina destruye 1.2 millones de acres Isabel Perón sucede a su esposo Juan como presidente de Argentina

Evento de Interesar

1974-12-15 Guillermo Vilas de Argentina vence al campeón defensor lie Năstase 7-6, 6-2, 3-6, 3-6, 6-4 para ganar su primera y única final de tenis ATP Masters Grand Prix en Melbourne. , Australia

Abierto Francés Tenis Masculino

1975-06-15 Abierto de Francia Tenis Masculino: El sueco Björn Borg retiene el título vence a Guillermo Vilas de Argentina 6-2, 6-3, 6-4


La década infame

La década de 1930 en Argentina se conoce como la Década Infame debido al fraude electoral desenfrenado, la persecución de los partidos políticos de oposición y la corrupción gubernamental generalizada.

Objetivos de aprendizaje

Explique por qué se hizo referencia a la década de 1930 como la década infame.

Conclusiones clave

Puntos clave

  • La década infame de Argentina se refiere al período de tiempo que comenzó en 1930 con el golpe de estado de José Félix Uriburu contra el actual presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen y terminó con la llegada al poder de Juan Perón después del golpe militar de 1943.
  • El régimen del teniente general Uriburu fue fuertemente apoyado por intelectuales de derecha y su gobierno adoptó severas medidas para evitar represalias y tácticas contrarrevolucionarias por parte de amigos del régimen derrocado.
  • El gobierno de Agustín Pedro Justo Rolón se vio empañado por los constantes rumores de corrupción y es mejor recordado por la destacada labor diplomática de su Canciller.
  • Uno de los éxitos más controvertidos de la presidencia de Justo es la firma del Tratado Roca-Runciman en 1933.
  • El primer ministro de Hacienda de Justo, Alberto Hueyo, tomó medidas muy restrictivas contra la economía. Hueyo fue finalmente reemplazado por Frederico Pinedo, cuyo plan de intervención del gobierno en la economía fue aún más significativo.
  • Pinedo inició el desarrollo industrial argentino mediante una política de sustitución de importaciones y creó el Banco Central de Argentina.
  • Roberto Marcelino Ortiz fue elegido presidente de manera fraudulenta y asumió su cargo en febrero de 1938. Intentó solucionar el problema de corrupción del país y canceló las elecciones fraudulentas ganadas por el conservador Alberto Barceló.
  • En junio de 1942, Ortiz renunció a la presidencia por enfermedad y murió un mes después. Fue reemplazado por el vicepresidente Ramón S. Castillo.
  • El 4 de junio de 1943, una sociedad secreta nacionalista dentro del ejército llamada Grupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU) derrocó a Castillo en un golpe de Estado.

Términos clave

  • Década infame: El período de tiempo en Argentina a partir de 1930 caracterizado por el fraude electoral, la persecución de la oposición política y la corrupción gubernamental generalizada.
  • substitución de importaciones: Una política comercial y económica que aboga por la sustitución de las importaciones extranjeras por la producción nacional.

La década infame de Argentina se refiere al período de tiempo que comenzó en 1930 con el golpe de Estado de José Félix Uriburu contra el actual presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen y terminó con el ascenso al poder de Juan Perón después del golpe militar de 1943. La década está marcada por un significativo éxodo rural ya que muchos pequeños propietarios rurales fueron arruinados por la depresión global, que finalmente empujó a Argentina hacia una política de industrialización por sustitución de importaciones. Los malos resultados económicos de esta política y el descontento popular que generó llevaron directamente al golpe de 1943. El período se caracterizó por el fraude electoral, la persecución de la oposición política y la corrupción gubernamental generalizada.

Presidencia de Uriburu (1930-1932)

El teniente general José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu alcanzó el cargo de presidente de Argentina mediante un golpe militar, y su mandato duró desde el 6 de septiembre de 1930 hasta el 20 de febrero de 1932. Conocido como el "padre de los pobres", el presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen fue abrumadoramente elegido para su segundo mandato no consecutivo en el cargo en 1928, pero se encontró cada vez más rodeado de asistentes que le ocultaban los verdaderos efectos de la Gran Depresión en el país. Como resultado, sectores fascistas y conservadores del ejército conspiraron abiertamente para un cambio de régimen, al igual que Standard Oil de Nueva Jersey, una empresa estadounidense que se opuso tanto a los esfuerzos del presidente para frenar el contrabando de petróleo desde la provincia de Salta a Bolivia como al dominio que YPF tenía sobre el país. Mercado petrolero argentino. Estos factores hicieron que el momento perfecto para que Uriburu organizara el primer golpe militar de Argentina desde la aprobación de la constitución argentina contra la administración elegida democráticamente de Yrigoyen con la ayuda de la Liga Patriótica Argentina de extrema derecha.

José Félix Uriburu: José Félix Uriburu fue el 22º presidente de Argentina.

El propio régimen de Uriburu fue fuertemente apoyado por intelectuales de derecha como Rodolofo y Julio Irazusta y Juan Carulla, y el nuevo gobierno adoptó severas medidas para evitar represalias y tácticas contrarrevolucionarias por parte de amigos del régimen derrocado. Los anarquistas en particular fueron considerados enemigos públicos por la dictadura de Uriburu. Durante el régimen de Uriburu, tres anarquistas fueron condenados a cadena perpetua por presuntamente asesinar a familiares del político conservador José M. Blanch durante un juicio espectáculo en el que los anarquistas fueron torturados abiertamente. El juicio del espectáculo se produjo inmediatamente después del caso Sacco y Vanzetti en los Estados Unidos, en el que dos anarquistas estadounidenses nacidos en Italia fueron condenados a muerte después de ser declarados culpables de asesinato en lo que se consideró una sentencia por motivos políticos. El caso argentino trazó muchos paralelismos con Sacco y Vanzetti y provocó la indignación pública internacional.

El presidente Uriburu fue diagnosticado con cáncer de estómago a principios de 1932 y murió en París luego de una cirugía el 29 de abril de 1932.

Presidencia de Justo (1932-1938)

Agustín Pedro Justo Rolón fue presidente de Argentina desde el 20 de febrero de 1932 hasta el 20 de febrero de 1938. Fue militar, diplomático y político. Justo obtuvo la nominación de la Concordancia para la campaña presidencial de 1931 y ganó con el apoyo de una alianza creada entre el Partido Nacional Demócrata, la Unión Cívica Radical y el Partido Socialista Independiente. Sin embargo, abundaban las acusaciones de fraude electoral y la administración de Justo se vio empañada por constantes rumores de corrupción. Su administración es mejor recordada por la destacada labor diplomática de su canciller, Carlos Saavedra Lamas.

Agustín P. Justo: Agustín P. Justo fue el 23º presidente de Argentina.

El Tratado Roca-Runciman

Uno de los éxitos más controvertidos de la presidencia de Justo es la firma del Tratado Roca-Runciman en 1933. Debido a la adopción por parte del Reino Unido de medidas que favorecen las importaciones desde sus propias colonias y dominios, Justo envió a su vicepresidente, Julio A. Roca Jr, como jefe de una delegación de tecnología para negociar un acuerdo comercial que pueda beneficiar a Argentina. Los británicos fueron anteriormente los principales compradores de granos y carnes argentinos, por lo que sus medidas de proteccionismo productivo amenazaron a los terratenientes argentinos que comerciaban con estos productos agrícolas. El Tratado Roca-Runciman aseguró al Reino Unido un suministro de carne fresca a cambio de una importante inversión en el transporte de Argentina, requiriendo ciertas concesiones como la entrega del transporte público de Buenos Aires a una empresa británica. El tratado generó un escándalo porque aunque Reino Unido acordó seguir importando carne argentina, le asignaron a Argentina una cuota de importación menor que cualquiera de sus dominios: 390.000 toneladas de carne al año, con el 85% de las exportaciones argentinas dispuestas a través de transportistas refrigerados británicos. También hubo otras concesiones de gran alcance, por ejemplo, los ferrocarriles operados por el Reino Unido no tenían tarifas reguladas, las tarifas aduaneras sobre el carbón permanecieron sin establecerse y las empresas británicas con inversiones en Argentina recibieron una serie de exenciones especiales, como tarifas reducidas. precios de exportación. Aunque el Tratado Roca-Runciman salvó el comercio argentino-británico de productos agrícolas, exasperó a quienes ya eran críticos de la participación británica en su país.

Políticas económicas de Hueyo y Pinedo

El primer ministro de Hacienda de Justo, Alberto Hueyo, tomó medidas muy restrictivas contra la economía. Hueyo redujo los gastos públicos y restringió la circulación de divisas, además de aplicar otras duras medidas fiscales. Se hizo un emprestito patriotico, o préstamo patriótico, en un intento por fortalecer el presupuesto del país. Con el tiempo, sin embargo, Justo buscó reemplazar a Hueyo con el socialista Frederico Pinedo, cuyo plan de intervención del gobierno en la economía era aún más significativo.

Pinedo inició el desarrollo industrial argentino mediante una política de sustitución de importaciones. Las Juntas Reguladores Nacionales fueron creadas bajo la dirección de Pinedo para ayudar a desarrollar la actividad industrial privada y estatal. Las Juntas también supervisaron el control de calidad y precio para el consumo interno y la exportación. Por ejemplo, para evitar la sobreproducción, las Juntas destruían cargas enteras de maíz y millones de pesos al año en productos vitivinícolas.

Pinedo también creó el Banco Central (BCRA), que fue asesorado por Sir Otto Niemeyer, director del Banco de Inglaterra. La participación de Niemeyer provocó fuertes críticas de quienes desautorizaron la participación británica en Argentina. Se puso en marcha un proyecto nacional de construcción de carreteras que compitió con el sistema ferroviario, que quedó en manos de empresas mayoritariamente británicas. Con carreteras nacionales que alcanzaron los 30.000 kilómetros en 1938, las empresas automotrices estadounidenses pudieron penetrar en el mercado argentino y aumentar las ventas. La inversión extranjera directa estadounidense creció bajo las políticas de Pinedo con firmas textiles como Sudamtex, Ducilo y Anderson Clayton que se establecieron en Argentina. Las empresas de neumáticos, las empresas de electrónica y las empresas de química también comenzaron a migrar a Argentina durante este tiempo.

Las administraciones de Ortiz y Castillo (1938-1943)

Las candidaturas de Roberto Marcelino Ortiz y Ramon S. Castillo para las elecciones de 1938, para presidente y vicepresidente respectivamente, fueron lanzadas en la Cámara de Comercio Británica y apoyadas por su presidente, William McCallum. Ortiz fue elegido presidente de manera fraudulenta y asumió su nuevo cargo en febrero de 1938. Intentó sanear el problema de corrupción del país, ordenando la intervención federal en la provincia de Buenos Aires, gobernada por Manuel Fresco. También canceló las elecciones fraudulentas ganadas por el conservador Alberto Barceló.

Pinedo permaneció como ministro de Economía durante la administración de Ortiz. El 18 de noviembre de 1940 presentó un Plan de Reactivación Económica, que habría implementado medidas fuertemente proteccionistas y abogó por la construcción de viviendas públicas para hacer frente a la afluencia de personas a los centros urbanos. Pinedo también propuso la nacionalización de los ferrocarriles operados por los británicos e incluso acordó términos ventajosos con los propietarios de los ferrocarriles antes de presentar su política públicamente. Sin embargo, las facciones conservadoras votaron en contra de estas medidas y Pinedo renunció a su cargo poco después.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Argentina mantuvo la misma neutralidad que adoptó durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, lo que fue ventajoso para Gran Bretaña. Aunque Estados Unidos intentó empujar a Argentina a la guerra, el país pudo resistir con el apoyo de los británicos. En junio de 1942, Ortiz renunció a la presidencia por enfermedad y murió un mes después. Fue reemplazado por el vicepresidente Castillo. El mismo año, se formó la coalición política Unión Democrática, que incluía la Unión Cívica Radical, el Partido Progresista Democrático y los partidos Socialista y Comunista. Su plataforma electoral tenía como objetivo abordar la corrupción endémica, garantizar la libertad de pensamiento y de reunión y asegurar los derechos sindicales. La coalición también reclamó solidaridad activa con las personas que luchan contra la agresión nazi-fascista.

El 4 de junio de 1943, la sociedad secreta nacionalista dentro del ejército llamado Grupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU) derrocó a Castillo en un golpe de Estado. El GOU se organizó bajo el coronel Miguel A. Montes y Urbano de la Vega e incluyó a miembros como el coronel Juan Domingo Perón y Enrique P. González. Su golpe de estado puso fin a la década infame y estableció una junta militar que duró hasta 1945. El grupo simpatizaba con las causas de la Alemania nazi y la Italia fascista. El general Arturo Rawson fue nombrado presidente, pero solo ocupó el cargo unos días antes de que el GOU lo reemplazara con el general Pedro Ramírez.


Perón como presidente

Retrato de Juan Domingo y Eva Perón en 1947. Crédito de la foto: Wikipedia

Cuando Perón fue elegido presidente de Argentina en 1946, estaba listo para realizar algunos cambios serios en la administración de su país. Introdujo reformas sociales radicales, nacionalizó los ferrocarriles y los bancos, aumentó los salarios y limitó las horas de trabajo, introduciendo los domingos libres obligatorios para la mayoría de los trabajos. Se hizo cargo de una enorme cantidad de edificios públicos, construyó escuelas y hospitales, y consolidó su adoración continua (y la de su esposa) por parte de la clase trabajadora.

La muerte de Evita marcó, en retrospectiva, un cambio dramático en el liderazgo y la popularidad de Perón. Coincidiendo con el estancamiento de la economía del país y la creciente desconfianza de los conservadores hacia Perón, su apoyo comenzó a decaer. Los rumores de conducta inapropiada con las jóvenes seguidoras peronistas estropearon su reputación y pusieron en su contra a las mujeres que alguna vez la adoraron. Se enfrentó a la Iglesia católica en Argentina, entonces (y todavía ahora) una fuerza formidable en el país. Fue excomulgado luego de intentar legalizar la prostitución y el divorcio, y sus opositores militares aprovecharon la situación para lanzar un violento golpe de Estado, que incluyó el bombardeo de Plaza De Mayo por parte de la Fuerza Aérea, resultando en la muerte de más de 400 personas. En septiembre de 1955, Perón fue evacuado por poco tiempo de su oficina cuando los militares se apoderaron de Córdoba. Perón pasaría los siguientes 18 años en el exilio, primero en Venezuela y Panamá antes de establecerse finalmente en España.

La Casa Rosada está ubicada frente a la Plaza de Mayo. Crédito de la foto: shutterstock


Perón depuesto en Argentina - HISTORIA

El peronismo en Argentina es un fenómeno como ningún otro. No hay otro país que se suscriba a esta indefinible ideología política, y además es la idea más importante de la política argentina. Sin peronismo, no hay política argentina moderna. Tres de los siete candidatos para las elecciones presidenciales anteriores se autodenominaron peronistas, pero con opiniones políticas distintas. Entonces, para entender esto, es necesario mirar las raíces históricas del movimiento político más importante del siglo XX en Argentina cuya influencia no se puede subestimar. Entonces, ¿cómo empezó? ¿De dónde surgió esta idea? Y como la mayoría de la gente está familiarizada, todo comenzó con un hombre, Juan Domingo Perón.

El hombre que lleva el nombre del movimiento, Juan Domingo Perón (1895-1974) fue un general y diplomático que fue elegido a la presidencia en tres ocasiones, 1946, 1951 y 1973. Fue un político increíblemente hábil que obtuvo millones de partidarios, de diferentes opiniones políticas y tuvo la capacidad de atraer a grandes sectores de la población argentina.

En general, sus políticas se centraron en una mayor inclusión entre todas las clases y los modos de producción. Fue un pacto social celebrado entre sindicatos, corporaciones, trabajadores y el estado para desarrollar industrias con insumos de todos los lados.

 Argentina antes de Perón 

Antes del ascenso de Perón, Argentina estaba aliada internacionalmente con Occidente, más fuertemente con Gran Bretaña. Era un país de inmigrantes cuya economía se basaba en las exportaciones agrícolas, especialmente después del boom de la carne y la lana durante y después de la Primera Guerra Mundial. El país estaba dominado por una oligarquía terrateniente pequeña y muy rica que esencialmente controlaba al gobierno que gobernaba a favor de sus intereses, excluyendo a grandes franjas de la población.

Después de la Primera Guerra Mundial, la "Década Infame", en realidad 13 años entre 1930 y 1943 Argentina estuvo bajo el gobierno de una coalición conservadora y pro-aristocrática conocida como la Concordancia. Técnicamente, existían instituciones democráticas, pero en la práctica, las clases bajas fueron excluidas de la política y el movimiento obrero, que había sido tradicionalmente fuerte, se debilitó.
Una junta militar asumió el poder en 1943 y un joven general Juan Perón fue puesto a cargo del Departamento Nacional del Trabajo. Perón notó la difícil situación de la clase trabajadora argentina, y aunque la mayoría de los otros líderes políticos no estaban interesados ​​en las clases bajas, Perón reconoció y capitalizó esto. En su cargo, introdujo una serie de reformas, incluido el seguro nacional, vacaciones pagadas y un plan de pensiones.

Mientras tanto, la principal federación sindical, la CGT, se había dividido en 1942 entre una facción, liderada por los comunistas y algunos socialistas, y otra liderada por anarcosindicalistas, estos últimos incluidos los trabajadores ferroviarios. Ambas secciones estaban frustradas y desilusionadas con el gobierno conservador anterior, que las había ignorado por completo, y se sintieron halagadas por la atención que les brindó Perón. Al enfrentar a unos contra otros, logró marginar a los comunistas y subordinar a sus oponentes, al mismo tiempo que apelaba a la masa de trabajadores por encima de la burocracia sindical. Al mismo tiempo, defendió dentro de los militares un estado fuerte para resistir el desorden social y abordó a las grandes empresas con la necesidad de incorporar a la clase trabajadora.

En marzo de 1945, los líderes de la nación se unieron a las Naciones Unidas y declararon la guerra a Alemania, recordando por qué dieron el golpe en primer lugar. En septiembre hubo una "Marcha por la Libertad y la Constitución" masiva, abrumadoramente de clase media. El Ejército intentó acomodar a esta oposición y saqueó y luego arrestó a Perón el 8 de octubre.

La clase trabajadora y los principales sindicatos vieron esto como un ataque a su influencia política y sus niveles de vida, y una ola de huelgas barrió el país y una enorme manifestación, mayoritariamente de la clase trabajadora en la Plaza de Mayo en el centro de Buenos Aires, dio suficiente fuerza y ​​confianza. a los partidarios de Perón en el Ejército para forzar su liberación. Este fue el verdadero surgimiento de la clase trabajadora en la escena política argentina más que una fuerza independiente bajo el control de Perón.

Apoyado por el Ejército, la Iglesia y la CGT, Perón se convirtió en el candidato oficial en las elecciones presidenciales. Fue debidamente elegido presidente, con una mayoría del 10 por ciento y el 56 por ciento de los votos el 24 de febrero de 1946.

Primera presidencia de Perón

El período 1946-1955 marcó un punto de inflexión en el desarrollo económico del país. Antes de esto, el país estaba dominado por los grandes terratenientes y las exportaciones agrícolas, fuertemente influenciado por el capital extranjero. Pero este modelo había comenzado a debilitarse durante la década de 1930, pero no fue hasta mediados de la década de 1940 que fue reemplazado por lo que se conoció como "industrialización por sustitución de importaciones" (ISI).

El nuevo paradigma económico de Perón se basó en el desarrollo de una industria ligera intensiva en mano de obra para crear puestos de trabajo y producir bienes domésticos para el mercado interno. El Estado jugó un papel importante en la canalización de los ingresos de las exportaciones agrícolas a la industria, elevando los aranceles de importación y nacionalizando empresas de propiedad extranjera como ferrocarriles, gas, telefonía y electricidad.

Este modelo estaría basado en alianzas de clases y también alianzas entre las Fuerzas Armadas y la Iglesia Católica bajo la propia forma de “tercera vía” de Perón, ni de izquierda ni de derecha. Sin embargo, esta alianza excluyó a los viejos terratenientes - “la oligarquía” - quienes se convertirían en el enemigo número uno del nuevo gobierno.

El nuevo papel del Estado y los derechos adquiridos durante este período se articularon en una nueva Constitución, adoptada en 1949, que puso la justicia social y el “interés general” en el centro de todas las actividades políticas y económicas. El nuevo texto constitucional incluía una serie de “derechos sociales” (los llamados derechos de segunda generación), relacionados con los trabajadores, las familias, las personas mayores, la educación y la cultura.

Durante su primera presidencia, la carismática esposa de Perón, Eva Perón (o “Evita” como la llamaban sus seguidores) jugó un papel destacado, y es ampliamente reconocido que fue el principal vínculo entre el presidente y el movimiento obrero. Evita also had an active role in the development of women's rights, such as the right to vote (1947) and the equality of men and women in marriage and in the care of children -even fighting internal opposition to achieve these goals.

Second Government (1951-1955)

Perón was re-elected in 1951, obtaining a massive 62% of the vote (which, for the first time, included the female voters). But this term was much more problematic for the president. His wife, Evita, died of cancer a month after his reelection, and the economic situation worsened after a drop in the international price of agricultural products and severe droughts.

Perón was forced to introduce some austerity measures and improve poor relations with foreign companies. All these measures contradicted the model that Perón himself had implemented, and divided opinion among his followers.

This was in addition to Perón beginning to lose support with some unions, and his relationship with the Church was essentially an open conflict in 1954.

On June 16th, 1955, the political opposition (conservative, radicals and socialists) together with the Navy and with the support of the Church, carried out a botched coup d’etat against Perón. Navy planes bombed the Plaza de Mayo, where a rally was taking place, killing more than 300 people. Perón's attempt to appease the crowd failed and that very night groups of Peronist activists took to the streets of Buenos Aires and burnt several churches.

After the failed coup, Perón tried to keep the situation under control and called for a truce with the opposition. However on 31st August, after talks with the opposition failed, the president hardened his position when, during a public speech, he pronounced the now famous phrase: “for each one of us who fall, five of them will follow”. Seventeen days later, on the 16th September, a new military uprising -led again by the Navy- succeeded in deposing Perón, who asked for political refuge in Paraguay and left the country on the 20th of September. It would be 17 years until he stepped on Argentine soil again.

While Perón was in exile, the disparate groups that made up the Peronist movement fractured without his leadership. The new government also dissolved the Peronist party, and banned all of its members from running for office. Even mentioning the names of Perón or Evita was prohibited. The subsequent weakening of the Peronist unions left many workers once again unprotected and exposed to the abuses of some employers.

Perón's Brief Return

In 1972 Perón was finally able to return to Argentina, where he chose Héctor Cámpora to be the presidential candidate. The plan was for Campora to win the election, and lift the ban on Perón running so he could run the following year, the plan worked.
On June 20, 1973 Perón made his final return to Argentina, where a huge welcome was planned at the airport. But as he was due to land, the contradictions within his movement were exposed.

At the airport, the right wing groups, including the CGT union and the left including the militant Montoneros groups showed up, but a battle soon developed and the unionist right opened fire on the leftist tendencies killing at least 13 and wounding hundreds.
The next month, in July Cámpora resigned from the presidency and Perón, who was now 78 years old won the election with 62 percent of the vote. He called for both the right and left wing factions to unite in his speech, but after the killing of the CGT leader Jose Igancio Rucci, Perón gave more support to the right wing factions.

Perón died on the 1st of July 1974, and his second wife and vice-president Isabel Martínez de Perón (photo below) took office. In March 1976, she was deposed in an air-force-led coup, and a right-wing military junta took power and brutally ruled Argentina until 1982.

Legado
Peron's legacy is the most important in ArgentinaPeronism is still Argentina's most potent political force, and survives as a legitimate political philosophy which among others incorporates nationalism, political independence and a strong government supporting the working classes. The current president of Argentina Cristina Fernandez is a member of the Justicialist Party, a Peronist party and considers herself following in the footsteps of Peron and Evita.

The Peronist movement has managed to survive the twists and turns of Argentine history, much of it owed to the fact that from its very origin under Peron it had broad support, not just from the social sectors that benefited from Peron's pro-working class policies. This support continued to expand as the benefited sectors lost much of their original political and social clout.

Peron had established a brand of labor orientated populism that became a model for many politicians and followers of him. He was the first to attack the once powerful agricultural sector, and prioritize the industrial sector in Argentina. Although his personal brand of politics eventually broke down, the policies and institutions he created have paved the way for the economic boom Argentina has experienced since the early years of the 21st century.


Meeting Juan Perón

On January 15, 1944, a massive earthquake struck western Argentina, killing 6,000 people. Argentines across the country wanted to help their fellow countrymen. In Buenos Aires, the effort was led by 48-year-old Army Colonel Juan Domingo Perón, the head of the nation's labor department.

Perón asked Argentina's performers to use their fame to promote his cause. Actors, singers, and others (including Eva Duarte) walked the streets of Buenos Aires to collect money for earthquake victims. The fundraising effort culminated in a benefit held at a local stadium. There, on January 22, 1944, Eva met Colonel Juan Perón.

Perón, a widower whose wife had died of cancer in 1938, was immediately drawn to her. The two became inseparable and very soon Eva proved herself Perón's most ardent supporter. She used her position at the radio station to feature broadcasts that praised Perón as a benevolent government figure.


Argentina: History

Little is known of the earliest inhabitants of the region. Only in NW Argentina was there a native population with a material culture. They were an agricultural people (recalled today by ruins N of Jujuy), but their importance was eclipsed later by the Araucanians from Chile. Europeans probably first arrived in the region in 1502 in the voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The southern inhabitants at that time primarily hunted and fished, while the northwestern Incas were agricultural and quite advanced, having built a highway before the arrival of the Spanish. The search for a Southwest Passage to Asia and the East Indies brought Juan Díaz de Solís to the Río de la Plata in 1516. Ferdinand Magellan entered (1520) the estuary, and Sebastian Cabot ascended (1536) the Paraná and Paraguay rivers. His delight in native ornaments may be responsible for the names Río de la Plata [silver river] and Argentina [of silver].

Pedro de Mendoza in 1536 founded the first settlement of the present Buenos Aires, but native attacks forced abandonment of the settlement, and Asunción became the unquestioned leading city of the Río de la Plata region. Buenos Aires was refounded in 1580 by Juan de Garay. His son-in-law, Hernando Arias de Saavedra (Hernandarias), secured the division of the Río de la Plata territories, and Buenos Aires achieved (1617) a sort of semi-independence under the viceroyalty of Peru.

The mercantilist system, however, severely hampered the commerce of Buenos Aires, and smuggling, especially with Portuguese traders in Brazil, became an accepted profession. While the cities of present W and NW Argentina grew by supplying the mining towns of the Andes, Buenos Aires was threatened by Portuguese competition. By the 18th cent., cattle (which were introduced to the Pampas in the 1550s) roamed wild throughout the Pampas in large herds and were hunted by gauchos for their skins and fat.

In 1776 the Spanish government made Buenos Aires a free port and the capital of a viceroyalty that included present Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and (briefly) Bolivia. From this combination grew the idea of a Greater Argentina to include all the Río de la Plata countries, a dream that was to haunt many Argentine politicians after independence was won.

A prelude to independence was the British attack on Buenos Aires. Admiral Sir Home Popham and Gen. William Carr Beresford took the city in 1806 after the Spanish viceroy fled. An Argentine militia force under Jacques de Liniers ended the British occupation and beat off a renewed attack under Gen. John Whitelocke in 1807.

On May 25, 1810 (May 25 is the Argentine national holiday), revolutionists, acting nominally in favor of the Bourbons dethroned by Napoleon (see Spain), deposed the viceroy, and the government was controlled by a junta. The result was war against the royalists. The patriots under Manuel Belgrano won (1812) a victory at Tucumán. On July 9, 1816, a congress in Tucumán proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces of the Río de La Plata. Other patriot generals were Mariano Moreno, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, and José de San Martín.

Uruguay and Paraguay went their own ways despite hopes of reunion. In Argentina, a struggle ensued between those who wanted to unify the country and those who did not want to be dominated by Buenos Aires. Independence was followed by virtually permanent civil war, with many coups by regional, social, or political factions. Rule by the strong man, the caudillo, alternated with periods of democratic rule, too often beset by disorder.

Anarchy was not ended by the election of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1826. The unitarians, who favored a centralized government dominated by Buenos Aires, were opposed to the federalists, who resented the oligarchy of Buenos Aires and were backed by autocratic caudillos with gaucho troops. The unitarians triumphed temporarily when Argentines combined to help the Uruguayans repel Brazilian conquerors in the battle of Ituzaingó (1827), which led to the independence of Uruguay. The internal conflict was, however, soon resumed and was not even quelled when Gen. Juan Manuel de Rosas, the most notorious caudillo, established a dictatorship that lasted from 1835 to 1852. Ironically, this federalist leader, who was nominally only the governor of Buenos Aires, did more than the unitarians to unify the country. Ironically, too, this enemy of intellectuals stimulated his political opponents to write in exile some of the finest works of the Spanish-American romantic period among the writers were Domingo F. Sarmiento, Bartolomé Mitre, José Mármol, and Esteban Echeverría.

Rosas was overthrown (1852) by Gen. Justo José de Urquiza, who called a constituent assembly at Santa Fe. A constitution was adopted (1853) based on the principles enunciated by Juan Bautista Alberdi. Mitre, denouncing Urquiza as a caudillo, brought about the temporary secession of Buenos Aires prov. (1861) and the downfall of the Urquiza plans. Under the administrations of Mitre (1862–68), Sarmiento (1868–74), and Nicolás Avellaneda (1874–80), schools were built, public works started, and liberal reforms instituted. The War of the Triple Alliance (see Triple Alliance, War of the), 1865–70, brought little advantage to Argentina.

In 1880 federalism triumphed, and Gen. Julio A. Roca became president (1880–1886) Buenos Aires remained the capital, but the federal district was set up, and Buenos Aires prov. was given La Plata as its capital. Argentina flourished during Roca's administration. The conquest of the indigenous peoples by General Roca (1878–79) had made colonization of the region in the south and the southwest possible. Already the Pampa had begun to undergo its agricultural transformation. The immigration of Europeans helped to fill the land and to make Argentina one of the world's granaries.

Establishment of refrigerating plants for meat made expansion of commerce possible. The British not only became the prime consumers of Argentine products but also invested substantially in the construction of factories, public utilities, and railroads (which were nationalized in 1948). Efforts to end the power of the great landowners, however, were not genuinely successful, and the military tradition continued to play a part in politics, the army frequently combining with the conservatives and later with the growing ranks of labor to alter the government by coup.

The second administration of Roca (1898–1904) was marked by recovery from the crises of the intervening years a serious boundary dispute with Chile was settled (1902), and perpetual peace between the two nations was symbolized in the Christ of the Andes. Even before World War I, in which Argentina maintained neutrality, the wealthy nation had begun to act as an advocate for the rights and interests of Latin America as a whole, notably through Carlos Calvo, Luis M. Drago, and later Carlos Saavedra Lamas.

Internal problems, however, remained vexing. Electoral reforms introduced by Roque Sáenz Peña (1910–14) led to the victory of the Radical party under Hipólito Irigoyen (1916–22). He introduced social legislation, but when, after the presidency of Marcelo T. de Alvear, Irigoyen returned to power in 1928, his policies aroused much dissatisfaction even in his own party. In 1930 he was ousted by Gen. José F. Uriburu, and the conservative oligarchy—now with Fascist leanings—was again in power.

The administration (1932–38) of Agustín P. Justo was opposed by revolutionary movements, and a coalition of liberals and conservatives won an election victory. Radical leader Roberto M. Ortiz became president (1938), but serious illness caused him to resign (1942), and the conservative Ramón S. Castillo succeeded him. In 1943, Castillo was overthrown by a military coup. After two provisional presidents a palace revolt in 1944 brought to power a group of army colonels, chief among them Juan Perón. After four years of pro-Axis neutrality, Argentina belatedly (Mar., 1945) entered World War II on the side of the Allies and became a member of the United Nations. A return to liberal government momentarily seemed probable, but Perón was overwhelmingly victorious in the election of Feb., 1946.

Perón, an admirer of Mussolini, established a type of popular dictatorship new to Latin America, based initially on support from the army, reactionaries, nationalists, and some clerical groups. His regime was marked by curtailment of freedom of speech, confiscation of liberal newspapers such as La Prensa, imprisonment of political opponents, and transition to a one-party state. His second wife, the popular Eva Duarte de Perón, helped him gain the support of the trade unions, thereafter the main foundation of Perón's political power. In 1949 the constitution of 1853 was replaced by one that permitted Perón to succeed himself as president the Peronista political party was established the same year.

To cure Argentina's serious economic ills, Perón inaugurated a program of industrial development—which advanced rapidly in the 1940s and early 50s, although hampered by the lack of power resources and machine tools—supplemented by social welfare programs. Perón also placed the sale and export of wheat and beef under government control, thus undermining the political and economic power of the rural oligarchs. In the early 1950s, with recurring economic problems and with the death (1952) of his wife, Perón's popular support began to diminish. Agricultural production, long the chief source of revenue, dropped sharply and the economy faltered. The Roman Catholic church, alienated by the reversal of close church-state relations, excommunicated Perón and, finally, the armed forces became disillusioned with him. In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup, and the interim military government of Gen. Pedro Aramburu attempted to rid the country of Justicialismo (Peronism). Perón fled to Paraguay and in 1960 went into exile in Spain.

In 1957, Argentina reverted to the constitution of 1853 as modified up to 1898. In 1958, Dr. Arturo Frondizi was elected president. Faced with the economic and fiscal crisis inherited from Perón, Frondizi, with U.S. advice and the promise of financial aid, initiated a program of austerity to stabilize the economy and check inflation. Leftists, as well as Peronistas, who still commanded strong popular support, criticized the plan because the burden lay most heavily on the working and lower middle classes.

Frondizi later fell into disfavor with the military because of his leniency toward the regime of Fidel Castro in Cuba and toward Peronistas at home, who, in the congressional elections of 1962, scored a resounding victory. Frondizi was arrested and José María Guido assumed the presidency, but the military was in control. The Peronista and Communist parties were banned before presidential elections were held in 1963. Following the election of the moderate liberal Dr. Arturo Illia, many political prisoners were released and relative political stability returned. The new president was faced, however, with serious economic depression and with the difficult problem of reintegrating the Peronist forces into Argentine political life.

In 1964 an attempt by Perón to return from Spain and lead his followers was thwarted when he was turned back at Rio de Janeiro by Brazilian authorities. The Peronists, however, remained the strongest political force in the country unwilling to tolerate another resurgence of Peronism, a junta of military leaders, supported by business interests, seized power (1966) and placed Gen. Juan Carlos Onganía, a long-time right-wing opponent of Illía, in the presidency. Under Onganía, the new government dissolved the legislature, banned all political parties, and exercised unofficial press censorship Onganía also placed the national universities under government control.

Widespread opposition to the rigid rule of the Onganía regime grew, and the military deposed him (1970), naming Gen. Roberto M. Levingston president. Economic problems and increased terrorist activities caused Gen. Alejandro Lanusse, the leader of the coup against Onganía, to dismiss (1971) Levingston and initiate an active program for economic growth, distribution of wealth, and political stability. His direct negotiations with Juan Perón and his call for national elections and a civilian government led to the return of Perón to Argentina in 1972.

After failing to achieve unity among the various Peronist groups, Perón declined the nomination from his supporters to run for president in the Mar., 1973, elections, which were won by Dr. Hector Cámpora, the Peronist candidate, who subsequently resigned from office to make way for Perón's return. When new elections were held in Sept., 1973, Perón was elected president and his third wife, Isabel Martínez Perón, vice president. Perón died in July, 1974, and was succeeded by his widow. Her government faced economic troubles, labor unrest, political violence, and deep divisions within the Peronista party.

In 1976, Isabel Perón was deposed by a military junta under the leadership of Jorge Rafael Videla, who served as president until 1981. The government suspended political and trade union activity, dissolved the congress, made alterations to the constitution, and removed most government officals. During the military rule thousands of citizens suspected of undermining the government disappeared in what became known as the dirty war. In 1981 Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), which had been occupied and claimed by the British since 1832. Tensions escalated until, on Apr. 2, 1982, Argentina, now under the rule of Lt.-Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri, invaded and occupied the islands. British forces responded quickly, forcing a surrender by Argentine forces within 6 weeks. The Argentine defeat led to Galtieri's resignation and subsequently to the end of military rule. Retired Gen. Reynaldo Bignone succeeded Galtieri as president and oversaw the return to democracy.

In 1983, Raúl Alfonsín won the presidency, but persistent economic problems plagued his tenure in office. Carlos Saúl Menem was elected president in 1988, bringing the Peronist Justicialist party back into power. A reform-minded leader, he stimulated economic growth and subdued hyperinflation in the early 1990s by instituting a major program of privatization, encouraging foreign investment, and tying the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar. Constitutional amendments approved in 1994 placed curbs on presidential power and increased opposition power in the senate, while clearing the way for Menem to seek a second successive term as president. He was reelected in 1995. The Justicialists lost legislative elections to the opposition Alianza coalition in 1997, as the country struggled with recession and continuing high unemployment. Argentina's relations with Paraguay soured in 1999 when Menem's government sheltered Paraguayan Gen. Lino Oviedo for eight months Oviedo was wanted for the murder of Paraguay's vice president.

In Oct., 1999, Fernando de la Rúa of Alianza was elected president, soundly defeating the Peronist candidate. De la Rúa's victory was in part a rejection of Menem's perceived flamboyance and tolerance of corruption during his last term. The new president moved quickly to institute austerity measures and reforms to improve the economy taxes were increased to reduce the deficit, the government bureaucracy was trimmed, and legal restrictions on union negotiations were eased. De la Rúa also purged (2000) the army and state intelligence agency of the last suspected participants in the dirty war of the 1970s and 80s.

By late 2000, however, de la Rúa's presidency was under siege on two fronts. Several senators, mainly from the Justicialist party, were accused of taking bribes to vote for the government's labor-code revisions, and two cabinet members were also implicated. When the cabinet members were retained after a reorganization, Vice President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest. The Argentine economy had slipped into recession in late 1999, and Argentina was forced in to seek help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and private banks to reduce its debt. In Dec., 2000, an aid package of nearly $40 billion was arranged, and the government announced a $20 billion public works program that was designed to help revive the economy.

Further economic measures designed to revived the ailing economy were adopted in 2001, including the pegging of the peso for imports and exports to the average value of the dollar and the euro combined, additional government austerity measures, and additional billions in IMF aid. The economy remained in recession, however, aggravating the problems posed by the debt and by the restrictions that the IMF imposed in return for aid, and unemployment rose to around 20% at the end of 2001. In legislative elections in Oct., 2001, the opposition Justicialist party became the largest party in both houses of the national congress. In November the government began restructuring the debt, putting it essentially in default. Ongoing economic problems led to a crisis of confidence as depositors began a run on the banks, resulting in limits on withdrawals (largely lifted a year later), and the IMF took a hard line, insisting on a 10% cut in the budget before making further payments.

Nationwide food riots and demonstrations erupted in late December, leading the president to resign. A series of interim presidents and renewed demonstrations ended with the appointment of Justicialist senator Eduardo Alberto Duhalde as president in Jan., 2002. Duhalde, who had been a free-spending provincial governor and the Peronists' 1999 presidential candidate, devalued the peso, which lost more than two thirds of its value. The depressed economy, meanwhile, remained in disarray until early 2003, when it showed some signs of slow improvement.

Néstor Carlos Kirchner, the governor of Santa Cruz prov. in Patagonia, won the spring 2003 presidential race when former president Menem withdrew from the runoff election polls indicated that Kirchner would win by a landslide. Congress subsequently repealed two amnesty laws, passed in the 1980s, that had protected military officers accused of human rights offenses, and in 2005 the supreme court upheld the move, overturning the amnesty laws as unconstitutional. Pardons given to several military government leaders were subsequently also overturned by the court, and arrest warrants were issued for Isabel Perón, who was in exile in Spain, and others. A number of former military officers and others were later convicted of human-rights crimes, including former Presidents Bignone and Videla.

Kirchner won favorable terms from from the IMF in Sept., 2003, refusing to make concessions in exchange for refinancing Argentina's debt. Kirchner's government continued into 2004 its policy of aggressively seeking more favorable terms, but was not successful in negotiating new terms for repaying private creditors until 2005, when some three quarters of its bondholders agreed to accept partial repayment. The economy grew strongly in 2003–5, reducing the unemployment rate, but the effects of the 2001–2 economic collapse continued to hurt many Argentines.

In Oct., 2005, the popular Kirchner benefited from the improved economy when his Peronists won control of the senate and a plurality in the lower house. With a strengthened political hand, Kirchner replaced his respected but more conservative economy minister with an ally. Argentina paid off its IMF debt in Jan., 2006, in an effort to regain greater flexibility in its economic policy. Kirchner also used the influence of his office to fight inflation by pressuring Argentinian companies into holding down price increases. His presidency also saw a trend toward renationalization of certain Argentinian businesses, including railroads and telecommunications companies.

In 2006 there were tensions with Uruguay over plans there to build pulp mills along the Argentina border on the Uruguay River. Argentinians fearing possible pollution from the mills blockaded several bridges into Uruguay, and Argentina accused Uruguay of contravening the treaty on joint use of the river. Argentina took the issue to the International Court of Justice, which accepted it but allowed construction of the one mill that Uruguay ended up building to proceed while the court decided the case. The court also refused to order Argentina to halt the protests, which continued until June, 2010. In 2010 the court largely ruled in favor of Uruguay, determining that it had met its environmental obligations under the treat, and it refused to order the mill to close.

Kirchner chose not to run in 2007 for a second term, but his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who had served as a provincial and national deputy and national senator, mounted her own candidacy. Running strongly and promising to continue her husband's policies, she was elected in Oct., 2007, becoming the first woman to be elected president. In a court case in Florida, U.S. prosecutors later (Dec., 2007) alleged that $800,000 found (Aug., 2007) by Argentinian customs officers on a private flight from Venezuela was intended to be a secret Venezuelan government contribution to Fernández de Kirchner's campaign. The Argentinian government denounced the allegation, but two Venezuelans and a Uruguayan arrested in the United States in connection with the money pleaded guilty to acting as unregistered foreign government agents and revealed details of the payment and its coverup and a third Venezuelan was convicted on similar charges in Nov., 2008.

Beginning in Mar., 2008, farmers protested increased export taxes on farm products by striking and blockading roads, leading to some food shortages in major cities at times. The government abandoned the tax increases in July after the Senate narrowly failed to approve them. Tensions between the government and farmers continued, however, into 2009, aggravated by drought and falling demand. In Mar., 2009, both sides reached accords on compensation for several clases of farm products.

In Oct, 2008, the government moved to nationalize 10 private pension plans. The government asserted it was acting to protect them from the global financial crisis, but many viewed it as a repudiation of the privatizations of the 1990s and also possibly as an attempt to secure funds in the face of a looming budget shortfall. The move caused stocks and the Argentinian peso to fall sharply the national airline was also nationalized. The government subsequently used some of the pension assets as part of an economic stimulus package. Congressional elections in June, 2009, resulted in losses for the governing party, which failed to secure majorities in both houses.

In Jan., 2010, a move by the government to use foreign currency reserves to repay some of Argentina's international debt sparked a conflict between the president and the head of the central bank, Martín Redrado, who refused to transfer the reserves. The president sought to remove Redrado by emergency decree, but a court ruled that she could neither remove him nor use the reserves. Redrado, however, subsequently resigned. In Mar., 2010, the president issued new decrees transferring $6.6. billion of the reserves, and an appeals court upheld the decrees when the opposition challenged them. Debt swaps agreed to by June by most of the holders of the remaining bonds that Argentina had defaulted on in 2001 left about 8% of the original bonds outstanding.

The start of oil exploration in the waters surrounding the Falkland Islands in Feb., 2010, led the Argentinian government to impose restrictions on vessels traveling through its waters to the islands. The islands' status became an increasingly contentious issue in Argentina's international relations in subsequent months, leading to strained relations with Great Britain by the time of the 30th anniversary of the Falklands War in Apr., 2012. In Oct., 2011, President Fernández de Kirchner, bouyed by significant economic growth, easily won reelection and her Front for Victory won control of Congress, but high inflation associated with the growth was an increasing concern and led to government regulations designed to control capital flight. Discontent over the economy and other issues led to demonstrations and strikes beginning in 2012. In May, 2012, the Congress approved the nationalization of the former national oil company, which had been privatized in 1999. The Front for Victory retained control of Congress after the Oct., 2013, elections. In December, police strikes over pay in many of the country's provinces led to outbreaks of looting across Argentina.

In Jan., 2014, after the government's long-standing efforts to support the peso had depleted its currency reserves, it abandoned those efforts, which led to a drop in the peso's value, and then relaxed foreign exchange controls. In June, 2014, Argentina lost its appeal against a U.S. court decision that required it to pay the owners of the outstanding bonds that it defaulted on in 2001 if the country paid bond owners who had exchanged their defaulted bonds in the debt swaps of 2005 and 2010. Argentina subsequently refused, and in September the country was declared in contempt of court the case restricted Argentina's access to international credit markets. Also that month, Vice President Amado Boudou was charged with corruption in connection with government aid received by a printing company he was accused of secretly owning he was convicted in 2018.

In early 2015 the president was accused by a prosecutor of shielding Iranians involved in a 1994 terrorist bombing of a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires in order to secure a trade deal. The prosecutor's death by a gunshot wound sparked a public crisis. A second prosecutor sought to pursue the charges, but they were dismissed. The president denounced the affair as a plot by Intelligence Secretariat agents to undermine her government, and had the congress vote to reorganize the agency.

Fernández de Kirchner was barred from running in the 2015 presidential election. Although the first round in October was won by the Front for Victory candidate, Daniel Scioli, he did not win by a large enough margin to avoid a runoff. In the November runoff, the candidate of the Let's Change coalition, Mauricio Macri, the center-right mayor of Buenos Aires, won 51% of the vote. In office Macri ended most currency controls and devalued the peso, resolved (2016) the outstanding bond claims that remained from the 2001 default, and moved to reduce government spending that subsidized the price of utilities and other items. In the Oct., 2017, legislative elections Macri's coalition won a plurality of the seats.

The withdrawal of international investments in the first half of 2018, due to changing international conditions and concerns about the Argentinian economy, created a liquidity crisis and led Macri to seek IMF aid, and the IMF approved a $50 billion credit line (later increased to more than $57 billion). Argentina's economy, however continued to be plagued by inflation (which approached 50% in 2018), devaluation, and a contracting economy. Late in 2018 the government adopted an austerity budget.

In Aug., 2019, President Macri placed a distant second in the country's open presidential primary to Alberto Fernández, the candidate of the main opposition coalition, the Peronist Frente do Todos Fernández's running mate was former president Fernández de Kirchner. Macri subsequently announced a number of economic relief measures. In October, Fernández won the presidential election in the first round. In December, the new government's economic emergency package, including tax and spending increases and emergency government powers, was enacted. The subsequent COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 worsened the economic crisis, and the government sought to restructure its foreign debt.

La enciclopedia electrónica de Columbia, 6ª ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. Reservados todos los derechos.

Ver más artículos de la Enciclopedia sobre: South American Political Geography


Buenos Aires History Facts and Timeline

Around a third of Argentina's population lives in the 'greater' area of this South American nation's capital and most populated city, Buenos Aires. In fact, only Sao Paulo in Brazil boasts a bigger metropolitan population among Latin American cities than Buenos Aires.

The city from where the Tango dance originated has overcome a tumultuous past history filled with wars, coups d'état and dramatically fluctuating economies, to become one of Latin America's most peaceful, prosperous and exciting cities.

Pre-European Peoples

Prior to European arrival, the Guarani and the Diaguita were the area's most prominent inhabitants. Both tribes helped develop maize cultivation, while the Diaguita stopped the Inca from conquering Argentina long before Europeans first set foot on its soil in the early 16th century.

History of European Settlement

In 1516, indigenous tribes killed Spanish explorer Juan Diaz de Solis, the first European to sail into present-day Argentina. The same tribes forced the Europeans to flee their first attempt at a permanent colony and head for Asunción, Paraguay in 1539. The Europeans did not succeed in establishing a permanent settlement in Buenos Aires until 1580, after many indigenous tribes perished from European diseases.

Spanish Colony

By the early 17th century, pirates replaced indigenous tribes as the biggest threats to Buenos Aires. However, smuggling and illicit trade also formed a large part of the overall economy, as the city was prohibited from foreign trade. At this time, Spain paid far more attention to Peru than Argentina, since it was rich in gold and silver.

Buenos Aires finally found a prosperous and legal industry in its surrounding grasslands, where cattle provided beef and treated leather hides, which Europeans used to make clothes, shoes and accessories. Of note, in 1776, Buenos Aires became the base of the new Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata.

British Invasions

When Spain came under Napoleonic French control, the British staged two Buenos Aires invasions, in 1806 and again in the following year. After the city successfully fended off the British without Spanish assistance, it gained in confidence and pride. Shortly after Napoleon Bonaparte's French troops invaded Spain, Argentina declared its independence in 1816.

Independence History

Bloody conflicts between Unitarians wanting a strong national government, and Federalists who desired more provincial power, broke out in Buenos Aires. The much-hated Mazorca secret police persecuted the Unitarians, who formed the majority of the city's population, during the rule of Federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas. The year of 1852 saw Rosas ousted, while Argentina ratified its first constitution just a year later.

Immigration and Prosperity

Following two failed mid-1800s British and French invasions, Buenos Aires entered the most prosperous period in its history, especially after the railroad connected its port with its surrounding cattle ranches.

European immigrants flocked to Buenos Aires during the early 20th century. Although most of these immigrants came from Italy and Spain, Buenos Aires also welcomed many Germans, British, and in more recent years, Asians. Infamy was heaped on the country, however, during and after WWII, when many high-ranking Nazi officers escaped Europe and managed to set up new lives in Argentina.

Perón and Plaza de Mayo Bombing

Argentina's most famous leader, Juan Domingo Perón, first came to power as the Argentinian president in 1946. He was especially popular among the working class, due to his education reforms and pro-union stance.

In June of 1955, Argentina's navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in a failed coup d'état, but Peron was eventually deposed during another military revolt just three months later. Perón died a year after his 1973 re-election and his wife, Maria Eva Duarte de Perón (often known as simply 'Evita'), succeeded him until another military coup overthrew her in 1976.

The Dirty War

When the military governed Argentina between 1976 and 1983, they cracked down hard on suspected dissidents, many of whom mysteriously disappeared altogether and remain missing to this day. About 30,000 people were believed to have been executed during this 'Dirty War,' which served as part of a larger alliance between South American right wing governments. After the 1983 end of the military dictatorship, many of its leaders received lifetime prison sentences. This was a dark period in Buenos Aires history, as was the bombing of the Israeli Embassy the following decade.

Recession and Recovery

Argentina's economy completely collapsed in 2001, after two years of recession, preceded by many more years of inflation. Numerous businesses went bankrupt and up-to a quarter of Argentina's total population became unemployed before the economy finally stabilised. Buenos Aires, and the rest of Argentina, has once again become a calm and prosperous city.


Peron coming into power in Argentina

It seems to me that Peron came to power as a result of the mixture of the Latin American political/economic culture in existence in Argentina with the European immigrants (particularly Italian) coming to the country and the Great Depression with all its effects. In other words, when the Italian (and other) immigrants came to Argentina, they tended to be anarchist or syndicalist or what have you, and wanted to integrate themselves there and get full rights, etc. They were put down for a long time by the old conservative elites (representative of at least part of Latin American political culture) that engineered the coup of 1930 in the midst of the Depression, and that paved the way for Peron's popularity among the descendants of European immigrants. Is that a fair way of portraying the lead-on to Peronism, and why Argentina's political development was different than with many other Latin American countries (given that not nearly as many immigrants - particularly Italian - proportionally came to those other countries)?

If that's so, then even a scenario where Yrigoyen is dead sooner or where Ortiz is president for longer may merely buy some time in terms of avoiding a coup or what not - by a few to several years. Then, Argentina would have perhaps developed much like in real life anyway - who knows?


History of Argentina - Revolution of '43 (1943-1946)

The civilian government appeared to be close to joining the allies, but many officers of the Argentine armed forces (and ordinary Argentine citizens) objected due to fear of the spread of communism. There was a wide support to stay neutral in the conflict, as during WWI. The government was also questioned by domestic policy reasons, namely, the electoral fraud, the poor labour rights and the selection of Patrón Costas to run for the presidency.

On June 4, 1943, the G.O.U. (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos), which was a secret alliance between military leaders led by Pedro Pablo Ramírez, Arturo Rawson, Edelmiro Farrell and Farrell's protégé Juan Domingo Perón marched to the Casa Rosada and demanded the resignation of president Castillo. After hours of threats their goal was achieved and the president resigned. This event is considered by historians as the official end of the Infamous Decade.

After the coup, Ramírez took power. Although he did not declare war, he broke relations with the Axis powers. Argentina's largest neighbor, Brazil, had already entered the war on the allied side in 1942.

In 1944 Ramirez was replaced by Farrell, an army officer of Irish-Argentine origin who had spent two years attached to Mussolini's army in the twenties. Initially his government continued to maintain a neutral policy. Towards the end of the war, Farrell decided it was in the interests of Argentina to be attached to the winning side. Like several Latin American states, Argentina made a late declaration of war against Germany with no intention of providing any military forces.

Juan Domingo Perón managed the relations with labourers and unions, and become highly popular. He was deposed and detained at the Martín García island, but a massive demonstration on October 17, 1945, forced the government to free Perón and restore him to office. Perón would win the elections shortly afterwards by a landslide. The US ambassador, Spruille Braden, took direct action in Argentine politics supporting the antiperonist parties.


Ver el vídeo: Eva Peron - Former First Lady of Argentina. Mini Bio. BIO (Octubre 2021).