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El líder confederado John Hunt Morgan es capturado

El líder confederado John Hunt Morgan es capturado


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El 26 de julio de 1863, el líder de la caballería confederado John Hunt Morgan y 360 de sus hombres son capturados en Salineville, Ohio, durante una incursión espectacular en el norte. A partir de julio de 1862, Morgan realizó cuatro incursiones importantes en el norte o territorio controlado por el norte en el transcurso de un año. Aunque fueron de importancia estratégica limitada, las incursiones sirvieron como un impulso a la moral del sur y capturaron suministros muy necesarios.

La cuarta incursión de Morgan comenzó el 2 de julio de 1863, cuando él y 2.400 soldados salieron de Tennessee y se dirigieron al río Ohio, con la esperanza de desviar la atención del comandante de la Unión William Rosecrans, que conducía hacia Chattanooga, Tennessee. Morgan llegó al río en julio. 8, utilizando barcos de vapor robados para transportar su fuerza a Indiana. Durante las siguientes dos semanas y media, Morgan arrasó Indiana y Ohio, fingiendo hacia Cincinnati y luego cruzando el sur de Ohio. Su fuerza encontró poca resistencia y dispersó a las milicias locales que se enfrentaron a ellos. Con la caballería de la Unión en persecución, Morgan se dirigió a Pensilvania. Durante más de una semana, Morgan y sus tropas pasaron 21 horas diarias en la silla de montar. En Pomeroy, Ohio, Morgan perdió más de 800 hombres cuando los Yankees lo alcanzaron y capturaron una gran parte de su fuerza. Él y los miembros restantes de su comando fueron forzados más al norte, y el 26 de julio, los hombres exhaustos se rindieron.

Al final, solo 400 de los soldados de Morgan lograron regresar a salvo al sur. Los capturados estaban esparcidos por los campos de prisioneros del norte. Morgan y sus oficiales fueron enviados a la Penitenciaría Estatal de Ohio recién inaugurada. Él y sus hombres abrieron un túnel el 27 de noviembre de 1863; sin embargo, Morgan murió en batalla un año después.

LEER MÁS: Estados Confederados de América


John Hunt Morgan

John Hunt Morgan, conocido como el "Rayo de la Confederación" y recordado como el ideal del romántico caballero sureño, nació el 1 de junio de 1825 en Huntsville, Alabama, pero está completamente identificado con el estado natal de su madre, Kentucky. Morgan se mudó a Bluegrass State cuando era niño y asistió brevemente al Transylvania College en Lexington antes de ser expulsado por mal comportamiento. Se alistó en la 1ra Caballería de Kentucky al estallar la Guerra Mexicana y sirvió a las órdenes de Zachary Taylor, distinguiéndose en la Batalla de Buena Vista. Después de la guerra, en su amado Kentucky, Morgan se convirtió en un exitoso fabricante de cáñamo y equipó una compañía de milicias, conocida como "Lexington Rifles", de su propio bolsillo.

Durante la crisis de la secesión, Morgan no compartió las dudas de su estado e inmediatamente se unió a la nueva Confederación del Sur y llevó sus "Lexington Rifles" a Bowling Green para unir fuerzas con el general Buckner. Morgan fue nombrado coronel en abril de 1862 y participó en la Batalla de Shiloh antes de unirse a la división de Joseph Wheeler en el Ejército de Tennessee del general Braxton Bragg. Sin embargo, Morgan estaba lejos de "apegarse". Ese verano, Morgan comenzó a liderar el tipo de incursiones rápidas y atrevidas que caracterizaron a los líderes de la caballería confederada durante la guerra.

El 4 de julio de 1862, Morgan emprendió un viaje de mil millas a través de Kentucky, destruyendo líneas de ferrocarril y telégrafo, confiscando suministros, tomando prisioneros y, en general, causando estragos en la retaguardia de la Unión. Su incursión llegó a los titulares nacionales y ayudó a cimentar la temible reputación del jinete sureño. Morgan lideró esfuerzos igualmente exitosos en octubre y diciembre, lo que finalmente obligó a unas 20.000 tropas de la Unión a separarse del frente para proteger las líneas de comunicación y suministro.

Al año siguiente, en julio de 1863, cuando la Confederación se tambaleaba por las pérdidas duales de Vicksburg y Gettysburg, Morgan comenzó su incursión más ambiciosa de la guerra. Contra las órdenes explícitas de Bragg, Morgan y 2.400 hombres cruzaron el Ohio y cabalgaron más de mil millas a lo largo de la orilla norte del río. Durante tres semanas, Morgan aterrorizó a las defensas locales del sur de Indiana y Ohio antes de ser capturado en Salineville por la caballería de la Unión al mando del general Edward H. Hobson y enviado a la Penitenciaría del Estado de Ohio en Columbus. Increíblemente, el 26 de noviembre de 1863, el mismo día que el general Patrick Cleburne defendía tenazmente Ringgold Gap en el norte de Georgia, Morgan escapó de la prisión y regresó a las líneas confederadas.

Morgan fue nombrado jefe del departamento del suroeste de Virginia en abril de 1864 y decidió atacar Knoxville, Tennessee, una ciudad con una ciudadanía mayoritariamente pro-Unión. Mientras vivaqueaba en Greeneville, Tennessee, el 3 de septiembre, Morgan fue atrapado en un ataque sorpresa y un soldado de la Unión que había servido a sus órdenes lo mató a tiros y lo mató.

Morgan se incluye a menudo entre John S. Mosby, Jeb Stuart y Nathan Bedford Forrest en la memoria de "Lost Cause" como un ejemplo de las cualidades superiores de lucha del soldado de caballería del Sur. Está enterrado en Lexington.


John Hunt Morgan: ¿Caballero caballeroso o bandido desenfrenado?

Aunque nunca se elevó por encima del rango de general de brigada, John Hunt Morgan fue uno de los caballeros y asaltantes más coloridos de la Confederación. Sus hazañas lo llevaron más allá de las líneas federales y le valieron una reputación de audacia y creatividad, incluso comparaciones favorables con Francis Marion, el famoso "Swamp Fox" del Sur de la era de la Guerra Revolucionaria.

Nacido en Alabama pero de Kentucky desde la niñez, Morgan inicialmente no apoyó la causa confederada en su estado natal, y llegó a escribirle a su hermano que creía que Abraham Lincoln sería un buen presidente. Sin embargo, a medida que aumentaron las tensiones en Kentucky y el gobierno estatal comenzó a fragmentarse bajo el peso de su neutralidad vacilante y autoimpuesta, comenzó a reconsiderar su posición.

El general John Hunt Morgan dirigió redadas en Kentucky, Indiana y Ohio. Biblioteca del Congreso

Antes de la guerra, Morgan era un hombre de negocios de Lexington que había estado en combate como soldado de caballería durante la Batalla de Buena Vista de 1847. Al regresar a casa de la guerra mexicana, se casó y volvió a entrar en la vida privada, aunque crió y comandó dos compañías de milicias durante la década de 1850. En septiembre de 1861, tras la muerte de su esposa por una enfermedad prolongada, Morgan y la mayoría de su milicia "Lexington Rifles" cruzaron a Tennessee para alistarse en el Ejército Confederado. La banda formó el quid de la 2da Caballería de Kentucky, que luchó con distinción en la Batalla de Shiloh.

La primera gran aventura de Morgan se produjo en el verano de 1862, cuando él y 900 caballeros pasaron tres semanas cabalgando por Kentucky, interrumpiendo el progreso de las fuerzas de la Unión en el estado y aumentando las esperanzas de los secesionistas que buscaban llevar el estado completamente a la Confederación. Según los informes, Morgan y sus asaltantes capturaron y pusieron en libertad condicional a 1.200 soldados de la Unión, adquirieron varios cientos de caballos y confiscaron o destruyeron cantidades masivas de suministros federales.

Una edición de agosto de 1862 de Harper's Weekly describió a Morgan como un "guerrillero y bandido" con "instintos depredadores", y caracterizó a sus hombres como "una banda de vagabundos temerarios" que pasaban su tiempo "quemando puentes, destrozando vías de tren, robar trenes de suministros y saquear y desperdiciar las pocas partes prósperas que quedan de Kentucky ". Sin embargo, el mismo artículo también admitió algunas de las características que le dieron a Morgan un culto a la personalidad en el Sur: "el coraje más desesperado" y "algunas de las cualidades caballerescas de su homónimo y prototipo, Morgan el bucanero del mar Caribe". - antes de señalar que estos "no lo salvarán, sin embargo, de ser ahorcado si cae en manos de sus conciudadanos en Kentucky".

En el verano de 1863, Morgan lanzó una incursión aún más audaz a través de Kentucky, Indiana y Ohio. Sus tácticas ingeniosas y de gran éxito incluyeron hacer que su operador de telégrafo se hiciera pasar por un soldado de la Unión y enviara mensajes falsos y tremendamente divergentes informando sobre las acciones, los objetivos y la fuerza de las tropas de Morgan, creando confusión y obstaculizando cualquier respuesta. A pesar del gran éxito inicial, Morgan fue derrotado en la batalla de Buffington Island, Ohio, el 19 de julio de 1863, y se capturaron unos 750 jinetes confederados. Unos días más tarde, perseguidos por la caballería federal, 300 de los hombres de Morgan cruzaron el crecido río Ohio hacia Virginia Occidental, el resto continuó hacia el norte y el este, con la esperanza de tener la oportunidad de deslizarse a través del río hacia un lugar relativamente seguro. Después de otra derrota en la Batalla de Salineville el 26 de julio, Morgan fue capturado y llevado con algunos de sus oficiales a la Penitenciaría del Estado de Ohio, mientras que la mayoría de los hombres alistados fueron enviados a Camp Douglas de Chicago como prisioneros de guerra.

En noviembre de 1863, Morgan y otras seis personas escaparon haciendo un túnel fuera de una celda y escalando los muros de la prisión. Dos fueron recapturados, pero el resto regresó al sur y Morgan reanudó sus hazañas militares. Sus incursiones posteriores en Kentucky, con una fuerza inferior a la que había perdido en su gran incursión, resultaron en numerosas bajas y saqueos abiertos, lo que dio lugar a acusaciones de bandidaje. El 4 de septiembre de 1864, mientras intentaba escapar de una incursión de la Unión en Greeneville, Tennessee, Morgan fue asesinado a tiros.

Aunque seguido sin aliento por la prensa, el ataque de Morgan carece de la mayor importancia estratégica de otros eventos militares del verano de 1863, como los combates en Gettysburg y Vicksburg. Además, Morgan realizó su incursión en violación de las órdenes directas de no cruzar el río Ohio, perdiendo la confianza de sus superiores y dañando su reputación para siempre. Aún así, sus resultados fueron impresionantes. Capturó y puso en libertad condicional a aproximadamente 6.000 soldados de la Unión, destruyó 34 puentes, interrumpió las líneas ferroviarias en 60 sitios y desvió a decenas de miles de tropas de otros fines. Solo en Ohio, los hombres de Morgan robaron 2.500 caballos y allanaron más de 4.300 hogares y negocios. Las reclamaciones de compensación por las pérdidas infligidas por los hombres de Morgan todavía se estaban presentando a principios del siglo XX.


John Hunt Morgan & # 8217s Kentucky Raid

4 de julio de 1862 & # 8211 El coronel confederado John Hunt Morgan dirigió a 867 partisanos de caballería en una incursión en Kentucky para acosar la línea de suministro del Ejército Federal de Ohio.

Morgan se fue de Knoxville, Tennessee con soldados probados en batalla de Texas, Georgia y el estado natal de Morgan, Kentucky. Su objetivo era Gallatin, Tennessee, para cortar el ferrocarril de Louisville y Nashville y frenar el avance federal en Chattanooga.

Para el día 7, los soldados de Morgan habían completado un viaje de 104 millas hacia el oeste a través de la meseta de Cumberland. Se habían defendido de las guerrillas unionistas en las montañas del este de Tennessee antes de conseguir reclutas en la ciudad en gran parte pro confederada de Sparta, Tennessee. Con su fuerza ahora aumentada a unos 1.100 hombres, los partisanos giraron hacia el norte hacia la frontera del estado de Kentucky.

La fuerza de Morgan llegó a Celina cerca de la frontera al día siguiente. Durante la noche, los confederados cabalgaron hasta cinco millas de Tompkinsville, Kentucky, que estaba ocupada por unos 400 hombres de la novena caballería de Pensilvania. Los habitantes de Pennsylvania eran conocidos por su dura ocupación del Líbano, habiendo insultado vulgarmente a las mujeres allí diciéndoles que la única forma en que podían mantener su virtud era "coser la parte inferior de sus enaguas".

A principios del 9 de julio, Morgan dividió su mando y envió a una parte a atacar a la guarnición desde el norte mientras él se quedaba con la parte que atacaría desde el sur. El ala sur atacó primero, disparando a los federales con rifles y artillería desde unos 300 metros. Los federales, liderados por el mayor Thomas J. Jordan, intentaron escapar hacia el norte hacia el bosque, pero el ala norte de Morgan los bloqueó.

Los hombres de Jordan atravesaron la línea norte y huyeron hacia Burkesville, seguidos de cerca por los confederados. Finalmente rodearon a Jordan y lo obligaron a rendirse. Morgan informó: “El enemigo huyó, dejando unos 22 muertos y entre 30 y 40 heridos en nuestras manos. Tenemos 30 prisioneros y mi escuadrón de Texas todavía está persiguiendo a los fugitivos ”. Los soldados de Morgan se apoderaron de "un valioso tren de equipajes, que constaba de unos 20 vagones y 50 mulas ... también unos 40 caballos de caballería, y suministros de azúcar, café, etc."

Los confederados perdieron solo un muerto y tres heridos. Morgan puso en libertad condicional a todos los prisioneros excepto a Jordan, que fue enviado a prisión en Richmond. Sus partisanos continuaron hacia Glasgow esa tarde, cuando los federales cercanos comenzaron a escuchar rumores de que había jinetes confederados en el estado. El general de brigada Jeremiah Boyle, al mando de Louisville, notificó al coronel John F. Miller en Nashville que hasta 2.000 confederados andaban sueltos en Kentucky y le pidió a Miller que enviara un regimiento a Munfordville.

Morgan capturó el depósito de suministros federales en Glasgow al día siguiente. Emitió una proclamación con la esperanza de inspirar a los habitantes de Kentucky a "levantarse y armarse, y expulsar a los invasores de Hesse de su suelo":

“¡Que todo verdadero patriota haga frente al llamamiento! Luchen por sus familias, sus hogares, por sus seres queridos, sus conciencias y por el libre ejercicio de sus derechos políticos, para nunca más ser puestos en peligro por el invasor de Hesse ”.

Los confederados se acercaron al Líbano la noche del 11, ahuyentando a los defensores federales y obligando a la ciudad a rendirse alrededor de las 10 p.m. Boyle pidió refuerzos al Mayor General Don Carlos Buell: “Todos los rebeldes del Estado se unirán a él (Morgan) si no hay una demostración de fuerza y ​​poder enviada en caballería. El Estado estará desolado si no se atiende este asunto ”.

Boyle inicialmente informó que sus federales habían derrotado a Morgan en el Líbano, pero luego se enteró de la verdad y comenzó a entrar en pánico:

“Morgan pasó de un lado para otro, escapó y quemó el Líbano y avanza hacia Danville y hacia Lexington. No tengo caballería y tengo poca fuerza. Todo el Estado estará en armas si el general Buell no envía una fuerza para sofocarlo ... Morgan es devastador a fuego y espada ”.

“Es cierto que Morgan no puede ser capturado sin caballería. Arrasará gran parte del estado. Está apuntando a Lexington. No tengo fuerzas para llevarlo. Si Buell quiere salvar Kentucky, debe hacerlo de inmediato. Sé de lo que hablo ".

Los residentes de las cercanas Lexington y Louisville, e incluso de Cincinnati, Ohio, y Evansville, Indiana, comenzaron a entrar en pánico, ya sea por el avance de Morgan o por los frenéticos mensajes de Boyle. Boyle le pidió al alcalde de Cincinnati, George Hatch, que "enviara a tantos hombres como fuera posible en un tren especial sin demora". Los gobernadores de Ohio e Indiana pidieron al Departamento de Guerra que enviara tropas para detener a Morgan, pero el secretario de Guerra Edwin M. Stanton dijo que el departamento requería "un conocimiento más definido antes de poder actuar de manera inteligente".

Mientras tanto, los confederados de Morgan continuaron su incursión, operando cerca de Harrodsburg y Cynthiana, y luchando con los federales alrededor de Mackville. Llegó a Georgetown el día 15, donde emitió otra proclama:

¡Kentuckianos! Vengo a liberarte del despotismo de una facción tiránica y a rescatar mi Estado natal de las manos de tus opresores. En todas partes el enemigo cobarde ha huido de mis brazos vengativos. Mi valiente ejército está estigmatizado como una banda de guerrilleros y merodeadores. No lo crea. Señalo con orgullo sus actos como una refutación de esta vil aspersión. No venimos a molestar a personas pacíficas ni a destruir la propiedad privada, sino a garantizar una protección absoluta a todos los que no están en armas contra nosotros. Solo pedimos conocer a las legiones asalariadas de Lincoln. Los ojos de tus hermanos de la (Confederación) están sobre ti. Tus valientes conciudadanos están acudiendo en masa a tu nivel. Nuestros ejércitos avanzan rápidamente hacia su protección. Luego, salúdalos con las manos dispuestas de 50.000 valientes de Kentucky. Su avance ya está contigo. Luego, "¡Ataca por las tumbas verdes de tus padres! ¡Ataca por tus altares y tus fuegos! Dios y tu tierra natal ".

Sin embargo, pocos residentes de Kentucky se unieron a Morgan porque temían represalias federales después de que Morgan se fuera. Algunos incluso se unieron a los federales para ayudar a expulsar a Morgan del estado.


Redada de Morgan en el condado de Vinton

Durante el verano de 1863, el general John Hunt Morgan, un líder de la caballería confederada de Kentucky, invadió el sur de Ohio con 2.460 hombres montados. A lo largo de la campaña, los hombres de Morgan saquearon y saquearon antes de ser capturados por las fuerzas de la Unión. El 17 de julio, Morgan llevó a sus tropas a Wilkesville robando caballos, saqueando tiendas y robando a ciudadanos privados. Esa noche Morgan y algunas de sus tropas se alojaron y comieron con su prima hermana Ruth Virginia Althar Cline y su esposo, el Dr. William Cline. Las tropas de Morgan acamparon cerca de la casa de John y Eliza Levis, donde Eliza cocinaba para los hombres por temor a que dañaran a su familia. Más soldados del grupo de asalto se quedaron en la plaza del pueblo. Cuenta la leyenda que mientras Morgan dormía en la Mansión Cline, su criado negro le robó el dinero saqueado, y los abolicionistas Dr. Cline y Abraham Morris lo ayudaron a escapar a la libertad en el Ferrocarril Subterráneo.

Erigido en 2002 por la Comisión del Bicentenario de Ohio, The Longaberger Company, Village of Wilkesville Council y The Ohio Historical Society. (Número de marcador 3-82.)

Temas y series. Este marcador histórico se incluye en estas listas de temas: Patriotas y patriotismo y guerra de toros, Civil de EE. UU. Además,

está incluido en la lista de la serie Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection. Un mes histórico significativo para esta entrada es julio de 1838.

Localización. 39 & deg 4.545 & # 8242 N, 82 & deg 19.659 & # 8242 W. Marker se encuentra en Wilkesville, Ohio, en el condado de Vinton. El marcador está en Main Street (Ohio Route 124), a la izquierda cuando se viaja hacia el este. Marker está en el parque de la ciudad. Toque para ver el mapa. El marcador se encuentra en esta área de la oficina postal: Wilkesville OH 45695, Estados Unidos de América. Toque para obtener instrucciones.

Otros marcadores cercanos. Al menos otros 8 marcadores se encuentran a 7 millas de este marcador, medidos en línea recta. Henry Duc y los defensores de nuestro país (a una distancia de gritos de este marcador) Wilkesville (a unos 600 pies de distancia, medidos en línea directa) Academia Ewington (a unos 4,8 millas de distancia) Morgan's Raid (a unos 6,9 millas de distancia) Bridge Loft / Charging House (aproximadamente a 6,9 millas de distancia) Carbón vegetal (aproximadamente a 7 millas de distancia) Materias primas (aproximadamente a 7 millas de distancia) Piedra caliza (aproximadamente a 7,1 millas de distancia). Toque para obtener una lista y un mapa de todos los marcadores en Wilkesville.

Ver también . . . Incursión de Morgan. (Presentado el 21 de febrero de 2012 por William Fischer, Jr. de Scranton, Pensilvania).


La invasión de Indiana: la incursión de Morgan y la batalla de Corydon


Morgan's Raid fue una de las pocas batallas de la Guerra Civil que se libraron en el norte, y sigue siendo la última batalla que se libró dentro de las fronteras de Indiana.

En medio de la Guerra Civil estadounidense, lo que comenzó como una pequeña incursión de distracción en el norte por parte del ejército confederado durante la campaña de Tullahomma, se convirtió en una invasión sureña en toda regla que se extendió a lo largo de mil millas de la Unión.

Comenzando en Tennessee y viajando a través de Kentucky, Indiana y Ohio, esta famosa incursión se conoce simplemente como Morgan's Raid.

El 8 de julio de 1863, el sonido de la explosión de los proyectiles llenó el aire, cuando las tropas del general confederado John Hunt Morgan cruzaron el río Ohio cerca de la pequeña ciudad de Mauckport, Indiana.

Anteriormente, Morgan había enviado a un espía, Thomas Hines, para descubrir si el sentimiento de Hoosier simpatizaría de alguna manera con los confederados. Encontró poco apoyo para los sureños y se vio obligado a huir de regreso a Kentucky cuando se descubrió que era un intruso.

Robando dos barcos de vapor, el J.T McCombs y el Alice Dean, en el banco de Kentucky, la caballería evadió el fuego de artillería inexperto de la guardia local de Indiana, enviándolos a luchar bajo un fuerte bombardeo de artillería. En total, todas las tropas de Morgan tardaron 17 horas en cruzar con éxito el río.

Sin inmutarse por la escaramuza y las claras órdenes confederadas de quedarse atrás, Morgan continuó empujando sus fuerzas hacia el noroeste, llegando a Corydon, la antigua capital de Indiana, hasta 1825, al día siguiente. A unas pocas millas de la ciudad, el general fue abordado por 400 voluntarios de la Unión entusiastas pero sin experiencia, que habían sido organizados apresuradamente por el gobernador Oliver Morton, un firme partidario de la causa de la Unión.

Los valientes esfuerzos de la ciudad por defenderse llegaron a un abrupto final cuando las tropas de Morgan dispararon dos tiros de advertencia que resultaron en 15 bajas de Corydon. Inmediatamente dándose cuenta de la desesperada situación de proteger la ciudad de 2.500 jinetes que avanzaban, el coronel de la Unión Lewis Jordan izó la bandera blanca en señal de rendición para evitar pérdidas innecesarias de vidas.

La caballería confederada, alentada por su victoria y las órdenes de Morgan, se apresuró a entrar en la ciudad, atacando y rescatando lo que pudo encontrar. Además de algunas muertes de civiles, los bienes dañados o robados totalizaron casi el equivalente a $ 500,000 en moneda moderna, la mayoría de los cuales fueron reembolsados ​​por el gobierno.

Aunque la Batalla de Corydon en sí fue una victoria confederada, la incursión de Morgan concluyó con la captura de Morgan y su eventual muerte. Fue una de las pocas batallas de la Guerra Civil que se libró en el norte y sigue siendo la última batalla que se libró dentro de las fronteras de Indiana.

Morgan’s Raid ha sido conmemorado por John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail. Extendiéndose a través de Kentucky e Indiana, permite a los visitantes seguir el camino histórico del propio Morgan's Raid. Los verdaderos aventureros a veces eligen participar en la recreación anual de la batalla, un evento de fin de semana que se completa con Ladies 'Tea y Military Ball.


John Hunt Morgan

El comandante de caballería confederado John Hunt Morgan nació en Huntsville, Alabama, el 1 de junio de 1825. Educado en la Universidad de Transilvania, luchó en la Guerra de México como primer teniente de los Voluntarios Montados de Kentucky y participó en la batalla de Buena Vista. Morgan se casó con Rebecca Bruce en 1848. Trabajando como fabricante de cáñamo en Lexington, Morgan se convirtió en albañil y líder comunitario activo, sirviendo en la junta escolar y el consejo de la ciudad y como capitán del departamento de bomberos.

De 1852 a 1854 se desempeñó como capitán de una compañía de artillería en la milicia estatal. En 1857 formó los Lexington Rifles y adjuntó la unidad a la milicia de la guardia estatal en 1860. Morgan inicialmente apoyó la neutralidad de Kentucky, pero en septiembre de 1861, por su propia autoridad, dirigió a los Lexington Rifles en una serie de incursiones guerrilleras antes de unirse oficialmente a la Confederación como capitán de caballería en octubre de 1861.

En abril de 1862 Morgan fue ascendido a coronel y continuó sus actividades de incursión, ganándose el sobrenombre de & # 8220Francis Marion of the War & # 8221. Dirigió un escuadrón en la batalla de Shiloh. En una incursión desde Knoxville a Cynthiana, Kentucky, del 4 al 28 de julio de 1862, reclutó a trescientos voluntarios para la causa confederada. El 12 de agosto de 1862, Morgan interrumpió con éxito la campaña del general Don Carlos Buell contra Chattanooga al quemar los túneles gemelos de Louisville y Nashville Railroad cerca de Gallatin, que eran enlaces vitales en la línea de suministro de Union. Avergonzado por esta pérdida, Buell envió toda su fuerza de caballería contra Morgan y sufrió una derrota, incluida la captura del general Richard Johnson. El éxito de Morgan envalentonó los planes confederados para una invasión de Kentucky, y la caballería de Morgan se unió al general Braxton Bragg en la campaña de Perryville. El 7 de diciembre de 1862, Morgan capturó una guarnición de 1.834 soldados de la Unión en Hartsville, Tennessee.

En Murfreesboro, el 14 de diciembre de 1862, Morgan, viuda desde 1861, se casó con Martha, de diecisiete años, & # 8220Mattie & # 8221, lista en lo que fue el punto culminante de la temporada social de invierno de la ciudad. La mayor parte del alto mando confederado asistió a la ceremonia, que fue realizada por el teniente general (y obispo) Leonidas Polk. Este matrimonio produjo una hija, Johnnie, que nació después de la muerte de Morgan. Dos semanas después de la boda, las tropas de Morgan & # 8217 participaron en redadas durante la batalla de Stones River, desviando a las tropas de la Unión de ayudar al ejército del general William S. Rosecrans & # 8217.

Durante sus redadas, Morgan a menudo evitaba el combate directo a través de planes tácticos que implicaban artimañas y engaños, incluida la interceptación de mensajes telegráficos y el envío de mensajes falsos a los comandos de la Unión. Durante 1862 su mando creció de 325 a una división de 3.900 y fue ascendido a general de brigada el 11 de diciembre de 1862.

A principios de 1863, cuando la caballería de la Unión en el teatro occidental ganó competencia y fuerza, Morgan comenzó a sufrir pérdidas en sus enfrentamientos. En un intento por recuperar algo de prestigio y moral perdidos, se embarcó en su legendario & # 8220Great Raid & # 8221. Morgan condujo a sus tropas en una incursión no autorizada a través de Kentucky, Indiana y Ohio. Durante la redada, que duró del 1 al 26 de julio de 1863, Morgan sembró el pánico en cada ciudad sucesiva a la que se acercó, encontrándose con milicias convocadas apresuradamente que ofrecieron una resistencia relativamente débil. Pasando por el sur de Indiana, cruzó a Ohio en Harrison y se trasladó a siete millas de Cincinnati. Capturado con la mayor parte de su mando en West Point, Ohio, Morgan escapó de la Penitenciaría del Estado de Ohio el 27 de noviembre de 1863 y regresó a Kentucky. Su & ​​# 8220Great Raid & # 8221 fue la incursión más al norte de las tropas confederadas occidentales y sirvió para reforzar la moral del sur después de la derrota de Lee & # 8217 en Gettysburg. También sirvió para asegurar el estatus legendario de Morgan entre los generales de la Guerra Civil.

A pesar de la ira del alto mando confederado por su impetuosa incursión no autorizada, volvió al mando. Los informes de saqueo por parte de los hombres de Morgan & # 8217 durante una incursión fallida cerca de Cynthiana, Kentucky, en junio de 1864 llevaron a su suspensión del mando y a la programación de una corte de investigación para el 10 de septiembre. Morgan fue sorprendido por soldados federales en Greeneville, Tennessee, el 4 de septiembre y murió intentando escapar. Originalmente enterrado en Richmond, Virginia, su cuerpo fue trasladado a Lexington, Kentucky, en 1868.


Morgan & # 8217s Raid durante la Guerra Civil

Conocido como el & # 8220 Thunderbolt of the Confederacy & # 8221 y recordado como el ideal del romántico jinete sureño, el general John Hunt Morgan.

Cortesía de Jordan Pickens

Morgan & # 8217s Raiders, de & # 8220Harper & # 8217s Historia pictórica de la Guerra Civil & # 8221

Cortesía de Jordan Pickens

Un mapa de Morgan & # 8217s Raid Route.

Cortesía de Jordan Pickens

USS Fairplay 1862-1865, Tinclad # 17

Cortesía de Jordan Pickens

El cartel de búsqueda del general Morgan después de escapar de la penitenciaría de Ohio.

Cortesía de Jordan Pickens

El 2 de julio de 1863 marcó el comienzo de la incursión de más de 1.000 millas del general confederado John Hunt Morgan en Sparta, Tennessee. Conocido como el & # 8216Thunderbolt of the Confederacy & # 8217 y recordado como el ideal del romántico jinete sureño, Morgan procedió a cruzar a Kentucky, en ese momento era un & # 8220border state & # 8221 debido a que todavía formaba parte de la Unión pero permitiendo la esclavitud. El general confederado Braxton Bragg, el comandante regional, tenía la intención de que los soldados de caballería de Morgan y # 8217 proporcionaran una distracción al entrar en Kentucky. Morgan, sin embargo, confió a algunos de sus oficiales que durante mucho tiempo había deseado invadir Indiana y Ohio para llevar el terror de la guerra al norte.

Bragg le había dado & # 8220carte blanche, & # 8221 o total libertad para actuar como uno desee o crea mejor, para viajar por Tennessee y Kentucky, pero le ordenó que bajo ninguna circunstancia cruce el río Ohio. No obstante, Morgan cruzó Ohio en Brandenburg, Kentucky, hacia Indiana y luego cruzó la frontera entre Ohio e Indiana en Harrison, Ohio, el 13 de julio. Desde allí, rodeó Cincinnati para llegar a Williamsburg, Ohio, en la parte este del condado de Clermont. Luego cargó contra Washington Court House, a través de los condados de Ross, Pike, Jackson y Vinton, y en el condado de Meigs.

Según Edgar Ervin & # 8217s Pioneer History of Meigs County,

Morgan & # 8217s Raid en el condado de Meigs es importante porque era el límite norte al que cualquier ejército del sur, o fragmento del mismo, alcanzaba en batalla. Era asombroso que un líder audaz como él pudiera llegar tan lejos, pero desde un punto de vista militar, lograr tan poco con su incursión. Le dio al condado de Meigs una conciencia de guerra que nunca antes había experimentado. Aprovechó las condiciones y programó su incursión en un momento en que partes del río Ohio en el condado de Meigs podían vadearse a caballo. Si su incursión se hubiera producido 60 días antes o 60 días después, el río Ohio habría sido una barrera para él.

Antes de que comenzara la expedición, Morgan había enviado espías a lo largo del Ohio para descubrir vados o lugares más fáciles de cruzar. Uno de los mejores fue en la isla Buffington, a unas 30 millas por encima de Pomeroy y aproximadamente a la misma distancia por debajo de Parkersburg, o quizás un poco más lejos. Este, entonces, se convirtió en el objetivo de Morgan. Después de dejar Williamsburg, Morgan dividió sus fuerzas, el coronel Richard Morgan (su hermano), dirigiéndose hacia el suroeste y pasando por Georgetown, la sede del condado de Brown, y el general John Hunt Morgan con su columna marchó en dirección noreste hasta Palacio de Justicia de Washington. Desde allí, girando hacia el sureste, pasó por el condado de Ross, dejando Chillicothe a su izquierda, donde aguardaba una fuerza considerable de milicianos. Pasando por Piketon en el condado de Pike y Jackson en el condado de Jackson, robando caballos y suministros en el camino.

El general John Hunt Morgan era masón. En 1846, Morgan se convirtió en albañil en Daviess Lodge # 22 en Lexington, Kentucky. Mientras saqueaban la ciudad de Jackson, se decía que algunos de sus hombres habían saqueado y saqueado artículos de Trowel Lodge # 132 en Jackson, sobre todo la espada Tyler & # 8217s. Morgan supuestamente regañó a los hombres y les ordenó que devolvieran la parafernalia robada al Templo Masónico. Desde aquí, Morgan fue a Vinton en el condado de Gallia, y luego a Wilkesville, luego hizo su entrada en el condado de Meigs.

La respuesta de la Unión no tardó en llegar, ya que el general de división Ambrose Burnside, al mando del Departamento de Ohio, ordenó que se retiraran todas las tropas disponibles, así como el envío de varias cañoneras de la Armada de la Unión que navegaban por el río Ohio para impugnar cualquier intento confederado de llegar a Kentucky o Virginia Occidental y seguridad. Bergantín. El general Edward H. Hobson dirigió varias columnas de caballería federal en la persecución de los asaltantes de Morgan # 8217, que ahora se habían reducido a unos 1.700 hombres. El gobernador de Ohio, David Tod, llamó a la milicia local y los voluntarios formaron compañías para proteger pueblos y cruces de ríos en toda la región.

El 18 de julio, Morgan, habiendo dividido su columna antes, condujo su fuerza reunida hacia Pomeroy, donde Morgan tenía la intención de cruzar a Virginia Occidental. Con un guante de fuego de armas pequeñas, los hombres de Morgan y # 8217 se les negó el acceso al río y al propio Pomeroy por una milicia local.

Según Ervin & # 8217s Pioneer History of Meigs County,

La milicia local que estaba delante de él estaba empezando a derribar árboles y romper puentes para obstruir el avance de Morgan. Cerca de Pomeroy se levantaron. Durante cuatro o cinco millas, su camino discurría por un barranco, con intersecciones ocasionales desde caminos montañosos. En todos estos cruces encontró apostados una milicia local, y desde las colinas sobre él hicieron su paso por el barranco un perfecto recorrido del guante. On front, flank and rear the militia pressed and closed eagerly upon his track.

It was fortune that two of the Middleport companies of Ohio National Guard – one of infantry commanded by Captain RB Wilson, Lieutenants OP Skinner and Samuel Grant the other of artillery, Captain John Schreiner, the two numbering about 120 men – to render service so valuable that it should find a place in history. With other organizations these companies were ordered to rendezvous at Marietta.

On the very night of their arrival in camp came tidings of the enemy’s approach to their own town and they at once asked for orders to return to the defense of their homes. With but a little delay they were put aboard a steamer, and by daylight the following morning had disembarked and were several miles out on the roads by which Morgan was approaching.

William Grant, George Womeldorff and James Waddell, three of the most reliable men of the command, “were directed to find a point well up the road from which they could observe the approach and estimate the number of the enemy, and by an agreed signal advised headquarters of the fax ascertains.” The “artillery” consisted of an old gun that had been used for celebrating the Fourth of July, which, loaded with spikes and pieces of chain “commanded” for several hundred yards a straight piece of road flanked on one side by timber where part of [the Meigs County] men were concealed and on the other side by a creek with steep banks. Scarcely had the dispositions been made when the enemy appeared. William Grant and his comrades, assisted by the darkness, avoided the approaching raiders, who, a few moments later, ran up on the picket commanded by Lieutenant Samuel Grant and surrendered without much resistance. They were marched to Pomeroy and placed under guard in the courthouse to be turned over as prisoners of war, 68 enlisted men and seven officers.

From The History of Meigs and Gallia Counties, published by the Union Publishing Company,

… The show of resistance was enough to turn him aside and he moved off of the river towards Buffington Island.

At Chester, he resisted for an hour and a half and hunted for a guide. That stop though so short was fatal for it was 8 o’clock when he had reached the ford, too late and dark to undertake to cross. And he persisted right on after arriving at Chester that to him most precious hour and a half would no doubt have seen him safely on the Virginia side. Tired and worn out, both men and horses, he decided to rest for the night on the north bank of the Ohio. The handful of men who had thrown up works near the riverbank and attempted to impede his progress, might then have been easily brushed aside. But the dawn of another morning brought him more formidable enemy and the person of general Judah with his regulars who had arrived in the night by a boat, fresh and ready for the conflict.

Here is the description of the movements as given by Whitelaw Reid in his Ohio in The War, that refer to the stop at Chester.

But [Morgan’s] evil genius was upon him. He had lost an hour and a half at Chester in the afternoon – the most precious hour and a half since his horse’s feet touched Northern soil: and he now decided to waste the night.

In the hurried counsel with his exhausted officers it was admitted on all hands that Judah had arrived – but some of his troops had probably given force to the skirmishing near Pomeroy – that they would certainly be at Buffington by morning and that gunboats would accompany them. But his men were in bad condition and he feared to trash them in the night attack upon a fortified position which she had not reconnoitered. The fear was fatal.

Even yet, by abandoning his wagon trains and his wounded he might have reached unguarded forwards a little higher up. This too, was mentioned by Morgan‘s officers. He would save all he promptly replied or lose altogether. And so he gave mortgages to fate. By morning Judah was up.

Information reached Captain Wilson that one detachment would undertake to cross the Ohio as a show place several miles above Pomeroy, and reinforced by about 20 men, under Daniel Davis of Pomeroy, he immediately marched up to intercept the fugitive, reaching the point late in the evening.

At daybreak Duke advanced with a couple of rebel regiments to storm the earth work, but found it abandoned. He was rapidly proceeding to make dispositions for crossing when Judah’s advance struck him. At first he repulsed it and took a number of prisoners, the adjutant general of Judah’s staff among them. Morgan then ordered him to hold the force on his front and check. He was not able to return to his command until it had been broken and thrown into fall retreat before and impetuous charge of Judah’s cavalry, headed by Lieutenant O’Neal of Fifth Indiana. He succeeded in rallying then reforming his line. But now, advancing up the Chester and Pomeroy Road, came the gallant cavalry that over three states had been galloping on their tract – the 3000 of Hobson’s command – who for now two weeks had been only a day, a forenoon, an hour behind them.

As Hobson’s guidons fluttered out in the little valley by the riverbank where they fought, every man of that band that had so long defied 100,000 knew that the contest was over. They were almost out of ammunition, exhausted and scarcely 2000 strong. Against them were Hobson’s 3000 and Judah’s still larger force. To complete the overwhelming odds that, in spite of their efforts, had at last been concentrated upon them, the tin-clad gun boats steamed up an open fire.

Morgan comprehended the situation as readily as a hard riding troopers, who, still clinging to their bolts of calico, we’re already beginning to gallop towards the rear. He at once essayed to extricate his trains and then to withdraw his regiments by column of fours from right of companies, keeping up meanwhile, as sturdy resistance as he might. For some distance the withdrawal was made in tolerable order then under a charge of a Michigan cavalry regiment, everything was broken, and the retreat became a rout. Morgan with not quite 1200 man escaped. His brother with Colonels Duke, Ward, Huffman and about 700 men were taken prisoner.

This was the battle of Buffington Island. It was brief and decisive. But for his two grave mistakes of the night before, Morgan might have avoided it and escaped, and many a thrilling tale of the events that happened in the following seven days and nights of the raid would never have been told,… But it cannot be said he yielded to blow that insured his fate without resistance, and the courage and tenacity worthy of a better cause. The superiority in forces was overwhelming and the Union losses small. The boats carried the prisoners back to Cincinnati and the troops, with a little rest, pushed on after Morgan and the 1,200 men who had escaped.

About 15 or 20 miles above Buffington Island he again attempted to cross and succeeded in landing 1/4 of his men on Virginia soil. Morgan himself was in the middle of the Ohio River but the gunboats were to close upon him and he was forced back to the Ohio side with his remaining 900 men. Again, his hurried flight was taken up. Almost insurmountable difficulties surrounded him. His men were exhausted from long, forced marches and enormous work. Their pillaging had greatly demoralized them. The blow of defeat was severe causing a lack of faith in themselves and a loss of confidence in their intrepid commander. They were harassed on every hand. Every loophole of escape shut off hunted like game, day or night.

Yet to the very last the energy of this during cavalryman worthy of admiration of all – even his enemies. With no apparent possibility of escape at Buffington Island he slipped away from Judah and Hobson with more than half of his forces.

After Belleville, he headed almost west and went far as MacArthur. His course then ran back to Blennerhassett Island, thence through Athens, eastern Hocking and Perry Counties and into Morgan County near Porterville on July 22, 1863. He then continued through Muskingum County, Noble, Guernsey, Carroll, Harrison, Jefferson and Columbiana Counties where he was captured at Salineville, near Steubenville. He was then confined to the Ohio penitentiary several months until his escape November 27, through Cincinnati, Kentucky and Tennessee to Richmond, Virginia. He was killed in 1864 in a skirmish in East Tennessee.

Known as the “Thunderbolt of the Confederacy” and remembered as the ideal of the romantic Southern cavalryman, general John Hunt Morgan.


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About Brig. General John Hunt Morgan (CSA)

Confederate cavalry commander John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, on June 1, 1825. Educated at Transylvania University, he fought in the Mexican War as a first lieutenant in the Kentucky Mounted Volunteers and saw action at the battle of Buena Vista. Morgan married Rebecca Bruce in 1848. Working as a hemp manufacturer in Lexington, Morgan became a Mason and an active community leader, serving on the school board and city council and as captain of the fire department.

From 1852 to 1854 he served as captain of an artillery company in the state militia. In 1857 he formed the Lexington Rifles and attached the unit to the state guard militia in 1860. Morgan initially supported Kentucky neutrality, but in September 1861, on his own authority, he led the Lexington Rifles in a series of guerrilla raids before officially joining the Confederacy as a captain of cavalry in October 1861.

In April 1862 Morgan was promoted to colonel and continued his raiding activities, earning the sobriquet 𠇏rancis Marion of the War.” He led a squadron at the battle of Shiloh. On a raid from Knoxville to Cynthiana, Kentucky, from July 4-28, 1862, he recruited three hundred volunteers for the Confederate cause. On August 12, 1862, Morgan successfully disrupted General Don Carlos Buell’s campaign against Chattanooga by burning the twin Louisville and Nashville Railroad tunnels near Gallatin, which were vital links in the Union supply line. Embarrassed by this loss, Buell sent his entire cavalry force against Morgan and suffered a rout, including the capture of General Richard Johnson. Morgan’s success emboldened Confederate plans for a Kentucky invasion, and Morgan’s cavalry joined General Braxton Bragg in the Perryville campaign. On December 7, 1862, Morgan captured a garrison of 1,834 Union troops at Hartsville, Tennessee.

In Murfreesboro, on December 14, 1862, Morgan, widowed since 1861, married seventeen-year-old Martha “Mattie” Ready in what was the highlight of the city’s winter social season. Most of the Confederate high command attended the ceremony, which was performed by Lieutenant General (and Bishop) Leonidas Polk. This marriage produced a daughter, Johnnie, who was born after Morgan’s death. Two weeks after the wedding, Morgan’s troops participated in raids during the battle of Stones River, diverting Union troops from assisting General William S. Rosecrans’s army.

During his raids, Morgan often avoided direct combat through tactical plans which involved ruse and deception, including intercepting telegraph messages and sending out false ones to Union commands. During 1862 his command grew from 325 to a division of 3,900 and he was promoted to brigadier general on December 11, 1862.

In early 1863, as Union cavalry in the western theater gained proficiency and strength, Morgan began suffering losses in his confrontations. In an attempt to recoup some lost prestige and morale, he embarked on his legendary “Great Raid.” Morgan led his troops on an unauthorized raid through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. During the raid, which lasted from July 1 to 26, 1863, Morgan spread panic in each successive town he approached, encountering hastily convened militia who offered relatively weak resistance. Passing through southern Indiana, he crossed into Ohio at Harrison, and moved within seven miles of Cincinnati. Captured with most of his command at West Point, Ohio, Morgan escaped from the Ohio State Penitentiary on November 27, 1863, and returned to Kentucky. His “Great Raid” was the northernmost incursion of western Confederate troops and served to bolster Southern morale after Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg. It also served to secure Morgan’s legendary status among Civil War generals.

Despite the Confederate high command’s anger at his unauthorized, impetuous raid, he was restored to command. Reports of looting by Morgan’s men during an unsuccessful raid near Cynthiana, Kentucky, in June 1864 led to his suspension from command and the scheduling of a court of inquiry for September 10. Morgan was surprised by Federal soldiers in Greeneville, Tennessee, on September 4, and died attempting to escape. Originally buried in Richmond, Virginia, his body was moved to Lexington, Kentucky, in 1868.

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Tuvieron dos hijas. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."

"I want to be a cavalryman And with John Hunt Morgan ride, A colt revolver in my belt A saber by my side. I want a pair of epaulets to match my suit of gray, The uniform my mother made  And lettered 'CSA'. & quot

Family Data Collection - Births

American Civil War General Officers

Highest Rank: Brigadier General

Birth Place: Huntsville, Alabama

Promotions: Promoted to Full Colonel (2nd KY Cav)

Biography: Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan

Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan was born at Huntsville,

Ala., June 1, 1825, but was reared in Kentucky from the age of

four years, upon the farm near Lexington to which his parents

removed. He was the eldest of six brothers, of whom all bore

arms for the Confederacy. It is said that he was a lineal

descendant of Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary fame.

His first military experience was at the time of the war with

Mexico, when he had the rank of lieutenant in Capt. O. P.

Beard's company, General Marshall's cavalry, and in later

years he was captain of the Lexington Rifles. Durante el

period following the Mexican war he devoted himself with

On April 16, 1861, he telegraphed President Davis: "Twenty

thousand men can be raised to defend southern liberty against

northern conquest. Do you want them?" But he was not

encouraged to immediate action.

In September he was arrested by Home Guards while conveying

jeans cloth southward from his factory, and imprisoned for

three days and in the latter part of that month he joined the

Confederate forces at Bowling, mustered in November 5th.

He became a colonel in the summer of 1862, when he organized

the Second cavalry at Chattanooga. Then, in July, he won fame

by his first Kentucky raid. In August he covered the front of

Bragg's army concentrating at McMinnville, Tenn., with

victorious engagements at Gallatin and Hartsville.

During Bragg's occupation of Kentucky, part of his men

advanced to the Ohio river at Augusta. On October 18th, he

captured several hundred Federals at Lexington, after a severe

fight. On the return to Tennessee he was given command of a

cavalry brigade, composed of his own regiment and the Seventh,

Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Kentucky cavalry.

On December 7th, he won a brilliant victory at Hartsville. Sobre

the 11th he was commissioned brigadier-general. Then followed

his "Christmas raid" in Kentucky, which, with his previous

exploits, elicited a resolution of thanks from Congress.

His cavalry division was now formed, the First brigade

including the Second, Fifth, Sixth and Ninth Kentucky and

Ninth Tennessee regiments the Second brigade, the Third,

Eighth, Eleventh and Tenth Kentucky. Taking position on the

right of Bragg's army in middle Tennessee, he fought the enemy

at Vaught's Hill, Milton, Liberty, and Snow's Hill, March 19th

to April 3rd, and on May 10th defeated the Federals in

southeast Kentucky, at the battle of Greasy Creek.

On June 27th, as Rosecrans advanced to force Bragg from

Tennessee, General Morgan started out from Sparta, to draw off

the Federal strength by an invasion of the Northwest. Eso

happened that his heaviest fighting was in Kentucky.

Colonel Chenault, Major Brent, and many other brave men fell

at Green River bridge, July 4th, and at Lebanon young Thomas

After a circuit through Indiana and Ohio around Cincinnati, he

attempted to recross the Ohio river at Buffington island, July

19th. But after a spirited battle, Colonel Duke and part of

his command were captured, and Morgan, with the remainder,

forced to continue eastward.

On the 26th, Colonels Grigsby and Johnson, with 300 or 400

men, forded the river, and Morgan himself was halfway across

when he saw that most of his men must be captured, and

returned to share their fate.

He and his officers were treated rather as criminals than

military prisoners, and confined, with the usual indignities,

in the Ohio State prison. But before the end of the year he

had escaped with six companions, and passed through Kentucky

and Tennessee to the Confederate lines.

In January, 1864, he was given authority to reorganize his

command, and in the following month, at his own request, was

ordered from Decatur, GA, to Abingdon, Va. There he had the

duty of defending the salt works and lead mines, soon

threatened by formidable columns under Crook and Burbridge.

He checked Crook at Wytheville in May, and then made a raid in

Kentucky to compel the retreat of Burbridge. On June 8th he

took Mt. Sterling and 400 men, and on the 11th captured

General Hobson and 1,800 men at Cynthiana.

But Burbridge was in close pursuit, and Morgan was badly

defeated on the 12th. Overwhelmed by misfortune, he yet

demonstrated his great nature by renewed efforts to defend his

The enemy having penetrated Bull's Gap in August, he was

advancing on that post with about 1,000 men when attacked at

Greeneville, Tenn., at daylight, September 4th, by Gillem's

caballería. While escaping from the house in which he had passed

the night, he was shot and killed. His body, shamefully

treated at the time, was afterward interred with honor in the

Source: Confederate Military History, vol. XI, p. 245

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.[2]

Morgan's father lost his Huntsville home in 1831 when he was unable to pay the property taxes following the failure of his pharmacy. The family then moved to Lexington, where Calvin Morgan would manage one of Hunt's sprawling farms. Morgan also attended Transylvania College for two years, but was suspended in June 1844 for dueling with a fraternity brother. In 1846, Morgan joined the Freemasons, as had his father before him.

In 1846 Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

In 1853, Morgan's wife delivered a stillborn son. Rebecca Morgan contracted septic thrombophlebitis, an infection of a blood clot in a vein, which eventually led to an amputation. Relations with his wife's family suffered over different views on slavery and with her health problems. In 1857, Morgan raised an independent infantry company known as the "Lexington Rifles," and spent much of his free time drilling them.

John Hunt Morgan Memorial in downtown Lexington, Kentucky

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede[.] have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." By the following spring, Tom Morgan (who also had opposed Kentucky's secession) had transferred home to the Kentucky Military Institute and there began to support the Confederacy. Just before the fourth of July, he quietly left for Camp Boone, just across the Tennessee border, by way a steamer from Louisville to enlist in the Kentucky State Guard. John stayed at home in Lexington to tend to his troubled business and his ailing wife. Becky Morgan finally died on July 21, 1861. In September, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1861.[2]

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.[3]

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862.[2] He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7.[4] Also in December, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and the Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. After many skirmishes and battles, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

[edit] Late career and death

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.[5]

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry[citation needed], likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.[1]

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War.

Morgan is best known for Morgan's Raid in 1863, when he led 2,460 troops racing past Union lines into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio in July 1863. This would be the farthest north any uniformed Confederate troops penetrated during the war.

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.

In 1846, Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede, I have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." Neverthless, in September 1861, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1862.

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862, though the Promotion Orders were not signed by President Davis until December 14, 1862. He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7. Also on December 14, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. At Corydon, Indiana the raiders met 450 local Home Guard in a battle that resulted in eleven Confederates killed and five Home Guard killed.

After several more skirmishes, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry, likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan, Brig. General (CSA) Birth: June 1, 1825 Huntsville, AL, USA Death: September 4, 1864 (39) Greenville, Green Co., TN

Son of Calvin Morgan and Henrietta Morgan Husband of Rebecca Bruce and Martha Ready

Father of Infant Morgan, Sidney Morgan, Johnny Morgan and Johnny Morgan Brother of Henrietta Duke, Charlton Hunt Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Richard Morgan, Thomas Morgan and 1 other, and Katherine Morgan « less Half brother of John Morgan, Gen., Henrietta Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Jr., Mary Morgan, Ann Morgan and 7 others, Catherine Morgan, Richard Morgan, Charlton Morgan, Thomas Morgan, Francis Morgan, Catherine Morgan and Eleanor Morgan « less

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her p. read more

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Tuvieron dos hijas. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."


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Hart County High School, in Munfordville, Kentucky, the site of the Battle for the Bridge, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men. Also, a large mural in the town depicts Morgan.

Trimble County High School, in Bedford, Kentucky, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men.

The John Hunt Morgan Memorial statue in Lexington is a tribute to him.

The Hunt-Morgan House, once his home, is a contributing property in a historic district in Lexington.

The General Morgan Inn, located at the spot he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee is named after him.


Ver el vídeo: Thomas Hunt Morgan e moscas de fruta. Biologia. Khan Academy (Mayo 2022).