Podcasts de historia

Ferrocarril del Norte de Francia - Historia

Ferrocarril del Norte de Francia - Historia


Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Pronunciación francesa: [nɔʁ pɑ d (ə) kalɛ] (escuchar)) es una antigua región administrativa de Francia. Desde el 1 de enero de 2016, forma parte de la nueva región Hauts-de-France. [2] Consistía en los departamentos de Nord y Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais limita con el Canal de la Mancha (oeste), el Mar del Norte (noroeste), Bélgica (norte y este) y Picardía (sur). La mayor parte de la región fue una vez parte de los Países Bajos históricos (del sur), pero gradualmente se convirtió en parte de Francia entre 1477 y 1678, particularmente durante el reinado del rey Luis XIV. Las provincias francesas históricas que precedieron a Nord-Pas-de-Calais son Artois, Flandes francés, Henao francés y (parcialmente) Picardía. Estas denominaciones provinciales todavía son utilizadas con frecuencia por los habitantes.

Con 330,8 habitantes por km 2 en poco más de 12.414 km 2, es una región densamente poblada, con unos 4,1 millones de habitantes, el 7% de la población total de Francia, lo que la convierte en la cuarta región más poblada del país, el 83% de los cuales viven en comunidades urbanas. Su centro administrativo y ciudad más grande es Lille. La segunda ciudad más grande es Calais, que sirve como un importante centro económico / de transporte continental con Dover de Gran Bretaña a 42 kilómetros (26 millas) de distancia, lo que convierte a Nord-Pas-de-Calais en la conexión europea continental más cercana a la isla de Gran Bretaña. Otras ciudades importantes son Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkerque, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai y Saint-Omer. La región aparece en numerosas películas, entre ellas Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.


Historia del ferrocarril y preservación de amp - EE. UU. Y amp Canadá

American Steam Railroad Preservation Association: organización educativa sin fines de lucro dedicada a preservar, exhibir y operar equipos ferroviarios históricos, incluida la locomotora de vapor Frisco # 1352

American Time Table and Train Order System, The - Historia del papel clave del telégrafo en un sistema exclusivo de operación ferroviaria de América del Norte.

Sociedad Histórica de Amtrak: preservando la historia de Amtrak

Asociación de museos ferroviarios: lidera el avance del patrimonio ferroviario a través de la educación y la promoción

Subastas en eBay: más de 100.000 objetos de colección y artículos ferroviarios que incluyen anuncios antiguos, mapas, horarios, boletos, certificados de acciones, relojes, relojes, letreros, linternas, utensilios, candados, indumentaria y más.

Birney Safety Car Museum: historia, fotos y modelos del carro de un solo camión Birney desarrollado en la década de 1910

Bridgehunter.com: base de datos de puentes y túneles históricos en todo Estados Unidos

Puentes, estaciones y túneles: guía de las estructuras ferroviarias más antiguas, más largas, más altas y más grandes

Budd-RDC.org - Fotos, historial e información operativa actual sobre los coches diésel de Budd Rail (RDC)

Canada By Rail: organización de ferrocarriles turísticos canadienses, museos, sociedades históricas, operadores turísticos ferroviarios, estaciones de tren históricas y sitios patrimoniales.

Canadian Railroad Historical Association (CRHA): preservación y difusión de información sobre el patrimonio ferroviario en Canadá, con muchas divisiones que organizan sus propias reuniones, proyectos y actividades.

Música ferroviaria canadiense: lista de música ferroviaria canadiense que incluye canciones clásicas, folclóricas y country

Canadian Street Railways: historia de los ferrocarriles urbanos y los ferrocarriles eléctricos interurbanos en Canadá

Carknocker Railroad Stories - Historias y fotos por ferrocarril carmen

Carolwood Pacific Historical Society: dedicada a preservar el legado ferroviario personal de Walt Disney

Museo de Historia Fotográfica del Ferrocarril del Pacífico Central - Historia del Ferrocarril Transcontinental y la unión de los Ferrocarriles Central y Union Pacific el 10 de mayo de 1869 en Promontory Summit, Utah

Chapel Cars of America: unas trece iglesias sobre rieles que siguieron los ferrocarriles hacia el oeste desde 1890 hasta la década de 1940 y llevaron el evangelio y los sacramentos a las personas que vivían a lo largo de las vías.

Streamliners clásicos: artículos y fotos que celebran trenes de pasajeros antiguos, vagones privados, viajes en tren, ferrocarriles turísticos y más

Conrail Cabins & Cabooses - Intercambie información sobre la flota de cabinas y furgones de Conrail

Historia corporativa de los ferrocarriles en América del Norte: gráficos corporativos (familiares) para investigar una familia en particular o nombres individuales de ferrocarriles

Sitio de Dan's Wigwag: historia, fotos y ubicaciones de las señales de paso a nivel de Wigwag Flagman sobrevivientes en todo EE. UU.

Peligro por delante: desastres ferroviarios históricos: una investigación de accidentes ferroviarios importantes desde los primeros días del transporte ferroviario hasta el presente

Diésel de Schenectady: dedicado al pasado y al presente de Alcos con fotos e información

Driving the Last Spike - Historia del Museo de la Ciudad de San Francisco

Primeros ferrocarriles: récords y primeros pasos para la construcción y operación de ferrocarriles en los EE. UU. Y en todo el mundo

F40PH Preservation Society: conserva la historia y los artefactos relacionados con las locomotoras diésel F40PH de Amtrak

Banderas caídas y otras fotos de ferrocarriles: amplias galerías de fotos de banderas caídas en toda América del Norte

FallnFlags: fotos de la locomotora norte anteriores a Burlington, que cubren especialmente el Great Northern Railroad, que incluye los esquemas de pintura Great Northern Sky Blue y Orange, Northern Pacific, Spokane Portland y Seattle, y Burlington

Ferrocarriles olvidados: proyecto en curso para investigar, rastrear y mapear abandonos de ferrocarriles

Amigos del ferrocarril del norte de Burlington - Sociedad histórica centrada en el BN y BNSF

Trabajos de locomotoras de vapor con engranajes: preservando y promocionando información sobre locomotoras de vapor con engranajes construidas en Norteamérica, incluidas Shay, Heisler, Climax, Byers, Gilbert, Dunkirk, Willamette, Davenport, Baldwin, Bell y más

Sociedad Internacional para la Preservación de la Mujer en el Ferrocarril - La exhibición itinerante ofrece una mirada educativa al mundo de las mujeres ferroviarias.

Grupo de interés especial de la industria del hierro y el acero: grupo para aquellos interesados ​​en los ferrocarriles de acerías y también en las propias acerías, tanto los aficionados a los prototipos como los modeladores son bienvenidos.

Biblioteca Nacional del Ferrocarril John W. Barriger III - Biblioteca especial dentro de la Biblioteca Mercantil de St. Louis en la Universidad de Missouri - St. Louis

Johnson Farebox Company: historia y fotos de las cajas de tarifas de Johnson y Cleveland que se encuentran en muchos tranvías, tranvías y autobuses hasta la década de 1960

Registros de locomotoras: guía de las locomotoras de vapor más antiguas, rápidas, pesadas, grandes y potentes

Ferrocarriles madereros de América del Norte: lista de todas las operaciones ferroviarias madereras conocidas en América del Norte

Sociedad de Preservación de Locomotoras de la Marina Mercante - Dedicada a las actividades del MNLPS, propietarios y operadores de la locomotora MN Class 35028 "Clan line"

Merci Train - Fotos e historia del tren de 49 vagones lleno de regalos, entregado por Francia a los EE. UU. En 1948

Mike's Railway History: extensa historia de los ferrocarriles mundiales hasta mediados de la década de 1930 por Michael Irlam

Archivos de ferrocarriles multimodales: colección de mapas escaneados, gráficos de vías y varios documentos de los ferrocarriles norteamericanos pasados ​​y presentes

National Railway Historical Society (NRHS): sitio oficial de la organización histórica nacional de EE. UU.

Asociación de Operadores de Automóviles de América del Norte - Dedicada a la preservación y operación segura y legal de equipos ferroviarios, históricamente utilizados en el mantenimiento de vías.

Árboles genealógicos de los ferrocarriles de América del Norte: cronología de los predecesores de los ferrocarriles de América del Norte

Asociación Histórica de Ferrocarriles del Pacífico Norte - Dedicada a preservar la historia del primer ferrocarril transcontinental del norte de Estados Unidos.

Trenes de antaño: preservando el patrimonio ferroviario canadiense con artículos, historias, fotografías y más

Pacific Railway Act, The - Una ley de 1862 para ayudar en la construcción de una línea de ferrocarril y telégrafo desde el río Missouri hasta el Océano Pacífico

Coche PCC - No tan estándar - Historial y fotos de coches PCC

Coches PCC - Fotos e información sobre coches PCC por Gerard Scheltens

Pennsy Railcar Restorations LLC: proporciona consultoría en el sitio y fuera del sitio para la adquisición, transporte y restauración de vagones.

Lista de vagones de ferrocarril eléctricos preservados de América del Norte: base de datos de búsqueda de vagones de ferrocarril eléctricos de América del Norte conservados con especificaciones de los vagones, historial de propiedad y fotos

Biblioteca Pullman: más de un millón de dibujos, especificaciones originales, correspondencia, fotos y documentación relacionada con los vagones de carga y pasajeros Pullman y Pullman-Standard Illinois Railway Museum, Union, Illinois

Marcadores históricos de vías férreas y tranvías: lista de marcas de carreteras y otros marcadores permanentes relacionados con las vías férreas con texto, fotos, mapas, información detallada sobre la ubicación y comentarios

Historia de los vagones de ferrocarril: publica libros electrónicos sobre vagones de ferrocarril y temas relacionados

Asociación Evangélica Ferroviaria - Compañerismo ferroviario cristiano no confesional y no partidista

RailRoad Genealogical Society: dedicada a localizar, compilar y preservar todos los registros pertenecientes a los empleados de los ferrocarriles históricos de Estados Unidos.

Blog Railroad Heritage: cubre tanto ferrocarriles modernos como antiguos, con recorridos por equipos, fotos antiguas y noticias de preservación.

Archivo de mapas de ferrocarriles: mapas históricos de ferrocarriles de todo EE. UU., Disponibles gratis en la Universidad de Alabama

Colección de mapas ferroviarios: más de 600 mapas ferroviarios de 1828-1900 de los archivos de la Biblioteca del Congreso

Apodos de los ferrocarriles: guía para los apodos que se han dado a los ferrocarriles norteamericanos pasados ​​y presentes

Policía ferroviaria: promueve la historia de la policía ferroviaria

Sitio de señales ferroviarias: fotografías detalladas y descripciones de las luces de búsqueda, luces de colores, meneo de peluca y luces giratorias de ferrocarril.

Señalización y comunicaciones ferroviarias: fotos e información sobre una variedad de señales ferroviarias y equipos de comunicaciones.

Railroad Station Historical Society, Inc: compilaciones de estructuras ferroviarias / ferroviarias existentes en EE. UU. Y Canadá, investigación histórica sobre depósitos, referencias sobre estructuras ferroviarias y más

Página de inicio de la estación de ferrocarril, The: dedicada a la arquitectura y la historia de las estaciones de ferrocarril de todo el mundo.

Historias de ferrocarriles: colección de historias de ferrocarriles de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX

Railroad.net - Docenas de foros de Railfan, postales, galería de fotos de prototipos y más

RailroadRob.net - Tarjetas y documentos antiguos de ferrocarriles, historia del servicio de tranvía en Grand Rapids MI y una guía de hoteles y complejos turísticos de especial interés para los ferroviarios y viajeros.

Sociedad histórica de ferrocarriles y locomotoras: promueve la investigación y fomenta la conservación de la documentación pertinente a la historia empresarial, las finanzas, la historia laboral, la biografía y la tecnología.

Servicio de correo ferroviario: historial de entrega de correo por ferrocarril, del USPS

Railway Preservation News - Revista en línea de historia y preservación ferroviaria, editada por Bob Yarger

Ferrocarriles en la música - Historia de los ferrocarriles en la música, por Philip Scowcroft

Archivos de Railways of Canada: preservando la historia de los ferrocarriles canadienses con docenas de artículos y fotos

RailwaySurgery.org: conserva la historia de los cirujanos y hospitales ferroviarios, y educa al público sobre su trabajo y contribuciones a la medicina.

Colección de mapas raros: mapas de ferrocarriles históricos disponibles en línea en la Universidad de Georgia

Rutas ferroviarias récord: guía de las pendientes ferroviarias más altas, empinadas y largas del mundo

Archivo ferroviario de Richard Leonard: fotos y comentarios sobre las locomotoras de vapor que operaban en la década de 1950 en los ferrocarriles de América del Norte, incluidos CB&Q, CPR, GTW, IC, NKP, NYC y UP

Richard's Parlor Car: dedicado a la historia de varios automóviles de pasajeros de América del Norte, en su mayoría canadienses, CNR, CPR y algunos estadounidenses

Richard's Planet Sleeping-Car: información histórica y datos sobre varios coches dormitorio y salón operados por Canadian National, Canadian Pacific y Pullman en Canadá, EE. UU. Y México

RRSignal.com: información y fotos de señales, equipos CTC, relés y más

Semaphores.com - Lista extensa de semáforos vivos y de museo, fotos, historia de semáforos y más

Slim Rails: fotos e información sobre ferrocarriles de vía estrecha, incluidos Carson y Colorado, Durango y Silverton, East Tennessee y Western North Carolina y East Broad Top

St. Nicholas Mountain: uno de los seis vagones de observación con ventanas altas construidos por American Car & Foundry para Mid-Century Empire Builder, que ahora está siendo restaurado para viajes en vagones privados.

Steam en las Américas: cubre las perspectivas de vapor en funcionamiento y casi en funcionamiento en las Américas, además de destacar algunas locomotoras de vapor y reliquias conservadas.

SteamLocomotive.com: guía extensa sobre locomotoras de vapor sobrevivientes en América del Norte, incluidas las locomotoras actualmente en funcionamiento y en restauración

Streamliner Memories: folletos, anuncios, horarios, menús y boletos de ferrocarriles de las décadas de 1950 y 1960.

Horarios Streamliner - Horarios de los Streamliners desde mediados de la década de 1930 hasta finales de la década de 1960

Tap Lines: ofrece libros de ferrocarril escaneados para historiadores y modeladores, incluidas guías oficiales, registros de equipos y listas de constructores de locomotoras en CD y DVD.

Sociedad técnica para la seguridad y la señalización de las operaciones ferroviarias: el enfoque en la seguridad y la señalización incluye una lista de los nombres de los ferrocarriles, información de naufragios / incidentes e información histórica sobre señalización y pasos a nivel.

The Birney Car - Libro en línea con listas e historia de tranvías por estado

The Caboose Page - Fotos de furgones e información sobre su uso

The Diesel Shop: fuente completa de listas de potencia motriz y locomotoras de primera generación

The Yard Limit: American Diesel Switchers - Guía del observador, galería de fotos, noticias y más

Películas de trenes: guía de más de 130 películas clásicas de trenes, muchas ahora raras y agotadas, incluidos detalles sobre lugares de rodaje y ferrocarriles, estaciones y equipos destacados

Train Records: guía de los trenes más rápidos, largos y pesados ​​de la historia mundial y de EE. UU.

Train Wrecks: guía de los choques, descarrilamientos y accidentes más tempranos, mortales y extraños

Transcontinental Railroad, The - Historia de los líderes, fundadores y trabajadores de Central Pacific Railroad

Planificación del transporte y despacho de trenes: información histórica y técnica sobre despacho, planificación y gestión de trenes.

Trolley Cars Dot Com: proyectos de restauración, preservación y más

Verdadera historia de Casey Jones, The - Publicado en "Erie Railroad Magazine" (abril de 1928)

Union Pacific Historical Society - Preservación de la historia de Union Pacific Railroad desde su inicio en 1862 hasta la operación tal como es hoy.

Union Pacific History & Photos - Historia del ferrocarril Union Pacific (UP), equipo ferroviario histórico y fotos

Página de inicio del patrimonio industrial de Vagel Keller: información histórica y de modelos sobre las industrias del carbón, el hierro y el acero y el ferrocarril de Estados Unidos


Ferrocarril del Norte de Francia - Historia

    (d-maps.com)
  • Atlas des colonies françaises, protectorats et territorios sous mandat de la France, 1934 (G. Grandidier)
  • Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu & # 8217à nos jours (Auguste Longnon, 1907) Colección (Biblioteca del Congreso) (Colección de mapas digitales de la Biblioteca de la Sociedad Geográfica Estadounidense) (Colección de mapas de David Rumsey) (WHKMLA) (Gallica - Bibliothèque nationale de France) (Universidad de Columbia) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1923) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico de la Europa moderna, c.1900) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico de la Europa moderna , c.1900) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905)
  • Francia alrededor de 1035 (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico. C.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico. C.1900) (Droysens. 1886) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926)
  • Francia en el siglo XIII (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico de la Europa moderna, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico de la Europa moderna, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Atlas histórico de la Europa moderna, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (Muir & # 8217s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (R. Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Muir & # 8217s Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926 ) (Robert Labberton, Nuevo Atlas Histórico e Historia General, 1886) (Charles Colbeck, Atlas Histórico de las Escuelas Públicas, 1905)
  • La France en 1461 (à la mort de Charles VII) (Mirot, Manuel de géographie historique de la France, 1947) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (The British Library) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Muir & # 8217s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 ) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (J. Bartholomew, A Literary & amp Historical Atlas of Europe, 1910) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) ( William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico, 1926) (William Shepherd, Atlas histórico , 1926) (Cambridge Modern Atlas de Historia, 1912) (Atlas de Historia Moderna de Cambridge, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Atlas de Historia Moderna de Cambridge, 1912) (Atlas de Historia Moderna de Cambridge, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Atlas de Historia Moderna de Cambridge , 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge. 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

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Atlas de Francia

La República francesa à la suite d'un long processus d'évolution étalé sur près de 2000 ans d'histoire, est un État d’Europe dont le territoire métropolitain est situé en Europe de l’Ouest. La France est - parmi tous les grands États européens - le plus anciennement constitué, autour d’un domaine royal initlement centré sur l’Île-de-France, sa capitale étant Paris.

França es un país de l'Euròpa occidentala, es la pàtria del pòble francés e forma un estat. França es, demèst totes los grands Estats europencs, lo mai ancianament constituat, a l'entorn d'un domeni reial inicialament centrat sus l'Illa-de-França, que sa capitala istorica e culturala es uèi París.

La República Francesa, és un estat d'Europa el territori metropolità del qual és situat en l'Europa de l'oest. França és - dins el conjunt dels països més grans d'Europa - el més antigament constituit, a l'entorn d'un domini reial inicialment centrat en l'illa de França, la seva capital és París. Catalunya-nord esdevé francesa el 1659 amb el tractat dels Pirineus (Tractat no oficial perquè no ha estat mai aprovat per les Corts Catalanes de Barcelona).

Frankriich isch e Land, wo im weschtliche Europa leit. Es het ebbis meh wie sächzig Millione Ywohner un isch 543.965 km² groß un 's isch nooch Russland und dr Ukraine es dritt gröscht Land fun Europa. Es Elsass isch e Stickel fun Frankriich un d'r Sproch, wo mer spricht, isch Elsässerditsch.

los República Francesa es un país cuyo territorio metropolitano está ubicado en Europa Occidental y que también comprende varias islas y territorios de ultramar ubicados en otros continentes. La Francia metropolitana se extiende desde el Mar Mediterráneo hasta el Canal de la Mancha y el Mar del Norte, y desde el Rin hasta el Océano Atlántico. Francia limita con ► Bélgica (► Flandes y ► Valonia), ► Luxemburgo, ► Alemania, ► Suiza, ► Italia (con ► Valle de Aosta), ► Mónaco, ► Andorra y ► España (con ► Cataluña, ► Navarra y ► País Vasco.En algunos de sus departamentos de ultramar, Francia también comparte fronteras terrestres con ► Brasil, ► Surinam y ► Sint Maarten (un país constituyente del Reino de los Países Bajos). Francia también está vinculada al ► Reino Unido a través del Canal Túnel, que pasa por debajo del Canal de la Mancha.
Francia incluye también las regiones / departamentos de ultramar de ► Guadalupe, ► Guayana Francesa, ► Martinica y ► Reunión, la colectividad / región de ultramar de ► Córcega, así como ► Polinesia Francesa, país de ultramar, ► Nueva Caledonia, entidad sui generis, ► Mayotte, colectividad departamental y las demás colectividades de ultramar de ► Saint-Barthélemy, ► Saint-Martin, ► Saint-Pierre y Miquelon, ► Wallis y Futuna, así como los territorios deshabitados de ► la isla de Clipperton y el ► sur y antártico francés Tierras.


Ferroviarios en Olive Drab: El servicio ferroviario militar en la Segunda Guerra Mundial

En julio de 1861, el general de brigada confederado Joseph E. Johnston demostró dramáticamente la importancia de los ferrocarriles en la guerra moderna cuando trasladó a 12.000 tropas por ferrocarril desde la estación Piedmont (ahora Delaplane), Virginia, a Manassas Junction, una distancia de unas cincuenta millas, para reforzar las fuerzas confederadas se reunieron al suroeste de Washington, DC. El movimiento tomó solo alrededor de un tercio del tiempo que les habría tomado a las tropas cubrir esa distancia marchando, y llegaron listos para luchar. Los refuerzos sorprendieron a las fuerzas de la Unión y contribuyeron a la victoria rebelde el 21 de julio en la Primera Batalla de Bull Run. No fue más que el primer esfuerzo para transportar un gran número de soldados durante la Guerra Civil por ferrocarril. Los ferrocarriles eran tan importantes que el Departamento de Guerra organizó los Ferrocarriles Militares de EE. UU. Y el Cuerpo de Construcción de Ferrocarriles para reparar, operar y mantener las líneas ferroviarias a medida que el Ejército de la Unión se movía hacia el territorio confederado. Ambas organizaciones dependían en gran medida de ejecutivos e ingenieros ferroviarios experimentados que fueron comisionados como oficiales voluntarios y trabajaron bajo la supervisión del Intendente General del Ejército de la Unión, el Mayor General Montgomery C. Meigs.

El concepto de comisionar a hombres ferroviarios experimentados en el Ejército continuó en la Primera Guerra Mundial bajo los auspicios del Servicio de Ferrocarriles Militares (MRS) operado por el Cuerpo de Ingenieros. Los coroneles regulares del ejército comandaban regimientos de ingenieros organizados como unidades ferroviarias. Los ferroviarios profesionales comisionados como tenientes coroneles sirvieron como oficiales ejecutivos del regimiento. Entre la Primera y la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el Cuerpo de Ingenieros determinó que el regimiento no era la mejor organización para operar ferrocarriles. Los oficiales de la Reserva de Ingenieros que eran hombres del ferrocarril en sus carreras civiles ayudaron a diseñar unidades apropiadas para las operaciones ferroviarias militares. Decidieron utilizar el elemento organizativo más bajo de los ferrocarriles estadounidenses, las divisiones, como base de la nueva organización. En una división de ferrocarriles, un superintendente tenía la responsabilidad de mantener las vías principales, apartaderos, terminales, tiendas y estructuras requeridas para operar trenes sobre una sección designada de la línea ferroviaria. La división también mantuvo y operó las locomotoras y los vagones. Ferroviarios profesionales e ingenieros del Ejército diseñaron un batallón de operaciones ferroviarias que reflejaba las funciones de la división ferroviaria civil.

La misión de un batallón de operaciones ferroviarias era administrar y mantener una sección designada de un ferrocarril militar en un teatro de operaciones. Sin embargo, a diferencia de los ferrocarriles civiles, los batallones también debían estar preparados para destruir la línea que operaban. En general, un batallón de operaciones ferroviarias podía mantener y operar entre noventa y 150 millas de ferrocarril de vía única, aunque su área real de responsabilidad en tiempos de guerra dependía de la situación militar. Cuando realizaba operaciones ferroviarias en áreas amigas o en territorio ocupado, el batallón utilizaba empleados ferroviarios calificados y técnicos civiles locales para aumentar sus capacidades, pero tenían que ser supervisados ​​por personal militar para protegerse contra posibles sabotajes. También presentó desafíos para los soldados-ferroviarios estadounidenses de habla inglesa que no siempre estaban familiarizados con la forma en que otros países operaban sus ferrocarriles.

La organización de un batallón de operaciones ferroviarias era paralela a un batallón típico del Ejército con una compañía de cuartel general y tres o cuatro compañías con letras. Cada empresa tenía una organización única con capacidades específicas correspondientes a la organización de una división ferroviaria civil. La empresa de la sede envió trenes, suministros y señales. La Compañía A reparó y mantuvo la vía y el equipo asociado, como interruptores, puentes, tanques de agua, equipos de señalización y edificios. La compañía tenía dos pelotones, uno para el mantenimiento de puentes y edificios y otro para mantener la pista. La Compañía B operaba la casa circular y reparó y mantuvo el material rodante: locomotoras y automóviles. También tenía dos pelotones, uno para reparar locomotoras y otro para reparar coches. Las locomotoras y los vagones de ferrocarril no se asignaron al batallón, sino que se movieron a través de todo el sistema ferroviario según fuera necesario. La Compañía C era la unidad más grande del batallón con dos pelotones, cada uno de los cuales tenía veinticinco tripulaciones para operar trenes, patios y estaciones en el área de responsabilidad del batallón. En áreas del mundo donde había una gran cantidad de trenes eléctricos, como Europa, se podría agregar una Compañía D al batallón para mantener el sistema de suministro eléctrico.

La organización del batallón no solo reflejaba la división ferroviaria civil, sino que la tabla de organización relacionaba las posiciones militares con sus contrapartes civiles. El comandante del batallón, un teniente coronel, era equivalente a un superintendente de división en un ferrocarril comercial. Los comandantes de compañía, todos capitanes, se equiparaban a sus contrapartes en los ferrocarriles civiles: un ingeniero de división al mando de la Compañía A, un maestro mecánico al mando de la Compañía B, y un maestro de trenes al mando de la Compañía C. Los líderes de pelotón tenían especialidades civiles designadas similares. Muchos de los soldados alistados eran ferroviarios experimentados que realizaban esencialmente los mismos trabajos en el ejército que en sus profesiones civiles. Si bien el énfasis estaba en el ferrocarril, los soldados asistieron al entrenamiento básico de combate y todos los batallones realizaron entrenamiento disciplinario, físico, de combate y técnico de acuerdo con los manuales de campo apropiados del Ejército.

Para encontrar y entrenar oficiales y hombres para los nuevos batallones, el Cuerpo de Ingenieros desarrolló un Plan de Afiliación mediante el cual los ferrocarriles comerciales en los Estados Unidos patrocinaban unidades específicas en el MRS. Según el plan, un ferrocarril comercial nombró a los oficiales en función de sus deberes técnicos. Después de pasar un examen físico, fueron comisionados como oficiales de la Reserva en el Ejército y asignados a puestos apropiados en el batallón patrocinado por el ferrocarril para proporcionar un cuadro de hombres ferroviarios profesionales.

El siguiente cuartel general superior para un batallón de operaciones ferroviarias era una gran división ferroviaria que correspondía a la oficina de un superintendente general en un ferrocarril civil y supervisaba las operaciones de varias divisiones. Una gran división generalmente incluía tres o cuatro batallones operativos, un batallón de taller y una compañía de depósito base. Los batallones de talleres se encargaban de las reparaciones importantes, la construcción y la revisión del equipo, mientras que la empresa del depósito de la base proporcionaba los suministros. Los teatros de operaciones con más de una gran división establecieron una sede de MRS.

El 18 de junio de 1941, el Ejército organizó el 711 ° Batallón de Operaciones Ferroviarias, el primero de su tipo, en Fort Belvoir, Virginia. A diferencia de otros batallones de operaciones ferroviarias, no contaba con una empresa civil que lo patrocinara. La intención era rotar a los oficiales y hombres alistados a través del batallón para períodos cortos de servicio para entrenamiento. Oficiales de diez ferrocarriles estadounidenses diferentes formaban parte del batallón, y un cuadro de veintiocho hombres alistados provenían del Destacamento de la Escuela de Ingenieros en Fort Belvoir. Varios cientos de hombres con experiencia en ferrocarriles también fueron asignados desde el Centro de Reemplazo de Ingenieros en el puesto. A los cuarenta y ocho días de la activación, el batallón había rehabilitado el ferrocarril de intendencia de cuatro millas y media que había sido abandonado durante mucho tiempo y que servía al puesto. El trabajo incluyó reemplazar miles de durmientes, reparar varios puentes e instalar veinte alcantarillas. Su siguiente tarea fue un poco más desafiante.

El batallón se trasladó a Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, en agosto de 1941, donde comenzó a trabajar en una instalación de entrenamiento para batallones de operación ferroviaria cuando fueron llamados al servicio activo. El trabajo comenzó utilizando equipo de movimiento de tierras alquilado operado por soldados en el 711 hasta que el equipo del Ejército estuvo disponible. La primera vía se colocó en septiembre, y en octubre, los Batallones de Ingenieros 91 y 93, ambos tripulados por soldados afroamericanos, llegaron para ayudar con la construcción. Más de 6.000 soldados trabajaron en la línea. Durante la construcción del ferrocarril, los Batallones de Ingenieros 98, 383 y 331, así como varias compañías de camiones de volteo, trabajaron en el proyecto. El 11 de julio de 1942, una ceremonia de "punta de oro" marcó la finalización de cincuenta millas de nivelación y colocación de vías entre Camp Claiborne y Fort Polk. Conocido como el Ferrocarril C & ampP para Claiborne y Polk, los aprendices lo llamaron el "Crimen y Castigo" o el "Peor Ferrocarril de la Tierra" porque fue construido sobre un terreno inestable, lo que hace que los descarrilamientos sean comunes. Para hacer el entrenamiento más realista, los veinticinco puentes a lo largo de la línea fueron volados periódicamente para que los equipos de mantenimiento de los batallones en entrenamiento pudieran reconstruirlos. El C & ampP incluyó patios ferroviarios en cada extremo de la línea e instalaciones de la casa de máquinas en Camp Claiborne. La línea de telégrafo y teléfono utilizada para enviar trenes fue erigida por el 26 ° Batallón de Construcción de Señales. El material rodante incluía nueve locomotoras que queman petróleo y casi 100 vagones, incluidos autocares, góndolas, furgones, vagones planos, vagones frigoríficos y furgones.

Después de que Estados Unidos entró en la Segunda Guerra Mundial en diciembre de 1941, el Ejército activó batallones de operación ferroviaria adicionales bajo el Plan de Afiliación. In March 1942, the 727th Railway Operating Battalion, sponsored by the Southern Railway Company, became the first battalion to be activated after the war began, followed in April by the 713th, affiliated with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Most of the officers and many of the enlisted men were experienced railroaders, but the new battalions included men drawn from Army training centers who needed to be trained. The newly organized battalions also had to learn how to operate efficiently as units, so the War Department contracted with commercial railroads to provide on-the-job training. For example, an Army train crew would accompany a train manned by civilians to learn operating rules and railroad techniques. The same procedure was followed for other specialties in the battalion with soldiers working alongside their civilian counterparts to learn the basics of railroading. The 713th trained on the Santa Fe line near Clovis, New Mexico, while the 727th went to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to train on the Southern Railroad between Meridian, Mississippi, and New Orleans, Louisiana. When the 730th Railway Operating Battalion was activated in May, its sponsoring company, the Pennsylvania Railroad, trained the unit on its line near Fort Wayne, Indiana.

As the war effort increased, the War Department activated additional railway units including grand divisions to coordinate operations in overseas theaters of operations and shop battalions to support the operating battalions. In November 1942, the Transportation Corps assumed responsibility for the MRS. During World War II, the MRS operated in every theater of operations where there were American forces. At its peak, it included eleven grand divisions, thirty-three railway operating battalions, and eleven railway shop battalions. A variety of engineer, signal, and military police units provided support to the railroaders.

In September 1942, a detachment of men from the 713th and 727th Railway Operating Battalions became the first soldier railroaders to deploy outside the contiguous United States when they left Clovis, New Mexico, to assume operations of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad in Alaska. In November, the unit was designated the 770th Railway Operating Detachment. In December, two railway operating battalions deployed to theaters overseas. The 711th, which built the C&P Railroad in Louisiana, went to Iran while the 727th headed for North Africa.

The 711th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Khorramshahr, Iran, a port city on the Persian Gulf, and began operations in January 1943 making up trains and moving them out of the port before taking responsibility for sections of the line. The 711th was joined by the 730th Railway Operating Battalion (Pennsylvania Railroad) and two shop battalions, the 754th (Southern Pacific Company) and 762d (American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Company, Electro-Motive Corporation) Railway Shop Battalions. The 702d Railway Grand Division, staffed mainly by railroad men from the Union Pacific Railroad, coordinated the operations of the four battalions in operating the Iranian State Railway which carried three out of five tons of Lend-Lease material shipped to the Soviet Union through the Persian Corridor during World War II. Although the railway operating battalions were designed to operate ninety to 150 miles of line, in Iran the 711th operated 388 miles, and the 730th 289 miles. Creation of the 1st Provisional Railway Operating Battalion, later designated the 791st Railway Operating Battalion, by taking men from the battalions already in Iran plus personnel from other units in the command who had prewar railroad experience, helped reduce the distances. The new unit took over a 221-mile stretch of mountainous country, leaving the 711th with 258 miles and the 730th with 198, still more than the doctrinal guidelines.

During the time the MRS operated the Iranian State Railway, it handled more than four million long tons of freight. In addition to the freight, special passenger trains carried 16,000 Iranian military personnel, 14,000 Polish war refugees, 40,000 British troops, and 15,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war. During the Muslim holy days from 22 February to 21 April 1944, 21,000 pilgrims traveled on trains operated by the MRS. The last American soldier railroaders left Iran in July 1945.

When the Americans and British began planning for an invasion of North Africa, logisticians estimated that it would require thirty-four trains a day to move 5,000 tons a month from the ports of debarkation at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers to keep Allied forces supplied. The MRS deployed five operating and two shop battalions to keep the required supplies moving. The first railway operating battalion, the 727th, arrived in Africa in December 1942. In January 1943, the 701st Railway Grand Division, sponsored by the New York Central Railroad, was activated at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. After a brief training period in St. Paul monitoring troop trains and studying car records and other documents in the Twin City terminals, the headquarters traveled by train to New York where it boarded the USS Orizaba as part of the Allied forces bound for North Africa. By May, the 701st was in Casablanca where it coordinated the work of three railway operating battalions, the 715th (Illinois Central Railroad), 719th (Texas and New Orleans Railroad Company), and 759th (Missouri Pacific Railroad).

Railroading in North Africa proved to be a challenge. Trains were operated by British, French, and American crews assisted by Arab civilians. With a variety of languages among the railroaders, the crew often used hand signals, although that was not always a solution. For example, the U.S. signal for “go” or “highball it” in railroad terms meant “stop!” in the French system used in North Africa. Another quirk was that French locomotives in North Africa did not have seats for engineers or firemen as American ones did, so crews had to stand for hours on end while they were underway.

In spite of the difficulties, the MRS was moving about 90,000 tons of freight a week by June 1943. At its peak the MRS operated 1,905 miles of railway in North Africa. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, impressed with the work of the soldier-railroaders, wrote that “When we went into North Africa the railway could deliver a maximum of 900 tons of supplies…Yankee energy and modern American methods of operation…increased the daily tonnage to 3000.”

After freeing North Africa from German occupation the Allies’ next move was to Sicily, and MRS personnel went with them. Three days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 the 727th Railway Operating Battalion went ashore at Licata, Sicily, and immediately began work on the Sicilian railway. Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. later wrote that the battalion “organized national rail workers, located equipment, had steam up, and made a reconnaissance of the rail lines four hours after landing.” In its first twenty-four hours of operations, the 727th moved 400 tons of supplies forward to the 3d Infantry Division. By the third day it was moving 800 tons. During the campaign in Sicily, the 727th operated 1,373 miles of railway using 300 locomotives and 3,500 freight cars that carried an average of 3,400 tons a day to supply Seventh Army.

On 9 September 1943, the Allies made their first landing on the European mainland at Salerno, Italy. After encountering heavy German resistance, they spent the rest of the month building up men and supplies in the beachhead in preparation for an offensive to capture the port city of Naples. Three days after the first Allied troops entered Naples, the advance party of the 703d Railway Grand Division (Atlantic Coast Railroad Company) reached the port only to find that the combination of Allied bombing and German demolition had left the rail yard in shambles. Technical Sergeant Louis L. Russel of the 713th Railway Operating Battalion described the scene on Wednesday 6 October: “Charred and twisted cars were strewn around haphazardly, with lengths of rail cross ties still attached, pointing toward the sky.” It was a mess, but the next day, First Lieutenant R.H. Anderson, a yardmaster from Newton, Kansas, was optimistic when he said, “I believe we can get a train out of this by Sunday.” With everybody in the battalion, including conductors, engineers, and firemen working to clear the debris, Anderson proved correct. On Saturday, a test train consisting of an old Italian locomotive pushing five cars moved four miles out of the yard. Four days later, six trains moving an average of 450 tons each, rolled to the forward railhead.

With the rail yard back in operation, Naples became the primary port for supplying Fifth Army. From January through September 1944, an average of 136,567 tons of freight a month moved out of Naples by rail. By July 1944, all of the MRS troops that had been in North Africa were in Italy operating 2,478 miles of railway with an average of 250 military trains a day in addition to civilian passenger and freight service. Fifth Army commander Lieutenant General Mark Clark recognized the contributions of the soldier-railroaders in Italy when he presented them with a plaque in 1944 that read in part: “The services performed by the Allied Force Military Railway Service have contributed materially to the military operation of the Fifth Army.”

At the same time Allied forces were fighting in North Africa and Italy, they began to build up forces in England for an invasion of France. In July 1942, the MRS organized the 761st Transportation Company at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with men taken from the 713th, 727th, and 730th Railway Operating Battalions. In September, the company deployed to Scotland where it operated the Melbourne Military Railway and provided switching service to depots being established by American forces. The first railway operating battalion to arrive in England was the 729th (New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company) in July 1943. By June 1944, when Allied forces landed at Normandy, the MRS had two grand divisions, three operating battalions, and four shop battalions in England. While in England, the American railroaders conducted technical training, prepared American steam and diesel locomotives for use on the continent, and assembled prefabricated railcars shipped from the United States. They also operated sections of the British rail system that carried American troops and supplies.

As in Italy, railroads and yards were prime targets for Allied bombers in the months before the landings in Normandy, France. Two years of bombing raids had destroyed railroad facilities and twisted tracks into extraordinary shapes. Eleven days after the Allies landed on 6 June 1944, a small detachment of MRS troops arrived to assess the railroad facilities in the beachhead, estimate damage to rails and yards, and locate available locomotives. Using a Jeep equipped with flanged wheels, the detachment surveyed the lines from the landing area to the port of Cherbourg. On 2 July, the 729th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Normandy and took over operations at the Cherbourg terminals. Assisted by French engine crews and volunteers, the American railroaders repaired roundhouses, shop buildings, engines, and rolling stock while Army engineers cleared the rail line from Cherbourg to Carentan. Nine days after arriving in France, the 729th operated the first passenger train between the two cities.

The 720th Railway Operating Battalion (Chicago and North Western Railway) arrived in France on 15 July and began to rehabilitate and operate approximately sixty-two miles of track between Bayeux and Lisieux. Three days later, the 757th Railway Shop Battalion (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) went to work at Cherbourg. In August, another three operating battalions and two more shop battalions arrived. By the end of the month, the MRS was operating 1,006 miles of track and had carried 29,450 passengers on 251 trains and moved 136,169 tons of military freight on 991 trains.

On 15 August, the Allies landed in southern France. One of the goals of that operation was to open the ports of Toulon and Marseilles and establish a southern line of communications to augment the flow of equipment and supplies to the Allied armies in Europe. MRS troops supporting the operation came from Italy. Two of the most experienced operating battalions, the 713th and 727th, deployed to Marseilles and began operations at the end of August. Unlike the situations in Italy and northern France, the ports were not heavily damaged by Allied bombing or German demolitions. In October, the MRS operated 1,897 trains hauling 640,561 tons of freight in support of the Sixth Army Group. General Jacob Devers, commanding the army group, commended MRS troops when he wrote: “I want to send my congratulations to you and your splendid achievement in opening and maintaining the railroad system in southern France since the invasion of our forces.”

Grand divisions, operating battalions, and shop battalions continued to deploy to both northern and southern France to support the Allied forces rolling into Germany. As new battalions arrived, the ones already on the continent moved forward behind the advancing armies. In March 1945, the 729th, the first operating battalion to arrive in France, began transporting rail and construction material to Army engineers building a bridge over the Rhine River at Wesel, Germany. On 9 April, the 720th operated the first train across the new bridge. In its first thirty days of operation, 273,141 tons of freight moved east across the bridge while another 403,656 tons and 309,000 displaced persons moved west.

In May 1945, when the war in Europe ended, the MRS included seven grand divisions, twenty-four operating battalions, seven shop battalions, and a variety of depot and maintenance units as well as eight battalions and two separate companies of military police. Between D-Day at Normandy and V-E Day, MRS loaded and moved more than eighteen million tons of military freight. On 7 June 1945, American railroaders were operating 1,937 locomotives, 34,588 freight cars, and 25,150 miles of track in western Europe. Demobilization of railway units began shortly after V-E Day. The largest contingent of American soldier railroaders was in western Europe with more than 26,600 officers and enlisted men serving there by the end of the war. The last MRS unit, the 716th Railway Operating Battalion (Southern Pacific Company) left Europe in February 1946.

In addition to Europe and North Africa, MRS units operated railroads in India, Burma, and the Philippine Islands. Railway units in India supported construction of the Ledo Road and the airfield used for the airlift over the Himalaya Mountains that provided logistical support to the Chinese. They also supported British and the American forces fighting the Japanese in Burma. The 705th Railway Grand Division (Southern Pacific Company) oversaw military rail operations in India and Burma. The division, along with five railway operating battalions, the 721st (New York Central Railroad), 725th (Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company), 726th (Wabash Railroad Company), 745th (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), and 748th (Texas and Pacific Railway company) all sailed from Los Angeles aboard the SS Mariposa in December 1943. After thirty-one days at sea they arrived at Bombay, India, in January 1944 to begin operation of sections of the Bengal and Assam Railway.

In India, each of the five operating battalions managed an average of 133 miles of railway. By implementing American techniques, the tonnage carried by the Bengal and Assam Railway increased forty-six percent in the first twenty-six days after the MRS took over. Compared to American railroads, the Indian system was relatively primitive. A unique aspect of railroading in India was the use of elephants to switch cars when locomotives were not available. India also had little in the way of telegraph, telephone, or signal communications. American railroaders installed modern communications equipment to coordinate the increased train movements. They also added 100 miles of double track to facilitate traffic flow. The improvements paid off. Between February 1944 and September 1945, the MRS moved 6,217,143 tons of freight and operated 5,559 passenger trains. The last American railway units left India in October 1945.

There were no requirements for railway units in the Pacific Theater until the Allies reached the Philippine Islands in late 1944. Shortly after the amphibious landings on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of MRS troops arrived on the island and began to rehabilitate the rail lines so they could operate the Manila Railway Company. The railroad was in terrible condition due to lack of maintenance, American bombing, and Japanese destruction. While Army engineers rebuilt bridges along the rail line, railway troops repaired locomotives and railcars. The Manila Railway Company had about 712 miles of track on Luzon, but the American forces used only 234 of them designated the Luzon Military Railway. The first train on the line ran on 19 January for a distance of about thirty miles. Because there was no coal the locomotives burned driftwood, pulpwood, and coconut hulls.

Railway supplies began to reach Luzon in February, including locomotives, cars, shop machines, and track material. Eventually fifty-three American-built locomotives and 990 cars reached the island. Several mobile railway workshops deployed to Luzon in March, and in April, two operating battalions, the 737th (New York Central) and the 749th (New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company) arrived to operate sections of the Luzon Military Railway. By October, MRS troops in the Philippines reached its peak strength of 3,200 officers and enlisted men and 6,010 civilians. Between 1 June and 31 December, they operated a total of 7,410 trains with 48,131 cars. The Army returned control of the Luzon Military Railway back to the Manila Railway Company on 1 January 1946, and the last MRS personnel left the Philippines three months later.

The Military Railway Service was a remarkable team effort made possible by the Affiliation Program the Army and American railroaders developed in the 1930s and implemented as the clouds of global war appeared on the horizon. During World War II the service operated and maintained railroads in Europe, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that totaled more than 22,000 miles. Some 43,500 soldier-railroaders, most of whom brought years of experience with them, served in the Army in every theater of operations moving personnel and freight, often under enemy fire and through extreme weather conditions. Their efforts proved vital to the Allied victory.


2000-present day

Metros and monorails are thriving within cities. Online ticketing system started in 2000’s and is one of the major ways of booking train ticket, today. 4.5 billion km was additionally covered in just ten years (2001-2010). Now, the train tracks cover more than 120,000 km of area in India and special amenities like Wi-Fi, customer information system, ergogenic designs and green technologies have taken Indian Railways to the next level.

Recent developments of railway system include technological amenities in unreserved class, high horsepower electric locomotive, GPS based passenger information system, sliding doors, private catering services and many others. (Source)

There is always a next step for Indian Railway. By 2019, more than 7000 stations around the world would receive free Wi-Fi service. The technology team is diving deep into finding greener source of powers.


Wheelchairs

Most, if not all, TGV trains have dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, however, they are all located in the first class cars. But fear not, the price is that of second class, so you’ll not be paying extra to travel with a wheelchair. There’s even space for 2 fellow travellers, and the wheelchair area is located close to the wheelchair-accessible toilets.

Almost all stations in France are now fully equipped to accommodate wheelchairs, including ramps and elevators. But it’s important and highly recommendable that you notify the railroad that you are planning to travel with a wheelchair.


North Railway of France - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


“Cock o’ the North”

COMPETITION is always stimulating. There is no question that the competition of other forms of transport has stirred the locomotive engineers considerably. Diesel rail- cars, for example, have established a new mode of high speed transport on rails. Electrification, where traffic conditions are sufficiently dense to warrant the heavy expenditure involved, has been carried out on an extensive scale. Competition from outside the railways, on the roads, and in the air has to be fought unceasingly.

But “King Coal” is determined to hold his own. On a thermal efficiency basis the steam locomotive of traditional design does not rank very high. Even in the best conditions, not much more than seven per cent of the heat units developed by the burning of the coal on the locomotive fire- grate is turned into useful work in moving the locomotive and its train.

There are, as previously explained, many reasons to account for this figure. The use of the exhaust steam to furnish a draught for the fire necessarily means that power for the purpose must be thrown to waste out of the chimney, whereas in a stationary power- station the steam would be condensed, and its heat, at least, would be trapped. Similarly the limitations imposed in length and diameter on the locomotive boiler involve the loss up the chimney of much of the heat from the fire.

Some years ago the locomotive engineers of the Paris- Orleans Railway of France made an exhaustive study of all the features of locomotive design which have a bearing on efficiency. Their study concentrated on the “flow” of the steam from the time it left the boiler until the moment of its rejection, as exhaust, from the chimney. It was realized that much could be done by the use of larger and more direct steam- pipes and passages, and of improved inlet and exhaust valves to the cylinders, to facilitate that flow. Measures could also be taken to speed up the circulation of the water in the boiler, and this would increase the capacity to raise steam.

An existing “Pacific” locomotive was rebuilt in the Paris- Orleans workshops at Tours to embody the results of this research. The effect was startling. The reconditioned engine, though weighing no more than one of the London and North Eastern “Pacifics”, created new standards of combined speed and weight haulage on what was already a very speedy line. It was proved that trains weighing over 800 tons could be hauled not merely to scheduled time but well within it.

HERALD OF A NEW ORDER. The striking appearance of the great LNER locomotive is indicative of the revolutionary changes in design that she embodies. The “Cock o’ the North” was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

A series of these earlier “Pacifics” was reconditioned, and the next experiment was to convert another “Pacific” to the 4- 8- 0 wheel arrangement, with a similar boiler, cylinders, and valves, for working over the extremely difficult route through Central France from Vierzon (to which point the trains are worked electrically from Paris) to Toulouse. Again the results were successful.

These developments attracted attention all over France. Other French railways followed suit, and as some of the Paris- Orleans steam locomotive stock was becoming superfluous, owing to the extension of main line electrification from Paris to Tours as well as Vierzon, the Paris- Orleans rebuilt many more of its “Pacifics” for transfer to the Nord and the Est Companies. The news of these Paris- Orleans transformations spread to England when the London and North Eastern Railway was about to build new locomotives for service over the heavily- graded east coast main line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

This is one of the most difficult main routes, from the locomotive point of view, in Great Britain. Gradients as steep as 1 in 70 abound. There are also numerous sharp curves demanding reductions of speed, most of them at the beginning of long adverse gradients so that the drivers are compelled to slow down severely just when they are in most need of the impetus for the climb that follows.

THE LEADING DIMENSIONS of this 110- ton locomotive, as given in these diagrams were supplied by the courtesy of the LNER Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Department.

From Inverkeithing, for example, after slowing round the curve to twenty miles an hour, drivers of south- bound trains have an ascent for two miles at 1 in 70 on to the Forth Bridge, and north- bound trains face a similar, though shorter, grade up to Dalgetty.

From every intermediate stop, also, the trains have to accelerate up steep gradients, in some cases, indeed - as in both directions from Arbroath and Montrose, and southwards from Aberdeen - long and arduous climbs. The consequence has been that most of the heavy modern East Coast expresses have needed “double- heading” - that is, the provision of an assistant locomotive - over this section. The new type of engine had to be sufficiently powerful to obviate this.

It was decided that to give an increased tractive force to enable the engines to get away more rapidly from these frequent stops and slowings, and also to move these heavy trains at higher speeds up the banks, the driving wheels should be reduced in diameter from the 6 ft 8 in of the “Pacifics” to 6 ft 2 in, and the diameter of the cylinders increased from the 19 in of the high- pressure “Pacifics” to 21 in. The next essential was to provide greater adhesion, so that this increased power might be transmitted to the rails without slipping, and the decision was made to use eight- coupled instead of six- coupled driving wheels.

These points are important, as “Cock o’ the North” was not designed, as has been widely supposed, for high- speed long- distance running, but for the difficult conditions of the Edinburgh- Aberdeen route. It was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

However desirable it might have been to provide the engine with a leading four- wheeled bogie, the increased length would have made it necessary to replace the turntables along the route by tables of larger diameter. It was not thought necessary to incur this additional expense, and the locomotive was therefore designed, like the “Moguls”, with a two- wheeled radial truck at the leading end. Another pair of wheels at the rear end carries the immense firebox, and the wheel arrangement of the engine is thus the 2- 8- 2, or “ikado” type, as it is generally known.

Examination of the internal economy of the “Cock o’ the North” shows that the designer of this notable locomotive - Mr. H. N. Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LNER, - has adapted to British conditions certain of the principles which proved so effective on the Paris- Orleans Railway, and has incorporated them in the engine.

THE TENDER contains an automatic water pickup apparatus (shown dotted) to the left of the coal- space.

HEAD- ON DIMENSIONS should be compared with the fine view of this locomotive shown below.

The fine sectional picture of the engine, which appears below, reveals what a mass of detail has been crowded within the smooth external casing of the locomotive. It also shows the difficulties experienced by the designer of the modern locomotive in compressing, within the narrow limits of the British loading gauge, all the working parts of an engine capable of exerting over 2,000 hp on the draw- bar of it train.

The magnificent centre- spread to this photogravure supplement: a fine broadside photograph of No.2001 and a corresponding sectioned cut- away drawing of the locomotive. In addition to the explanatory tabs, there are a further 52 numbered items, each identified by the key in the top right hand corner of the centre- spread.

At a working pressure of 220 lb per sq in, steam passes from the boiler through a series of long narrow slots up into a cavity of pressed steel, which has been riveted on to the top of the boiler at the rear of the dome. From the regulator the steam passes into a main steam- pipe having the unusually large diameter of 7 in. The next stage of its journey is through a 43- element superheater, from which it is led down to the cylinders.

Large poppet- valves of 8- in diameter admit the steam to the cylinders, and 9- in valves are provided for the exhaust the valves are worked by a rotary cam arrangement, instead of the ordinary Walschaerts valve- motion.

The last stage of the journey of the steam is into a blast pipe which branches into two, leading up to a double chimney which has three telescopic sections from the bottom to the top, and is known as the “K.C.” blast- pipe, after its designer, Monsieur K. Chapelon [ sic ], of the Paris- Orleans Railway.

All these arrangements so facilitate the passage of the steam that the engine is capable of doing high- speed work with heavy trains at no more than ten per cent cut- off - that is to say, steam is admitted for one- tenth of the stroke only, and for the remaining nine- tenths does its work by expansion.

FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE “COCK O' THE NORTH”. Cylinders (three) diameter 21in stroke 26 in. Driving wheels, diameter 6 ft 2 in. Heating surface, tubes and flues, 2,477 sq ft firebox, 237 sq ft superheater, 776.5 sq ft total, 3,490.5 sq ft. Firegrate area, 50 sq ft. Working pressure, per sq in, 220 lb. Tractive effort (at 85 per cent working pressure), 43,460 lb. Adhesion weight, 80½ tons. Weight of engine (in working order) 110¼ tons. Coal capacity of tender, 8 tons. Water, 5,000 gals. Weight of engine and tender, 165½ tons. Length of engine and tender (overall), 73 ft 8½ in.

One result of this ultra- short cut- off working is that the pressure at which the steam is finally exhausted is very low, and there would be a tendency for it to drift along the top level of the boiler and obscure the front windows of the driver’s cab, were special precautions not taken to prevent this. It is here that the external casing at the front end of the engine, with its wings on either side of the smoke- box, serves both as streamlining and also to make a strong up- current of ail when the engine is running at speed, which lifts the exhaust steam from the double chimney, and carries it well clear of the cab.

The cab- front also is V- shaped, to assist in the streamlining effect, but, despite the enormous size of the boiler, there is an excellent look- out ahead. Inside the external boiler casing there is found another aid to efficiency in the feed- water heater, of the A.C.F.I. type, which uses some of the exhaust steam in order to heat up the feed- water on its way from the tender into the boiler. This means that less heat is required inside the boiler to convert the feed- water into steam.

A novelty is provided in the shape of a chime whistle in front of the chimney, which was the only convenient place in which it could be put. The tender is of the standard LNER eight- wheeled type. “Cock o’ the North” is the heaviest locomotive built, up to the time of writing, for passenger service in Great Britain, and weighs 110¼ tons in running trim with the tender the total weight is 165½ tons.

Shortly after the “Cock o’ the North” had emerged from Doncaster Works, a test run was made, with a train weighing 650 tons, from King’s Cross to Barkstone, just beyond Grantham, and back. The long gradient to Stoke Summit, partly at 1 in 200 and partly at 1 in 178, was surmounted at an average speed of a mile- a- minute for the whole distance, and without speed at any time falling below 56 miles an hour. The engine developed at the draw- bar the hitherto unprecedented figure for Great Britain of 2,090 hp.

Whether we like it or not, locomotive fashions are fast altering. Both internally and externally revolutionary changes are being made, and from recent developments - of which the “Cock o’ the North” is only one example - it is clear that we must accustom ourselves to locomotives unlike those which have become familiar.

Those who lament the radical external changes in locomotive design sometimes forget that higher and even higher speeds are being called for in this hurrying age. The greater the speed the more potent is the resistance of the air through which the vehicle passes. Streamlining has become essential for all vehicles designed for rapid motion, and we must expect, therefore, that streamlining should be extended to the steam locomotives of the future. It is not the aim of the designer merely to obtain higher speeds. If he can lessen the resistance at high speeds coal consumption will be reduced, and efficiency will be increased proportionately. The “Cock o’ the North” is one of the heralds of the new order of things in the locomotive world.

FROM THE FRONT the feature of the “Cock o’ the North” that chiefly interests the layman is the pair of side- plates, curving upwards to form “shoulders”. The object of these side- plates is to aid visibility from the cab- windows when the engine is running. Owing to the shape of the side- plates a strong current of air sweeps upwards, carrying the exhaust steam and smoke with it clear of the cab- windows.


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