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¿Se ha redescubierto una gema legendaria de una coraza sagrada judía?

¿Se ha redescubierto una gema legendaria de una coraza sagrada judía?

Después de perderse de las páginas de la historia durante unos mil años, una piedra preciosa legendaria puede encontrar su camino de regreso a casa. Un propietario anónimo de lo que puede ser un artefacto religioso muy importante está listo para renunciar a una preciada reliquia familiar y devolverla a su tierra natal. Se dice que el artefacto tuvo una historia apasionante y, si es real, también tiene un gran significado en la fe judía.

Tanto Breaking Israel News como el Daily Mail afirman que la gema en cuestión puede tener su origen en una coraza sagrada que usó el Sumo Sacerdote de Jerusalén. Antes de examinar más sobre la historia de la gema, es interesante mirar más de cerca la leyenda detrás de esta coraza.

Según la Enciclopedia Judía, el "ḥoshen" (el nombre del pectoral) estaba "adornado con piedras preciosas, que el sumo sacerdote llevaba en el pecho cuando presentaba en el Lugar Santo los nombres de los hijos de Israel". El Instituto del Templo describe la coraza del Sumo Sacerdote diciendo:

“Esta prenda se llama choshen mishpat en hebreo, que significa" la coraza del juicio "o" decisión ". De forma cuadrada y desgastada sobre el corazón, se llamaba así por el papel único que desempeñaba para ayudar a tomar decisiones fatídicas. Según las instrucciones bíblicas y las tradiciones rabínicas, el pectoral es un brocado estampado como el efod. Los hilos de su tejido son de lana de oro, celeste, rojo oscuro y carmesí, y lino torcido. La prenda en sí está engastada con cuatro hileras de pequeñas piedras cuadradas, en configuraciones de oro tejido o trenzado. Cada fila contenía tres piedras, un total de doce piedras, una piedra que representaba a cada una de las doce tribus de Israel. El nombre de la tribu correspondiente estaba grabado en cada piedra ".

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Frente del peto en el frente de la sinagoga central sefardí en Ramat Gan. (Dr. Avishai Teicher Pikiwiki Israel / CC POR 2.5 )

Se creía que la coraza había permitido al Sumo Sacerdote comunicarse directamente con Dios. Cuando se hacía una pregunta importante, el sacerdote podía pronunciar "la palabra de Dios" y responder a la pregunta con la ayuda del pectoral y dos piedras sagradas, llamadas Urim y Tumim. Mientras llevaba el pectoral adornado con joyas y sostenía las dos piedras, el Sumo Sacerdote se paró ante un candelabro cerca del altar. Cuando hizo la pregunta, la vela reflejaría la luz del Urim y el Thummin sobre las piedras del Pectoral. El sitio web Pheonix Masonry explica cómo llegó la respuesta:

“Este destello de luz proporcionó hasta 24 combinaciones (2 x 12). Dado que hay 22 letras en el alfabeto hebreo, los destellos de luz podrían producir cadenas de letras. Se dijo que Dios sopló a través del viento, que a su vez hace que el velo se mueva, permitiendo que una brisa haga parpadear las llamas en el candelero para alterar momentáneamente el ángulo de dirección de la luz sobre el Urim y Thummin, y de allí hacia el pectoral. . Por lo tanto, Dios pudo comunicarse directamente, pero no de manera audible, con el sumo sacerdote y responder a la pregunta ".

Sumo sacerdote judío con un hoshen, y levitas en la antigua Judá.

Se dice que la piedra que recientemente ha aparecido en los titulares es una de las dos gemas de sardónice que se engastaron en oro en los hombros del pectoral. Con la leyenda antes mencionada en mente, es fácil ver por qué esta piedra preciosa ha creado un gran revuelo. Pero, ¿cómo terminó en manos de una anciana en Sudáfrica?

La tradición familiar del propietario explica que el sardonyx fue entregado a su antepasado, llamado Croiz Arneet deTarn Auret, del Sumo Sacerdote alrededor de 1189 en agradecimiento por ayudar a liberar a Jerusalén. El Daily Mail agrega a la historia que "se le dio a un Caballero Templario y se transmitió a través de esa familia de una generación a la siguiente".

La piedra de sardónice en el ataúd de papiro en la que se llevó. (Propietario / Correo diario )

Después de generaciones de mantener la piedra en posesión de la familia, en 2000 pidieron que se valorara. Breaking Israel News dice que el Dr. James Strange, profesor de estudios religiosos y arqueología, analizó la piedra para la familia. El Dr. Strange sugirió a Breaking Israel News que no estaba muy impresionado con la piedra hasta que vio dos letras en hebreo antiguo. Dijo: "No conozco ninguna tecnología moderna o antigua mediante la cual un artesano pueda producir la inscripción, ya que no está tallada en la superficie de la piedra". El Dr. Strange fechó la piedra alrededor del siglo V a. C. y calculó el valor de la piedra en $ 175- $ 225 millones. Luego le pidió al gemólogo Ian Campbell que echara un vistazo al extraño artefacto. Campbell confirmó que la piedra no había sido cortada para hacer la inscripción y estimó un valor inicial de $ 200 millones.

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Más tarde, se pidió a otro experto, M. Sharon de la Universidad de Witwatersrand, que también examinara la piedra. Daily Mail cita su informe sobre el artefacto diciendo: "Debido a la claridad de las letras y su fina definición, sería increíble si fueran una formación natural coincidente en la piedra. La falta de cualquier signo aparente de interferencia con la superficie hace la existencia de las letras dentro de la piedra es un verdadero enigma ". También se dice que describió las inscripciones como escritura hebrea antigua y "el equivalente de nuestra 'B' y 'K'". El estilo de escritura se remonta al año 1000 a. C., más o menos entre 200 y 300 años.

Es interesante notar que esta no es la primera mención moderna de la piedra. Parece que en 1991 el enigmático artefacto fue noticia cuando el propietario estaba (¿primero?) Considerando venderlo.

Ahora, parece que la piedra sardonyx está nuevamente en el mercado. Daily Mail informa que el propietario actual de la piedra preciosa y un empresario sudafricano buscan específicamente inversores interesados ​​en comprar la piedra y llevarla a Israel.

Sin embargo, la cuestión de la autenticidad de la piedra sigue siendo incierta. Aunque el Dr. Strange dijo a Breaking Israel News "Calculé entonces que si fuera un fraude, entonces uno o más similares aparecerían en el mercado internacional bastante pronto, pero que yo sepa, ninguno lo ha hecho", también enfatizó que debería ser examinado una vez más. Él concluyó:

"Ha corrido mucha agua debajo del puente desde entonces. Creo que este objeto necesita una nueva evaluación y tantas pruebas científicas como sea posible para determinar si es genuino. Si resulta ser un artefacto importante para la historia de los judíos gente, entonces eso es realmente maravilloso. Si resulta ser un fraude magistral, me dolerá que me hayan engañado ".


Informe 13/4/20 - Piedra sacerdotal de un importante artefacto religioso (?). El pensamiento de grupo hace historia. Resolución de problemas.

Aquí hay más de lo que dice Ancient Origens sobre la piedra que se muestra en la parte superior de la publicación.

Después de perderse de las páginas de la historia durante unos mil años, una piedra preciosa legendaria puede encontrar su camino de regreso a casa. Un propietario anónimo de lo que puede ser un artefacto religioso muy importante está listo para renunciar a una preciada reliquia familiar y devolverla a su tierra natal. Se dice que el artefacto tuvo una historia apasionante y, si es real, también tiene un gran significado en la fe judía.

No creo que eso sea muy probable. La coraza de Aarón sería de alrededor del 1300 a. C., y el templo de Salomón fue destruido alrededor del 586 a. C., y el templo de Herodes fue destruido en el 70 d. C., sin mencionar otras dificultades.

Si eres un aficionado a la historia, es posible que disfrutes leyendo el análisis del proceso de toma de decisiones que resultó en los grandes eventos del siglo XX. Una cosa que jugó un papel importante en muchos de los errores, según una variedad de analistas, es el pensamiento de grupo.

Según Briannica.com, el pensamiento de grupo es un Modo de pensar en el que los miembros individuales de pequeños grupos cohesivos tienden a aceptar un punto de vista o conclusión que representa un consenso grupal percibido, ya sea que los miembros del grupo lo crean o no válido, correcto u óptimo. El pensamiento grupal reduce la eficiencia de la resolución colectiva de problemas dentro de tales grupos. (https://www.britannica.com/science/groupthink)

En resumen, el pensamiento de grupo ocurre cuando los grupos no fomentan opiniones divergentes. Se ha discutido que el fenómeno conduce a grandes fallas en las políticas públicas, como la invasión de Bahía de Cochinos. Como mencioné recientemente, difícilmente se puede leer un libro de texto de ciencias sociales sin leer acerca de cómo el pensamiento de grupo contribuyó a la decisión de JFK de invadir Cuba.

A continuación se muestra un poco sobre eso de la revista Yale Alumni Magazine.

Otro tema que puede encontrar relevante es el de Milton Rokeach Mente abierta y cerrada, un libro sobre dogmatismo y autoritarismo.

Años antes de dedicarme a la detección de metales, publiqué un artículo en The Journal of Rational Living en el que una de las variables era el dogmatismo. Es curioso cómo algunas cosas dan vueltas y vuelven cada tantos años.

Mi primera presentación en una conferencia fue antes de eso y fue sobre el condicionamiento de una respuesta psicofisiológica.

Te lo digo solo porque ese tipo de estudios son indicativos de mi enfoque de la detección de metales y ayudan a explicar quién soy y qué hago aquí. Abordo las cosas aquí de la misma manera que lo hice en el laboratorio de investigación, aunque no con el mismo rigor o atención a los detalles. Creo en ser muy cauteloso con las conclusiones, la observación, las definiciones operativas, los datos y la evidencia, considerando todas las alternativas a la primera conclusión tentadora y probando en lugar de asumir.

Ayer mismo, cuando hablé sobre el hueso del talón con un agujero, dije: "Como haría cualquier análisis científico, este estudio consideró posibles causas de la herida además de la crucifixión, una de las cuales era la práctica de clavar cadáveres en un ataúd". pero no se utilizó ningún ataúd en este caso ".

Advertí contra el peligro de llegar a conclusiones sin considerar explicaciones alternativas. En mi experiencia y opinión, un científico o cualquiera que desee llegar a una conclusión correcta debe examinar todas las explicaciones alternativas. Muchas veces he señalado ese peligro en lo que respecta a la identificación de artefactos excavados.

Personalmente, ese es el tipo de cosas que mantienen la detección de metales interesante para mí, y utilizo las mismas técnicas y disciplina, ya sea que esté estudiando dinámica de playa o estrategias de búsqueda efectivas.

Al presentar mi conclusión, siempre daré evidencia para sustentarla, recursos que el lector pueda consultar, a menudo mi nivel de confianza u otras cosas por el estilo, y confío en que el lector tomará lo que pueda encontrar útil y haga lo que quiera. lo hará. No espero ni te animo a que aceptes mi conclusión sin probarla o razonarla por ti mismo.

Hace calor. Hice una pequeña detección en un pozo de basura y estaba sudando mucho. Todavía no estoy acostumbrado a ese tipo de calor.


Simbolismo de las piedras de la coraza

Nota: escribí esto en 1988 y probablemente necesite una nueva revisión. Pero para aquellos que encuentran interesantes estos temas, aquí está para su disfrute.

Q. ¿Cuáles fueron los tipos de piedras que se usaron en el peto de Aaron? ¿Cuáles fueron las razones por las que una piedra en particular representaba a una tribu en particular?

A. Ibn Ezra, en su comentario de Éxodo 28, señaló que realmente no tenemos forma de identificar positivamente las piedras que se colocaron en el pectoral y que cuando Saadia tradujo estas piedras como mejor le pareció, y no tenía ninguna tradición en la que confiar. El punto de Ibn Ezra & # 8217 es muy importante, porque cualquier cosa que digamos sobre este tema no es más que una conjetura. El problema se agrava especialmente cuando consideramos que no hay acuerdo sobre qué tribu correspondía a la piedra correcta. A la luz de esto, dejemos que & # 8217s nos abramos camino a través de estas aguas turbias y veamos cómo se han identificado estas piedras. Algunos eruditos han intentado establecer una relación entre las 12 piedras en el pectoral de Aaron, los 12 meses del año y los 12 signos del zodíaco, sin embargo, no hay evidencia de esto en las Escrituras. Las piedras preciosas se usan en las Escrituras en sentido figurado, para significar valor, belleza, durabilidad. Filón de Alejandría sintió que cada piedra corresponde exactamente al temperamento de cada tribu dada.

La primera fila de piedras:

Odem -‑Sardius, o rubí. Éxodo 39:10. El hebreo odem, de adam, ser rojo, rubicundo, parece denotar el rubí como lo hace adam en persa una hermosa gema, de un fino color rojo intenso, con una mezcla de púrpura. Jb 28:18. Pr 3:15. 8:11. 20:15. 31:10. La 4: 7. El Targum de Yonatan identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Rueben, algunos identifican esta piedra con la tribu de Judá. [Tenga en cuenta que Judá era conocido por su naturaleza apasionada, al igual que Rueben]

Pitdah -‑ es traducida constantemente por la LXX. topadzion, y Vulgate, topazius, con lo que está de acuerdo Josefo. El topacio es una piedra preciosa, de un verde pálido, muerto, con una mezcla de amarillo, a veces de un amarillo fino y, por lo tanto, llamado crisólito por los modernos, por su color dorado. Job 28:19. Según Saadia Gaon, Kimchi y Chizkuni, lo más probable es que esta piedra sea la esmeralda. Según la Septuaginta, pitdah se identifica con la sardiana, una calcedonia de color rojo anaranjado intenso que algunos consideran una variedad de cornalina. El Midrash en Bamidbar Rabba 2: 7 identifica a Pitda con Simón, mientras que algunos dicen que era la piedra de Isacar.

Bareket -‑ es posiblemente un carbunclo, de la palabra hebrea Bareketh, de barak, (relámpago) para aclarar, brillo, una gema muy elegante, de un color rojo intenso, con una mezcla de escarlata. Se ha sugerido que posiblemente la piedra del pectoral no era verde sino de color rojo azulado, en cuyo caso pudo haber sido un almandina (granate). Is 54:11, 12. Saadia señala que esta piedra bien pudo haber sido el topacio amarillo, posiblemente un citrino. El Midrash identifica esta piedra con Gad, mientras que otros identifican a Bareket con Benjamin.

La segunda fila de piedras

Nofech -‑ Éx 28:18. El Targum, KJV y Bahya identifican esto como la esmeralda, otros argumentarían que la esmeralda era desconocida en la época mosaica. Esta última opinión es discutible porque las esmeraldas fueron redescubiertas recientemente en el Alto Egipto, en el monte Zabarah. y en Chipre y Etiopía.

Otra alternativa podría ser la turquesa, que ciertamente se extrajo en Egipto durante la época del mosaico. Chizkuni identifica esta piedra con el carbunclo, mientras que la Septuaginta traduce nofech como carbón. Algunos identifican esta piedra con la tribu de Judá, mientras que otros la identifican con la tribu de Rueben.

Sapir ‑‑ Vulgata (Jerónimo y Biblia latina # 8217, 390‑405 E.C.) traduce esta piedra como zafirus Plinio describe al zafirus como & # 8220 refulgente con manchas como el oro. También es de un color azul, aunque a veces, pero rara vez, es de color púrpura, el mejor tipo es el que proviene de Media. En ningún caso, sin embargo, esta piedra es transparente. & # 8221 Sin embargo, hay muchas razones para creer que la piedra de zafiro de hoy es realmente el corindón, una piedra que no se conocía en la antigüedad. Plinio 37:39 y Teofrastos, un erudito griego, opinaron que el zafiro de la antigüedad era realmente el lapislázuli. El Midrash identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Isacar, mientras que otros identifican esta piedra con la tribu de Dan.

Yahalom ‑‑ Esta piedra ha sido identificada como una gema transparente e incolora como el cristal de roca, una perla o un cristal azulado (considerado valioso en tiempos muy antiguos), o calcedonia azul, o quizás incluso berilo. Ibn Ezra en su comentario señala que Yahalom es muy probablemente un diamante porque tiene la capacidad de romper todas las demás piedras. Su palabra raíz es según Ibn Ezra derivada de la palabra hebrea holem que significa & # 8220 herir & # 8221 (Cf. Isa 41: 7). Algunas traducciones de la Biblia traducen Yahalom como & # 8220diamond & # 8221, lo cual es incorrecto porque el diamante no se conocía antes de la Edad Media. Además, porque la piedra bíblica tenía un nombre grabado y el método de grabar un diamante no se inventó hasta 2.000 o 3.000 años después de que se hizo el pectoral, ni tampoco los diamantes, si se conocían en ese momento y lugar de la historia. El Midrash identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Zevulun, mientras que otros dicen que era la piedra de Neftalí.

La tercera fila de piedras:

Leshem‑‑ Esta piedra puede ser jacinto, circonita ámbar amarillo o naranja. La Septuaginta la traduce como liguron. Otros estudiosos lo identifican con la aventurina, un cuarzo que contiene cristales muy finos de hematita, limonita o mica, que brillan cuando la luz los atrapa. También se ha identificado como turquesa que se utiliza en joyería. Esta piedra puede haber sido una turmalina, o más definitivamente la variedad roja conocida como rubelita. La rubelita es una piedra dura que se utiliza como gema y, a veces, se vende por zafiro rojo. El Midrash asocia esta piedra con la tribu de Dan porque la ciudad de Leshem estaba ubicada en su tribu [Cf. Josué 19:47].

Ella & # 8217voh‑‑‑ Ágata abigarrada en blanco y negro La Septuaginta identifica esta piedra como achatis. Esta identificación con ágata es aceptada por todos los estudiosos. Se encontraron ágatas blancas-grises en Egipto. Esta es una piedra que asume tal variedad de matices y apariencias que puede derivar su nombre de la raíz shuv (heb 7725), & # 8220 girar, cambiar & # 8221 y son capaces de cambiar su apariencia sin fin. Algunos identifican que las fuentes midráshicas identifican esta piedra con la tribu de Neftalí, mientras que otros sugieren que era la piedra de Aser o Menashe.

Achlamah ‑‑‑ que la Septuaginta traduce como & # 8216amethustos la palabra griega para sin estar borracho & # 8217 los griegos creían que se suponía que esta piedra evitaba la embriaguez. Esta gema generalmente es de color púrpura o violeta. Plinio dice que era carmesí, que había cuatro tonos de ese color y que era traslúcido. Ibn Ezra escribe que la amatista a veces se identificaba como la piedra del sueño, porque podía inducir sueños en cualquiera que la usara. [tenga en cuenta que la palabra achlamah está relacionada con la palabra hebrea para sueño & # 8220cholem. & # 8221 El Targum identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Gad o Isacar. Si esta es realmente la piedra del sueño, entonces parece lógico identificar esta piedra con José.

La cuarta fila de piedras

Tarsis ‑‑Berilo, una piedra preciosa de color verde mar. La esmeralda y la aguamarina son dos tipos de berilo. También puede ser cuarzo citrino o jaspe verde. La Septuaginta llama a esto chrisolythos o berullion. En el período helenístico este nombre se aplicó al topacio, una piedra no conocida en los períodos anteriores. Ahora se cree que era idéntico al nácar. Jerome & # 8217s Vulgate lo traduce como el jacinto. El berilo es una gema transparente de color verde azulado que se encuentra en las Indias Orientales [Saadia, Kimchi y la KJV]. Solo el berilo verde se conocía y se usaba en Egipto en la época de Moisés, y no se conocían el aguamarina ni los berilos amarillos y blancos. El nombre Tarsis es también el nombre bíblico antiguo de España, y si esto se aplica aquí, entonces podemos asumir que es el cristal de roca amarillo o el cuarzo citrino. conocido como & # 8220chrysolith & # 8221 según Pliny (Historia Natural, xxxvii. 43). Esta piedra se identifica con la tribu de Zabulón que habitaba junto al mar (Bahya).

Shoham ‑‑ Onyx sardonyx rojo y blanco abigarrado El Onyx es un miembro de la familia de las ágatas y se caracteriza por su falta de transparencia y sus capas paralelas de colores alternos, como rojo y blanco, marrón y blanco, negro y blanco. La Vulgata lo traduce como el sardonyx, una gema abigarrada roja y blanca. New English Bible traduce shoham como & # 8220 (rojo) cornalina. & # 8221 que se encuentra con frecuencia en el desierto. En el Libro de Job, Job consideraba la sabiduría de Dios como una posesión mayor que incluso el ónice costoso (Job 28:16). El Targum identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Aser.

Yashfeh ‑‑ Jaspe verde jaspe La piedra de jaspe fue tallada originalmente por los babilonios y por lo general era verde y, a veces, incluso transparente. El jaspis griego y latino, y se ha encontrado en excavaciones en la antigua Judea y en los países vecinos. Esta piedra puede ser posiblemente el ópalo, el jade o el cuarzo verde. El Midrash identifica esta piedra con la tribu de Neftalí o Benjamín.

Según Filón, Josefo, Maimónides, Rashi, las cuatro filas estaban dispuestas de acuerdo con el orden de su nacimiento, otros sugieren que las filas correspondían a que acamparon en el desierto (T.B. Yoma 73b, Saadia y Abravanel). Según Minchat Chinuch, las filas estaban dispuestas verticalmente por orden de nacimiento (cf. Kaplan & # 8217s Living Torah para más detalles). El propósito del choshen (coraza) era recordarle al Sumo Sacerdote que tenía que representar al pueblo judío dondequiera que fuera, y que él era su sirviente en todo momento.

Me gustaría hacer algunos comentarios finales sobre el propósito de estas piedras y por qué eran tan importantes. Las piedras tenían una amplia gama de significados en el mundo antiguo. Representaban la indestructibilidad, la constancia, la inflexibilidad y el dominio. Muchas de las piedras transparentes y brillantes representaban simbólicamente la síntesis de la materia terrenal unida al brillo de lo espiritual. Estas gemas representaban claridad y luz, y fueron utilizadas por el Sumo Sacerdote cuando meditó en el Urim ve Tumim.

Al comienzo de este artículo, señalé que las doce piedras correspondían a los doce signos del Zodíaco. También hay una piedra para cada mes, y a menudo aparecen en broches inscritos con signos zodiacales que representan el horóscopo de una persona. Según Eliade, las piedras eran adoradas por los antiguos porque se creía que eran instrumentos de acción espiritual y vitalidad. Muchos pueblos a lo largo de la historia creían que estas piedras tenían el carisma del sol, la luna y los siete planetas. Las piedras amarillas y blancas llevaban la influencia del sol, las piedras azules estaban asociadas con el reino celestial [Cf. el color de techeylet que se encuentra en el Tzitzit que simboliza los cielos y las aguas], las piedras rojas tenían la influencia de Marte y la pasión, Venus se asoció con piedras verdes como la esmeralda, Saturno se caracterizó por piedras negras como el ónix, etc. Estas piedras se utilizaron también como arma para protegerse de la influencia nefasta del mal de ojo.

Se creía que las piedras preciosas tenían ciertos poderes curativos. Abraham llevaba una piedra preciosa que colgaba de su cuello, cualquier persona enferma que la miraba era sanada instantáneamente (Bava Bathra 16b) cf. la bolsa de perlas que llevaban los animales que contenía una perla con fines medicinales. (Véase Sanh 68a y Rashi ad loc.). También se creía que fomentaban las pasiones y los afectos humanos. Según Josefo menciona que los esenios usaban piedras preciosas con fines curativos (Guerras 2: 136) El berilo da esperanza, las esmeraldas traían riqueza, carbunclo, energía y seguridad, los rubíes y las ágatas rojas se asociaban con el amor.

Con respecto a las tribus y sus respectivas piedras, encontramos en el Midrash

Había signos distintivos para cada príncipe, cada uno tenía una bandera y un color diferente para cada bandera, correspondiente a las piedras preciosas en el pecho de Aaron & # 8230 Reuben & # 8217s stone was odem y el color de su bandera era rojo y en él estaban bordadas mandrágoras. Simeon & # 8217s fue pitdah y su bandera era de un color amarillo (o verde) & # 8230 Levi & # 8217s era bareqet y el color de su bandera era un tercer blanco, un tercer negro y un tercer rojo & # 8230 Judah & # 8217s era nofekh y el color de su bandera era como el del cielo & # 8230 Issachar & # 8217s era sappir y el color de su bandera era negro como el estibio & # 8230 Zabulón & # 8217s era yahalom y el color de su bandera era blanco & # 8230 Dan & # 8217s era leshem y el color de su bandera era similar a sappir& # 8230 Gad & # 8217s ahlamah y el color de su bandera no era ni blanco ni negro, sino una mezcla de blanco y negro & # 8230 Asher & # 8217s era tarshish y el color de su bandera era como la piedra preciosa con la que se adornan las mujeres & # 8230 Joseph & # 8217s era shoham y el color de su bandera era negro azabache & # 8230 Benjamin & # 8217s era yashfeh y el color de su bandera era una combinación de los 12 colores. [Este Midrash fue adaptado de la Enciclopedia Judaica]


ARTÍCULOS RELACIONADOS

El Dr. James Strange, profesor de estudios religiosos y arqueología en la Universidad de Samford en Alabama, viajó a Sudáfrica en 2000 para evaluar lo que se describió como una piedra preciosa interesante a pedido de un amigo. Lo que encontró lo dejó perplejo.

LA JOYA SARDONYX

Los expertos creen que la piedra se remonta al año 1000 a. C., ya que hay un hebreo antiguo inscrito en su centro.

El guión es el equivalente de nuestra 'B' y 'K'.

Las letras de la piedra parecen ser similares a las encontradas en hallazgos arqueológicos que datan de 1300 a 300 a. C.

Lo que hace que este caso sea tan único es que no hay marcas en la superficie de la piedra, lo que significa que la piedra no se abrió para agregar las dos letras.

Los expertos sugieren que el sardonyx se había colocado en un plato grande o en un pectoral y también fechó su creación en el siglo V a. C.

Ahora le ha dicho a Adam Eliyahu Berkowitz con Breaking Israel News: 'Creo que este objeto necesita una nueva evaluación y tantas pruebas científicas como sea posible para determinar si es genuino.

'Si resulta ser un artefacto importante para la historia del pueblo judío, entonces es realmente maravilloso.

"Si resulta ser un fraude magistral, me dolerá que me hayan engañado".

Hablando de su viaje en 2000, dijo: 'No sabía que alguien en la Edad Media tardía tuviera la tecnología para cortar un hemisferio en un medio así, así que traté de agotar todas las demás explicaciones.

"No conozco ninguna tecnología moderna o antigua mediante la cual un artesano pueda producir la inscripción, ya que no está tallada en la superficie de la piedra".

Sin marcas visibles en la superficie, el Dr. Strange descartó la idea de que la piedra estuviera abierta.

Después de su examen, el Dr. Strange concluyó que la sardónica se había colocado en un plato grande o en un pectoral y también fechó su creación en el siglo V a. C.

Lo que hace que el sardónice sea tan único es una pequeña inscripción (en la foto es un dibujo del texto) en el corazón de la piedra, que se cree que es una escritura antigua que se remonta al año 1000 a. C. M. Los expertos dicen que el guión es el equivalente a nuestra 'B' y nuestra 'K'

En la foto se muestra un dibujo conceptual del pectoral, que estaba tachonado de gemas y se iluminaba para deletrear las respuestas cuando se le formulaban preguntas.

Debido a que esta piedra era única en su tipo, evaluó su valor entre $ 175 millones y $ 225 millones.

Ian Campbell, director del Laboratorio Independiente de Piedras de Colores en Johannesburgo y un destacado gemólogo sudafricano, también confirmó que la piedra no había sido cortada para agregar la inscripción.

'¿Cómo se hace lógicamente para poner un valor a algo como un artefacto religioso probado que es un artículo de' uno de '?

Calculó que 200 millones de dólares era un "punto de partida justo".

Ahora, las afirmaciones de 2000 han sido confirmadas por Breaking Israel News, quien habló con el aprendiz de Campbell, Jeremy Rothon.

Sin embargo, el Dr. Strange todavía recuerda la piedra como si todavía estuviera en su mano.

Señaló que si fuera falso, a estas alturas ya habría salido a la superficie otra piedra similar y está solicitando una nueva tasación.

El propietario actual tiene un contrato con un empresario sudafricano que ahora está buscando inversores que estén dispuestos a comprar la piedra y llevársela a Israel; ambas partes desean permanecer en el anonimato.

Cuando el hombre de negocios vio esta pequeña piedra, inmediatamente reconoció que la sardónica era una pieza importante de la historia judía y está decidido a traerla a casa.

LA HISTORIA DE LA PIEDRA EN TEXTO BÍBLICO

Las piedras del choshen mishpat, el pectoral del Sumo Sacerdote, fueron referidas en la Biblia como urim v'tummim, o Urim y Thummim, una frase que aún no se ha definido.

La leyenda dice que se le dio a un Caballero Templario hace 1.000 años y se transmitió a través de esa familia de una generación a la siguiente.

Sin marcas visibles en la superficie, el Dr. James Strange descartó la idea de que la piedra (en la foto) estuviera inicialmente cortada. Después de su examen, dijo que se había colocado en un plato grande o en un pectoral y también fechó su creación en el siglo V a. C.

"Y pondrás en el pectoral del juicio el Urim y el Tumim, y estarán sobre el corazón de Aharon". Éxodo 28:30

El texto judío, Talmund, revela que las preguntas se llevarían al pectoral y las piedras se iluminarían para deletrear las preguntas: cada piedra tenía letras diferentes en el centro.

Este texto afirma que las piedras que se perdieron en Jerusalén fue invadida por los babilonios.

En el libro de Samuel, lees que el urim v’tummim es una de las tres formas de comunicación divina: los sueños, los profetas y el urim v’tummim.

Y cuando Shaul preguntó a Hashem, Hashem no le respondió, ni por sueños, ni por Urim, ni por profetas. 1 de Samuel 28: 6


Editado por el rabino Michael Leo Samuel

Revisado por el rabino Ari D. Kahn, Ecos del Edén en el Pentateuco

Recientemente se ha publicado un libro muy nuevo y muy antiguo. El rabino Michael Leo Samuel se ha propuesto realizar la hercúlea tarea de traducir el comentario de Filón de Alejandría sobre el Libro del Génesis a un inglés fluido y legible, presentado en el orden de los versículos y capítulos de la Torá. Este volumen es el primero de una serie proyectada sobre los cinco libros del Pentateuco.

Al principio, debo dejar en claro que mi limitado conocimiento de la filosofía filosófica de Philo medio limita mi capacidad para escribir una revisión completa de la Torá desde Alejandría. Dejo a los eruditos versados ​​en las tradiciones filosóficas helenísticas romanas y egipcias examinar los esfuerzos del rabino Samuel para comparar y contrastar el comentario de Filón con las tendencias filosóficas de su época. En cambio, me acerqué al material con la esperanza de descubrir las percepciones de la Torá de un antiguo filósofo judío y considerar estas percepciones en su contexto histórico y maorético.

No me decepcionó. Además de traducir los escritos de Filón, el rabino Samuel explica los textos cuando es necesario, a menudo con la ayuda de referencias y notas, lo que permite al lector moderno acceder y comprender la interpretación de Filón de la Torá. Aún más importante, a través de la Torá de Alejandría podemos revelar el enfoque exegético subyacente con el que Filón explicó la Torá a los lectores de su propia generación. La relevancia de su enfoque para nuestra propia generación es sorprendente.

En los últimos años, los estudiantes de Tanaj, especialmente entre la comunidad religiosa sionista en Israel, se han involucrado en un debate (algunos podrían caracterizarlo como una batalla) sobre la interpretación auténtica y legítima del texto bíblico sagrado. The debate centers around two related points: First, to what extent is fidelity to classical rabbinic commentary requisite (or even desirable) and second, to what extent is it legitimate to interpret the text in a manner that implies that the heroes of the biblical narrative were less than perfect? This debate has come to be known as interpretation b’govah ha- einayim – looking biblical heroes in the eye, as opposed to gazing up at them as a mere mortal would view a titan.

One maverick in the new school of Israeli interpretation, the late Rav Mordechai Breuer, was fond of saying that he reads the text just as the sages of old did — without the commentary of the sages. In other words, Rav Breuer’s insights were based upon an unfettered reading of the text itself, stripped of the layers of traditional rabbinic exegesis. Opponents of this approach decry the deconstruction of our spiritual forebears, denounce the abandonment of our traditional view of the forefathers and our accepted understanding of their behavior. According to the more traditional approach, looking biblical characters in the eye borders on heresy and undermines the very foundations of Jewish spirituality. According to this approach, deconstructing our spiritual heroes diminishes us all, and leaves us empty and bereft of role models. At the same time, discarding traditional rabbinic explanations of the biblical text casts a shadow on our masorah, subtly calling into question the centrality of teachings attributed all the way back to Moses and passed down to the sages of each subsequent generation.

With the help of Rabbi Samuel, we are now able to look back to the exegetical method used by Philo in Alexandria some two thousand years ago, and what we find may have important ramifications for our current debate. In Torah from Alexandria , we find a biblical commentator whose work is remarkably in sync with rabbinic tradition — which is no small feat given that a good number of the interpretations he offers are found only in much later rabbinic writings. We must therefore assume that Philo, like the authors of those later rabbinic texts, recorded ideas and exegetical traditions that had previously been transmitted orally (or, alternatively, that these rabbinic interpretations originated in Alexandria). los masorah’s centrality and antiquity are clearly reinforced.

Even more fascinating is the impact Philo’s approach should have on the govah ha’einayim debate. Philo proves to be a staunch supporter of the classical approach to biblical characters, immediately and unequivocally defending them and dispelling any possible negative interpretation of their behavior. In situations where such “mainstream” commentaries as Nachmanides or Rabbi S.R. Hirsch find fault in the behavior of the matriarchs or patriarchs, Philo is quick to defend in fact, there are many instances in which he inserts a virtuous spin on seemingly neutral situations .

  • · Abraham could have resolved the problem with Lot by force, but did not wish to humiliate him, and sought a peaceful resolution. (p. 156)
  • · When Abraham seems to complain to God that he has no children, Philo reads it as a virtue: “A servant must be direct and honest with his superior.” (p. 164)
  • · While Lot’s daughters’ behavior is “unlawful,” their intentions were “not without some merit.” (p. 199)
  • · Sarah suggested that Abraham have a child with Hagar her motivations were “selfless and altruistic.” (p. 171)
  • · Sarah’s treatment of Hagar was “disciplinary, and not abusive, in nature.” (p. 174)
  • · Philo turns Abraham’s false claim that Sarah is his sister into a virtue, explaining that a person who speaks only the truth in all situations is “unphilosophical as well as an ignoramus.” (p. 154)
  • · Sarah’s demand that Hagar and Yishmael be banished was not motivated by spite or jealousy. It was a well-earned response to their having spread malicious rumors that Isaac was illegitimate child. (p. 206)
  • · Abraham acquiesces to his wife’s demand this behavior always has “the best and happiest kind of outcome.” (p. 206)
  • · The expulsion of Yishmael is compared to the expulsion of Adam from the Garden of Eden: “Once the mind contracts folly, it becomes almost an incurable disease…their penchant for superficiality and mediocrity.” (p. 207)
  • · “The animus against Abraham stems from an envy and hatred of everything that is good.” (p. 209)
  • · The sacrifice of Isaac (whose name connotes joy) teaches us that “even joy must be subordinated to God.” (p. 210)
  • · Isaac was not misguided or mistaken in his love for Esau. Isaac’s love for Esau was compartmentalized or limited, conditional he was attracted to Esau’s skill as a hunter, because Isaac himself sought to “hunt down his passions and keep them at bay.” (p. 233)
  • · Esau had always been a slave, and was destined to remain enslaved for all time – with or without the blessing Jacob took. By selling the birthright, Esau proved that he was a slave to his “belly’s pleasures.” (p. 233)
  • · When Jacob buys the birthright from Esau, it is an act of virtue intended to save his brother from rampant materialism that would bring about Esau’s downfall. (p. 234)
  • · Isaac wants to bless Esau because he sees that Esau is limited and lacking, while Jacob is perfect and does not need his blessing. (p. 240)
  • · Jacob should be admired for respecting both his parents and carrying out his mother’s instructions to the letter, rather than being vilified for taking Esau’s blessings through subterfuge. (p. 242)
  • · “Malicious people never tire of accusing Scripture of excusing Jacob’s deceit and fraud… subterfuge and maneuvering have their place in life…sometimes a general will make a threat of war, while he is actually working in the interest of peace.” (p. 243) “A good man may do something that appears wrong, but [he] acts with noble intention.” (p. 245 also see p. 248)
  • · Simeon and Levy “acted as a vanguard of justice and fought to protect their family’s purity.” (pág.272)
  • · Joseph treats the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah as equals, hence drawing the ire of his other brothers. (pág.275)
  • · Jacob’s love for Joseph was not arbitrary favoritism. Rather, he loved Joseph because of his skills, his virtue, and his nobility. (pág.275)
  • · Regarding Tamar: “Virtue is subtle –sometimes she veils her face like Tamar.” (p. 284)
  • · Joseph was physically assaulted by Madame Potiphar, but never succumbed to her advances. (p. 287)
  • · Joseph does not seek revenge he wants to see how the brothers will treat Benjamin, another son of Rachel. (p. 301) Joseph sees the entire episode as divine providence (p. 313).
  • · Even in prison, Joseph behaves virtuously toward all the other prisoners. (p. 288)
  • · Joseph does not gain personally from any of the wealth accrued in Egypt rather, he is a dedicated civil servant. (p. 318f)
  • · Joseph completely forgave his brothers and never sought vengeance, not only out of respect for their father, but because of his love for his brothers. (p. 326)
  • · Jacob enters the palace and all those present are aware of his dignity. (p. 318)

Philo proves to be a sensitive reader of the text – sensitive to the underlying philosophical issues as well as a staunch defender of Judaism. Perhaps because he lived among non-Jews, within the general society, he intuited that attacks on Abraham and Sarah are tantamount to attacks on the underpinnings of Judaism and, through a subtle process of anti-Semitism, on every Jew. Alternatively, he may simply have seen the patriarchs and matriarchs as spiritual giants – people whose thoughts and actions were far more elevated than those of common men, people who were far above the petty jealousies and foolish mistakes more cynical readers ascribe to them, people who actually were “larger than life.” Philo teaches us that in order to look at them at all, to see and understand them, to learn from them – we must look up.

Rabbi Leo Samuel has done an outstanding service, both to Philo and to modern readers. In Torah from Alexandria , Philo’s ancient Torah commentary becomes readable and meaningful, exciting and contemporary. I look forward to future volumes.


Contenido

Gems were mostly cut by using abrasive powder from harder stones in conjunction with a hand-drill, probably often set in a lathe. Emery has been mined for abrasive powder on Naxos since antiquity. Some early types of seal were cut by hand, rather than a drill, which does not allow fine detail. There is no evidence that magnifying lenses were used by gem cutters in antiquity. A medieval guide to gem-carving techniques survives from Theophilus Presbyter. Byzantine cutters used a flat-edged wheel on a drill for intaglio work, while Carolingian ones used round-tipped drills it is unclear where they learnt this technique from. In intaglio gems at least, the recessed cut surface is usually very well preserved, and microscopic examination is revealing of the technique used. [3] The colour of several gemstones can be enhanced by a number of artificial methods, using heat, sugar and dyes. Many of these can be shown to have been used since antiquity – since the 7th millennium BC in the case of heating. [4]

The technique has an ancient tradition in the Near East, and is represented in all or most early cultures from the area, and the Indus Valley civilization. The cylinder seal, whose design only appears when rolled over damp clay, from which the flat ring type developed, was the usual form in Mesopotamia, Assyria and other cultures, and spread to the Aegean and Minoan world, including parts of Greece and Cyprus. These were made in various types of stone, not all hardstone, and gold rings were a related development in Minoan seals, which are often very fine. The Greek tradition emerged in Ancient Greek art under Minoan influence on mainland Helladic culture, and reached an apogee of subtlety and refinement in the Hellenistic period. Pre-Hellenic Ancient Egyptian seals tend to have inscriptions in hieroglyphs rather than images. The Biblical Book of Exodus describes the form of the hoshen, a ceremonial breastplate worn by the High Priest, bearing twelve gems engraved with the names of the Twelve tribes of Israel.

Round or oval Greek gems (along with similar objects in bone and ivory) are found from the 8th and 7th centuries BC, usually with animals in energetic geometric poses, often with a border marked by dots or a rim. [5] Early examples are mostly in softer stones. Gems of the 6th century are more often oval, [6] with a scarab back (in the past this type was called a "scarabaeus"), and human or divine figures as well as animals the scarab form was apparently adopted from Phoenicia. [7] The forms are sophisticated for the period, despite the usually small size of the gems. [8] In the 5th century gems became somewhat larger, but still only 2-3 centimetres tall. Despite this, very fine detail is shown, including the eyelashes on one male head, perhaps a portrait. Four gems signed by Dexamenos of Chios are the finest of the period, two showing herons. [9]

Relief carving became common in 5th century BC Greece, and gradually most of the spectacular carved gems in the Western tradition were in relief, although the Sassanian and other traditions remained faithful to the intaglio form. Generally a relief image is more impressive than an intaglio one in the earlier form the recipient of a document saw this in the impressed sealing wax, while in the later reliefs it was the owner of the seal who kept it for himself, probably marking the emergence of gems meant to be collected or worn as jewellery pendants in necklaces and the like, rather than used as seals – later ones are sometimes rather large to use to seal letters. However inscriptions are usually still in reverse ("mirror-writing") so they only read correctly on impressions (or by viewing from behind with transparent stones). This aspect also partly explains the collecting of impressions in plaster or wax from gems, which may be easier to appreciate than the original.

The cameo, which is rare in intaglio form, seems to have reached Greece around the 3rd century the Farnese Tazza is the only major surviving Hellenistic example (depending on the date assigned to the Gonzaga Cameo – see below), but other glass-paste imitations with portraits suggest that gem-type cameos were made in this period. [10] The conquests of Alexander the Great had opened up new trade routes to the Greek world and increased the range of gemstones available. [11] Roman gems generally continued Hellenistic styles, and can be hard to date, until their quality sharply declines at the end of the 2nd century AD. Philosophers are sometimes shown Cicero refers to people having portraits of their favourite on their cups and rings. [12] The Romans invented cameo glass, best known from the Portland Vase, as a cheaper material for cameos, and one that allowed consistent and predictable layers on even round objects.

During the European Middle Ages antique engraved gems were one classical art form which was always highly valued, and a large but unknown number of ancient gems have (unlike most surviving classical works of art) never been buried and then excavated. Gems were used to decorate elaborate pieces of goldsmith work such as votive crowns, book-covers and crosses, sometimes very inappropriately given their subject matter. Matthew Paris illustrated a number of gems owned by St Albans Abbey, including one large Late Roman imperial cameo (now lost) called Kaadmau which was used to induce overdue childbirths – it was slowly lowered, with a prayer to St Alban, on its chain down the woman's cleavage, as it was believed that the infant would flee downwards to escape it, [13] a belief in accordance with the views of the "father of mineralogy", Georgius Agricola (1494–1555) on jasper. [14] Some gems were engraved, mostly with religious scenes in intaglio, during the period both in Byzantium and Europe. [15]

In the West production revived from the Carolingian period, when rock crystal was the commonest material. The Lothair Crystal (or Suzanna Crystal, British Museum, 11.5 cm diameter), clearly not designed for use as a seal, is the best known of 20 surviving Carolingian large intaglio gems with complex figural scenes, although most were used for seals. [16] Several crystals were designed, like the Susanna Crystal, to be viewed through the gem from the unengraved side, so their inscriptions were reversed like the seals. In wills and inventories, engraved gems were often given pride of place at the head of a list of treasures. [17]

Some gems in a remarkably effective evocation of classical style were made in Southern Italy for the court of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in the first half of the 13th century, several in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris. Meanwhile, the church led the development of large, often double-sided, metal seal matrices for wax seals that were left permanently attached to charters and similar legal documents, dangling by a cord, though smaller ring seals that were broken when a letter was opened remained in use. It is not clear to what extent this also continued practices in the ancient world.

The late medieval French and Burgundian courts collected and commissioned gems, and began to use them for portraits. The British Museum has what is probably a seated portrait of John, Duke of Berry in intaglio on a sapphire, and the Hermitage has a cameo head of Charles VII of France. [18]

Interest had also revived in Early Renaissance Italy, where Venice soon became a particular centre of production. Along with the Roman statues and sarcophagi being newly excavated, antique gems were prime sources for artists eager to regain a classical figurative vocabulary. Cast bronze copies of gems were made, which circulated around Italy, and later Europe. [19] Among very many examples of borrowings that can be traced confidently, the Felix o Diomedes gem owned by Lorenzo de' Medici (see below), with an unusual pose, was copied by Leonardo da Vinci and may well have provided the "starting point" for one of Michelangelo's ignudi on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. [20] Another of Lorenzo's gems supplied, probably via a drawing by Perugino, a pose used by Raphael. [21]

By the 16th century carved and engraved gems were keenly collected across Europe for dedicated sections of a cabinet of curiosities, and their production revived, in classical styles 16th-century gem-cutters working with the same types of sardonyx and other hardstones and using virtually the same techniques, produced classicizing works of glyptic art, often intended as forgeries, in such quantity that they compromised the market for them, as Gisela Richter observed in 1922. [22] Even today, Sir John Boardman admits that "We are sometimes at a loss to know whether what we are looking at belongs to the 1st or the 15th century AD, a sad confession for any art-historian." [23] Other Renaissance gems reveal their date by showing mythological scenes derived from literature that were not part of the visual repertoire in classical times, or borrowing compositions from Renaissance paintings, and using "compositions with rather more figures than any ancient engraver would have tolerated or attempted". [23] Among artists, the wealthy Rubens was a notable collector. [24]

Engraved gems occur in the Bible, especially when the hoshen and ephod worn by the High Priest are described though these were inscribed with the names of the tribes of Israel in letters, rather than any images. A few identifiably Jewish gems survive from the classical world, including Persia, mostly with the owner's name in Hebrew, but some with symbols such as the menorah. [25] Many gems are inscribed in the Islamic world, typically with verses from the Koran, and sometimes gems in the Western tradition just contain inscriptions.

Many Asian and Middle Eastern cultures have their own traditions, although for example the important Chinese tradition of carved gemstones and hardstones, especially jade carving, is broader than the European one of concentration on a flattish faced stone that might fit into a ring. Seal engraving covers the inscription that is printed by stamping, which nearly always only contains script rather than images. Other decoration of the seal itself was not intended to be reproduced.

The iconography of gems is similar to that of coins, though more varied. Early gems mostly show animals. Gods, satyrs, and mythological scenes were common, and famous statues often represented – much modern knowledge of the poses of lost Greek cult statues such as Athena Promachos comes from the study of gems, which often have clearer images than coins. [26] A 6th(?) century BC Greek gem already shows Ajax committing suicide, with his name inscribed. [27] The story of Heracles was, as in other arts, the most common source of narrative subjects. A scene may be intended as the subject of an early Archaic gem, and certainly appears on 6th century examples from the later Archaic period. [28]

Portraits of monarchs are found from the Hellenistic period onwards, although as they do not usually have identifying inscriptions, many fine ones cannot be identified with a subject. In the Roman Imperial period, portraits of the imperial family were often produced for the court circle, and many of these have survived, especially a number of spectacular cameos from the time of Augustus. As private objects, produced no doubt by artists trained in the tradition of Hellenistic monarchies, their iconography is less inhibited than the public state art of the period about showing divine attributes as well as sexual matters. [29] The identity and interpretation of figures in the Gemma Augustea remains unclear. A number of gems from the same period contain scenes apparently from the lost epic on the Sack of Troy, of which the finest is by Dioskurides (Chatsworth House). [30]

Renaissance and later gems remain dominated by the Hellenistic repertoire of subjects, though portraits in contemporary styles were also produced.

Famous collectors begin with King Mithridates VI of Pontus (d. 63 BC), whose collection was part of the booty of Pompey the Great, who donated it to the Temple of Jupiter in Rome. [31] Julius Caesar was determined to excel Pompey in this as in other areas, and later gave six collections to his own Temple of Venus Genetrix according to Suetonius gems were among his varied collecting passions. [32] Many later emperors also collected gems. Chapters 4-6 of Book 37 of the Historia Natural of Pliny the Elder give a summary art history of the Greek and Roman tradition, and of Roman collecting. According to Pliny Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) was the first Roman collector. [33]

As in later periods objects carved in the round from semi-precious stone were regarded as a similar category of object these are also known as hardstone carvings. One of the largest, the Coupe des Ptolémées was probably donated to the Basilica of Saint-Denis, near Paris, by Charles the Bald, as the inscription on its former gem-studded gold Carolingian mounting stated it may have belonged to Charlemagne. One of the best collections of such vessels, though mostly plain without carved decoration, was looted from Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, and is in the Treasury of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice. Many of these retain the medieval mounts which adapted them for liturgical use. [34] Like the Coupe des Ptolémées, most objects in European museums lost these when they became objects of classicist interest from the Renaissance onwards, or when the mounts were removed for the value of the materials, as happened to many in the French Revolution.

The collection of 827 engraved gems of Pope Paul II, [35] which included the "Felix gem" of Diomedes with the Palladium, [36] was acquired by Lorenzo il Magnifico the Medici collection included many other gems and was legendary, valued in inventories much higher than his Botticellis. Somewhat like Chinese collectors, Lorenzo had all his gems inscribed with his name. [37]

The Gonzaga Cameo passed through a series of famous collections before coming to rest in the Hermitage. First known in the collection of Isabella d'Este, it passed to the Gonzaga Dukes of Mantua, Emperor Rudolf II, Queen Christina of Sweden, Cardinal Decio Azzolini, Livio Odescalchi, Duke of Bracciano, and Pope Pius VI before Napoleon carried it off to Paris, where his Empress Joséphine gave it to Alexander I of Russia after Napoleon's downfall, as a token of goodwill. [38] It remains disputed whether the cameo is Alexandrian work of the 3rd century BC, or a Julio-Claudian imitation of the style from the 1st century AD. [39]

Three of the largest cameo gems from antiquity were created for members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and seem to have survived above ground since antiquity. The large Gemma Augustea appeared in 1246 in the treasury of the Basilique St-Sernin, Toulouse. In 1533, King François I appropriated it and moved it to Paris, where it soon disappeared around 1590. Not long thereafter it was fenced for 12,000 gold pieces to Emperor Rudolph II it remains in Vienna, alongside the Gemma Claudia. The largest flat engraved gem known from antiquity is the Great Cameo of France, which entered (or re-entered) the French royal collection in 1791 from the treasury of Sainte-Chapelle, where it had been since at least 1291.

In England, a false dawn of gem collecting was represented by Henry, Prince of Wales' purchase of the cabinet of the Flemish antiquary Abraham Gorlaeus in 1609, [40] and engraved gems featured among the antiquities assembled by Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel. Later in the century William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire, formed a collection of gems that is still conserved at Chatsworth. [41] In the eighteenth century a more discerning cabinet of gems was assembled by Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle, acting upon the advice of Francesco Maria Zanetti and Francesco Ficoroni 170 of the Carlisle gems, both Classical and post-Classical, were purchased in 1890 for the British Museum.

By the mid-eighteenth century prices had reached such a level that major collections could only be formed by the very wealthy lesser collectors had to make do with collecting plaster casts, [42] which was also very popular, or buying one of many sumptuously illustrated catalogues of collections that were published. [43] Catherine the Great's collection is in the Hermitage Museum one large collection she had bought was the gems from the Orléans Collection. [44] Louis XV of France hired Dominique Vivant to assemble a collection for Madame de Pompadour.

In the eighteenth century British aristocrats were able to outcompete even the agents for royal and princely collectors on the Continent, aided by connoisseur-dealers like Count Antonio Maria Zanetti and Philipp von Stosch. Zanetti travelled Europe in pursuit of gems hidden in private collections for the British aristocrats he tutored in connoisseurship [45] his own collection was described in A.F. Gori, Le gemme antiche di Anton Maria Zanetti (Venice, 1750), illustrated with eighty plates of engravings from his own drawings. Baron Philipp von Stosch (1691–1757), a Prussian who lived in Rome and then Florence, was a major collector, as well as a dealer in engraved gems: "busy, unscrupulous, and in his spare time a spy for England in Italy". [23] Among his contemporaries, Stosch made his lasting impression with Gemmæ Antiquæ Cælatæ (Pierres antiques graveés) (1724), in which Bernard Picart's engravings reproduced seventy antique carved hardstones like onyx, jasper and carnelian from European collections. He also encouraged Johann Lorenz Natter (1705–1763) whom Stosch set to copying ancient carved gems in Florence. Frederick the Great of Prussia bought Stosch's collection in 1765 and built the Antique Temple in the park of the Sanssouci Palace to house his collections of ancient sculpture, coins and over 4,000 gems – the two were naturally often grouped together. The gems are now in the Antikensammlung Berlin.

The collection of Joseph Smith, British consul in Venice was bought by King George III of Great Britain and remains in the Royal Collection. The collections of Charles Towneley, Richard Payne Knight and Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode were bought by or bequeathed to the British Museum, founding their very important collection. [46]

But the most famous English collection was that formed by the 4th Duke of Marlborough (1739–1817), "which the Duke kept in his bedroom and resorted to as a relief from his ambitious wife, his busy sister and his many children". [47] This included collections formerly owned by the Gonzagas of Mantua (later owned by Lord Arundel), the 2nd Earl of Bessborough, and the brother of Lord Chesterfield, who himself warned his son in one of his Letters against "days lost in poring upon imperceptible intaglios and cameos". [48] The collection, including its single most famous cameo, los "Marlborough gem" depicting an initiation of Cupid and Psyche, was dispersed after a sale in 1899, fortunately timed for the new American museums and provided the core of the collection of the Metropolitan in New York and elsewhere, [19] with the largest group still together being about 100 in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. [48] ​​[49]

Prince Stanisław Poniatowski (1754–1833) "commissioned about 2500 gems and encouraged the belief that they were, in fact, ancient." He presented a set of 419 plaster impressions of his collection to the King of Prussia which now form the Daktyliothek Poniatowski in Berlin, where they were recognised as modern in 1832, mainly because the signatures of ancient artists from very different times were found on gems in too consistent a style. [50]

As in other fields, not many ancient artists' names are known from literary sources, although some gems are signed. According to Pliny, Pyrgoteles was the only artist allowed to carve gems for the seal rings of Alexander the Great. Most of the most famous Roman artists were Greeks, like Dioskurides, who is thought to have produced the Gemma Augustea, and is recorded as the artist of the matching signet rings of Augustus – very carefully controlled, they allowed orders to be issued in his name by his most trusted associates. Other works survive signed by him (rather more than are all likely to be genuine), and his son Hyllos was also a gem engraver. [51]

The Anichini family were leading artists in Venice and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries. Many Renaissance artists no doubt kept their activities quiet, as they were passing their products off as antique. Other specialist carvers included Giovanni Bernardi (1494–1553), Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio (c. 1500–1565), Giuseppe Antonio Torricelli (1662–1719), the German-Italian Anton Pichler (1697–1779) and his sons Giovanni and Luigi, Charles Christian Reisen (Anglo-Norwegian, 1680–1725). Other sculptors also carved gems, or had someone in their workshop who did. Leone Leoni said he personally spent two months on a double-sided cameo gem with portraits of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife and son. [52]

The Scot James Tassie (1735–1799), and his nephew William (1777–1860) developed methods for taking hard impressions from old gems, and also for casting new designs from carved wax in enamel, enabling a huge production of what are really imitation engraved gems. The fullest catalogue of his impressions ("Tassie gems") was published in 1791, with 15,800 items. [53] There are complete sets of the impressions in the Hermitage, the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, and in Edinburgh. [54] Other types of imitation became fashionable for ladies' brooches, such as ceramic cameos by Josiah Wedgwood in jasperware. The engraved gem fell permanently out of fashion from about the 1860s, [19] perhaps partly as a growing realization of the number of gems that were not what they seemed to be scared collectors. Among the last practitioners was James Robertson, who sensibly moved into the new art of photography. Perhaps the best known gem engraver of the 20th century, working in a contemporary idiom, is the British artist Ronald Pennell, [55] whose work is held in the British Crafts Council Collection among many others.

Cameo glass was invented by the Romans in about 30BC to imitate engraved hardstone cameos, with the advantage that consistent layering could be achieved even on round vessels – impossible with natural gemstones. It was however very difficult to manufacture and surviving pieces, mostly famously the Portland Vase, are actually much rarer than Roman gemstone cameos. [56] The technique was revived in the 18th and especially 19th centuries in England and elsewhere, [57] and was most effectively used in French Art Nouveau glass that made no attempt to follow classical styles.

The Middle Ages, which lived by charters and other sealed documents, were at least as keen on using seals as the ancient world, now creating them for towns and church institutions, but they normally used metal matrices and signet rings. However some objects, like a 13th-century Venetian Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, mimicked the engraved gem. [58]

Another offshoot of the mania for engraved gems is the fine-grained slightly translucent stoneware called jasperware that was developed by Josiah Wedgwood and perfected in 1775. [59] Though white-on-blue matte jasperware is the most familiar Wedgwood ceramic line, still in production today and widely imitated since the mid-19th century, white-on-black was also produced. Wedgwood made notable jasperware copies of the Portland Vase and the Marlborough gem, a famous head of Antinous, [60] and interpreted in jasperware casts from antique gems by James Tassie. John Flaxman's neoclassical designs for jasperware were carried out in the extremely low relief typical of cameo production. Some other porcelain imitated three-layer cameos purely by paint, even in implausible objects like a flat Sèvres tea-tray of 1840. [61]

Gems were a favourite topic for antiquaries from the Renaissance onwards, culminating in the work of Philipp von Stosch, described above. Major progress in understanding Greek gems was made in the work of Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907, father of the conductor, Wilhelm). Among recent scholars Sir John Boardman (b. 1927) has made a special contribution, again concentrating on Greek gems. Gertrud Seidmann (1919–2013) moved into the subject, having previously been a German teacher.


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Meaning of High Priest Breastplate Gems

Biblestudy.org DA: 18 PENSILVANIA: 50 Rango MOZ: 68

  • This article in our series on precious stones in the Bible will discuss the exact placement of gems dentro de High Priest's breastplate
  • We will also explore the linkage between the stones and the twelve tribes of Israel.
  • Foreshadowing the ministry of Jesus Christ (Hebrews 2:17, 4:14 to 7:28, 9, 10), the High Priest

High Priest's Breastplate Gems in the Bible and Torah

  • Sacred Stones: High Priest's Breastplate Gems in the Bible and Torah Crystal Gemstones Used for Miraculous Guidance and Symbolism
  • Share Flipboard Email Print The priest's breastplate

The High Priest’s Breastplate (Choshen)

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  • los breastplate (choshen) was one of the eight priestly garments worn by the high priest (kohen gadol) when serving in the Holy Temple.It featured twelve precious stones, corresponding to the 12 tribes of Israel, and served as a medium through which G‑d provided direction to the Jewish nation.

The significance of the high priest's breastplate » Kehila

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  • The second focal point of the breastplate were the 12 gemstones of Exodus 28:17-21 that were on the front, which lay over the heart of the High Priest
  • A diferencia del gems on the shoulder piece, these stones were different one from another.

What Were the Gemstones of the Breastplate of Aaron

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  • I’d love to have some feedback on the identity of the gemstones of the breastplate of Aaron.In Exodus 28:15-21, the breastplate of Aaron is described in great detail.In the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible, a different gemstone is listed for each of the twelve tribes of Israel.They are, in the 1 st row, carnelian, chrysolite, and emerald in the 2 nd row, turquoise, sapphire, and amethyst

E39-1: The prophetic significance of the 12 stones on the

E39-2: What was the purpose of the bells attached to the hem of the High Priest's robe? E39-1: The prophetic significance of the 12 stones on the High Priest's breastplate E38-2: During the times of Moses and King David the SHEKEL was just a unit of weight E38-1: The Tabernacle is the perfect example of giving ONE'S BEST to the Lord

The Gems in the High Priest’s Breastplate: A Pragmatic Review

  • los breastplate was to be at-tached to the Ephod worn by the High Priest by gold chains held by gold rings on the shoulder straps
  • los gems contributed by the ancient Israelites in the wilderness were used in the Tabernacle as described in Ex
  • The identity of the gems has remained ambivalent throughout history.

The Gems on the High Priest's Breastplate

  • los Gems sobre el High Priest's Breastplcomió
  • Graphic Design by Rusty Russell
  • For best viewing set your display settings to Elevado-Color 800x600 or better in control panel
  • These are actual gems in modern times and the name of each tribe is inscribed on the stone
  • Each transparency contains a full size and full color image of each gem.

Gems In The Bible

The High Priest’s Breastplate – All

    GEMS IN THE BIBLE

Biblical Aaron Wore a Golden Breastplate Fashioned With 12

  • The biblical Aaron may have been the original King of Bling
  • More than 3,300 years ago, the first high priest of the Hebrews (and older brother of Moses) dazzled his followers with a gleaming breastplate fashioned with gemstones representing the 12 tribes of Israel
  • The inscribed gems — which included emerald, sapphire, amethyst and topaz…

Amazon.com: high priest breastplate

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  • Healing Crystals Kabbalah Jewelry Hoshen, Avnei Choshen, 12 Tribes of Israel Necklace Gift, High Priest Breastplate Precious and Semi-Precious Gemstones Jewels, 14k Gold-Filled 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 $159.00 $ 159

The Breastplate Of Judgment: Part 4 of 6- High Priest’s

  • los Breastplate Of Judgment: Part 4 of 6- High Priest’s Garments Series
  • 29 “So Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel on the breastplate of judgment over his heart, when he goes into the holy place, as a memorial before the LORD continually.”
  • As you read in part 3, the Breastplate of Judgment is the most expensive part of the

A History of Birthstones and the Breastplate of Aaron

Gemporia.com DA: 16 PENSILVANIA: 50 Rango MOZ: 78

  • Described in Exodus is the Breastplate of Aaron, a sacred object worn by the High Priest of the Israelites in order to communicate with God
  • Worn over the Priest’s sacred vestments, it was attached by shoulder straps at the corners and contained twelve gemstones
  • The first academic research of the Breastplate was carried out by Roman scholar

THE STONES OF The Twelve Tribes of Israel — One Yahweh

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  • Created by pastorbuddy on 3/11/2009
  • High Priest Breastplate Gemstones
  • Muchos gem scholars agree that the tradition of birthstones arose from the Breastplate of Aaron: a ceremonial religious garment set with twelve gemstones that represented the twelve tribes of Israel and also corresponded with the twelve signs of the zodiac and the twelve months of the year.

BREASTPLATE STONES sapphirethroneministries

  • Sobre el High Priest’s Breastplate were 12 stones with the 12 tribes of the sons of Israel written on them
  • A common question I am hearing these days is: What about those stones on the Breastplate? There’s a reason you don’t hear a lot about those Breastplate stones
  • The details surrounding them are quite enigmatic.…

The High Priest’s Breastplate Guide To The Bible

  • los High Priest’s Breastplate
  • The Bible tells us in Exodus 28 that a breastplate with twelve precious and semi-precious stones was made for Aaron the High Priest
  • This study will hopefully reveal where these stones came from and where they could be today, with the view that they could be all found and once again used in the next High Priest

Identifying the Twelve Stones in the Breastplate of the

The origin of our twelve birthstones and their colors is rooted in the twelve colored stones in the breastplate de El high priest of ancient Israel.The fact that our birthstones are not only associated with different tribes, but also with different months, shows that there was a strong tradition that each of the twelve sons of Jacob was born at a distinct time of year.

The Gemstones In The Breastplate

  • Bible scholars have long been fascinated by the Breastplate worn by the High Priest of Israel
  • Set in precious stones it occupied an important place in Israelitish worship for it contained the instruments by which God revealed His Divine will to His chosen people
  • los gem stones are significant in that each stone is engraved with the name of a

Onyx stone thought to be a gem from the breastplate of a

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The stones of the choshen mishpat, the High Priest's breastplate, were referred to in the Bible as the urim v'tummim, or Urim and the Thummim, a phrase that has yet to be defined.


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