Podcasts de historia

Héroes y lugares emblemáticos de la aviación británica, Richard Edwards y Peter J Edwards

Héroes y lugares emblemáticos de la aviación británica, Richard Edwards y Peter J Edwards

Héroes y lugares emblemáticos de la aviación británica, Richard Edwards y Peter J Edwards

Héroes y lugares emblemáticos de la aviación británica, Richard Edwards y Peter J Edwards

Sub: de los dirigibles a la era del jet

La mayoría de los capítulos comienzan con una breve biografía de una figura particular de la aviación británica y luego trazan los logros de la compañía que fundaron o de la aeronave o tecnología con la que estaban asociados. Algunos se centran más de cerca en una persona en particular, por lo que los capítulos sobre R.J. Mitchell o Herbert Smith se detienen con su muerte o su retiro de la industria aeronáutica. La mayoría de los demás terminan con el período de fusiones que finalmente vio a la mayor parte de la industria aeronáutica del Reino Unido consolidada en una sola empresa, ahora BAE Systems. El proceso de fusiones se aborda en el capítulo final, que nos lleva hasta la actualidad.

Los capítulos individuales pueden ser un poco dispersos, saltando de un tema a otro y, a veces, repetida información en dos lugares relacionados (en la biografía corta original y más adelante en la historia de la empresa, por ejemplo). A pesar de esto, todos son interesantes, ya que analizan las hazañas de algunas personas muy notables y la contribución que hicieron a la supervivencia británica y, finalmente, a la victoria en dos guerras mundiales. Te vuelves muy consciente de la importancia de las guerras para la mayoría de estas empresas: la Primera Guerra Mundial convirtió una industria incipiente en un empleador importante, y la Segunda Guerra Mundial vio a las empresas supervivientes expandirse a una escala antes inimaginable.

Este es un enfoque interesante de la historia de la industria aeronáutica británica, que se centra en las figuras clave que ayudaron a crear la industria o diseñaron algunos de sus aviones más importantes.

Capítulos
1 - Ernest Willows y el dirigible sobre el canal
2 - Short Brothers y el primer fabricante de aviones del mundo
3 - Geoffrey de Havilland y la carrera hacia Australia
4 - Vincent Richmond, el R101 y el fin de las ambiciones de los dirigibles británicos
5 - Sir George White y la Compañía de Aviones Británica y Colonial
6 - Thomas Sopwith y los camellos de Kingston
7 - Harry Hawker y el Hawker Hurricane
8 - RJ Mitchell y el nacimiento del Spitfire
9 - Herbert Smith y el desarrollo del luchador
10 - Charles Rolls, Henry Royce y la magia de Merlín
11 - Reginald Pierson y la saga de Wellington
12 - Alliott Verdon-Roe y el camino a Lancaster
13 - Frederick Handley Page y la apertura de Imperial Airways
14 - Charles Fairey y el viaje de pez espada a pez lanza
15 - Robert Blackburn y los Brough Buccaneers
16 - Robert Watson-Watt y los merodeadores del cielo nocturno
17 - Frank Whittle y la compañía Power Jets
18 - Harold Wilson y la Ley de Industrias Aeronáuticas y de Construcción Naval de 1977
Apéndice 1 - Resumen de las principales fusiones, adquisiciones y nacionalizaciones de la aviación británica
Apéndice 2 - Museos de aviación seleccionados del Reino Unido

Autor: Richard Edwards y Peter J Edwards
Edición: tapa dura
Páginas: 257
Editorial: Pen & Sword Aviation
Año 2012



Escuela No. 1 de Formación Técnica RAF

Escuela No. 1 de Formación Técnica (No. 1 S de TT) es la escuela de ingeniería aeronáutica de la Royal Air Force, con sede en RAF Halton desde 1919 hasta 1993, como el programa Hogar del Aprendiz de Aeronaves. El programa Aircraft Apprentice capacitó a hombres jóvenes en los oficios mecánicos para el mantenimiento de aeronaves, cuyos graduados eran los técnicos mejor capacitados de la RAF y, por lo general, progresaban a los rangos de suboficiales superiores. Sin embargo, noventa y un ex-aprendices alcanzaron el rango aéreo. Muchos más se convirtieron en oficiales comisionados, incluido Sir Frank Whittle, "padre del motor a reacción", que completó su aprendizaje en RAF Cranwell, antes de trasladarse a RAF Halton. [1] Los graduados del programa Aircraft Apprentice en RAF Halton son conocidos como Old Haltonians.


El escuadrón se formó en Swingate Down, cerca de Dover, Kent, Inglaterra en abril de 1916. [5] En noviembre de 1917, el escuadrón se desplegó en Francia y su primera operación fue en la Batalla de Cambrai. [6] Cuando terminó la Primera Guerra Mundial, el 49 Escuadrón pasó a formar parte de las fuerzas de ocupación y se disolvió en Alemania en julio de 1919. [7]

El escuadrón fue reformado en febrero de 1936 del vuelo 'C' en el Escuadrón No. 18 en RAF Bircham Newton. [7] El escuadrón se reformó inicialmente con aviones Hind y se trasladó a RAF Scampton en marzo de 1938. En septiembre del mismo año, el escuadrón comenzó a aceptar aviones Hampden, [5] el primer escuadrón operativo en hacerlo. [8]

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial llevaron a cabo el ataque al Canal Dortmund-Ems el 12 de agosto de 1940. En 1942, el Escuadrón N ° 49 se convirtió en Manchesters, luego Lancaster, y en octubre lideró el épico ataque al atardecer del Grupo N ° 5 contra el armamento Schneider y Locomotora trabaja en Le Creusot. En 1943, el escuadrón participó en la primera incursión de "bombardeo lanzadera" (cuando los objetivos eran Friedrichshafen y Spezia) y en la famosa incursión en Peenemünde. Entre los objetivos que atacó durante 1944 estaban la batería de cañones costeros en La Pernelle en la costa de Normandía, y los sitios de almacenamiento de bombas voladoras V-1 en las cuevas de St. Leu d'Esserent en el río Oise, a unas 30 millas al norte. al oeste de París. En diciembre de 1944, participó en un ataque a la flota alemana del Báltico en Gdynia y, en marzo de 1945, estuvo representado en la fuerza de bombarderos que pulverizó tanto las defensas de Wesel justo antes del cruce del Rin que los comandos pudieron apoderarse de la ciudad. con solo 36 bajas.

El Escuadrón permaneció con Lancaster hasta que fue reequipado con Lincolns en noviembre de 1949. Llevaron a cabo 2 turnos de servicio durante el Levantamiento de Kenia Mau Mau desde noviembre de 1953 a enero de 1954 y desde noviembre de 1954 a julio de 1955. Durante ambos recorridos fue comandado por el líder de escuadrón Alan E. Newitt DFC. Después de regresar al Reino Unido, el escuadrón se disolvió en RAF Upwood el 1 de agosto de 1955. [9]

Durante su segunda gira de operación Avro Lincoln SX984 se perdió en un accidente. [10]

Operaron el Vickers Valiant de RAF Wittering y RAF Marham desde el 1 de mayo de 1956 hasta el 1 de mayo de 1965.

El único Vickers Valiant (XD818) que queda, el que lanzó la primera bomba de hidrógeno británica en Christmas Island con 49 Sqn como parte de la Operación Grapple, se conserva en el Museo Cosford de la RAF, cerca de Wolverhampton. [11]

El SX984 se perdió en un accidente el 19 de febrero de 1955 mientras servía en Kenia durante el Levantamiento de Mau Mau.

Al regresar de una salida operacional de bombardeo a las 15.40 horas, alrededor de 1 hora y 25 minutos de tiempo de vuelo (el tiempo total en el aire hasta el momento del accidente fue de 1 hora y 33 minutos), el piloto del SX984 realizó varios pases bajos no autorizados sobre la caseta de la policía en Githunguri, donde otro La tripulación del escuadrón 49 estaba de visita. En el tercer pase de este tipo, el SX984 golpeó el techo de la cabaña y un poste de telégrafo, rompiendo parte del ala y parte de su morro. Entró en una subida empinada, se estancó y se estrelló contra el suelo a 8 millas al noroeste de Kiambu, matando a cinco miembros de la tripulación y cuatro civiles en el suelo. Un miembro de la tripulación visitante llamado Pierson logró sacar al Rear Gunner de los escombros, pero murió unas horas después a causa de sus heridas. [12]

El hallazgo de la Junta de Investigación fue que el accidente fue causado por desobediencia intencional de órdenes y vuelos bajos no autorizados.

Hay una ventana conmemorativa a la tripulación y los civiles muertos en el accidente en la iglesia de St Leonard, Sandridge en Hertfordshire, Reino Unido.


Buscar obituarios 1690-hoy

Buscar obituarios de periódicos

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¿Por qué buscar obituarios para investigaciones de historia familiar?

Una búsqueda de obituarios es más que saber cuándo murió su antepasado. Los obituarios son mini-narrativas de la vida de una persona que destacan los acontecimientos importantes entre "nacido el" y "fallecido". Descubra cómo vivían, amaban y recordaban sus antepasados. Sobre todo, una búsqueda de obituarios es a menudo el eslabón perdido o el punto de partida clave para aprender más sobre su historia familiar. Aunque los obituarios publicados en los periódicos no pueden reemplazar los registros oficiales de defunción, puede conocer detalles críticos sobre sus antepasados. Algunos de los hechos que puede encontrar en obituarios y avisos de defunción:

  • Nombre, lugar y año de nacimiento
  • Nombres de los niños, dónde vivían y su posición en el orden de nacimiento de la familia.
  • Nombres de los pueblos y ciudades de residencia y cuánto tiempo vivieron en cada uno
  • Edad del cónyuge (esposo, esposa) al momento de la muerte y hace cuánto tiempo fue
  • Detalles sobre la longevidad de padres y abuelos.
  • Nombre del cementerio, fecha y lugar del funeral y entierro

Archivos de obituarios de GenealogyBank

Nuestros archivos de obituarios incluyen más de 250 millones de obituarios de periódicos y registros de defunción que cubren más de 327 años de más de 9,000 periódicos. Y diariamente se agregan nuevos registros de obituarios. Puede buscar obituarios por nombre, estado, ciudad o publicación de periódico para limitar su búsqueda.

Consejos útiles para la búsqueda de obituarios:

  • Amplíe su búsqueda de obituarios para incluir varias localidades y periódicos.
  • Los obituarios se publican con frecuencia en los periódicos locales donde residió su antepasado fallecido o vivieron otros miembros de la familia.
  • Busque solo por el apellido de una persona.
  • Si no puede encontrar un obituario de un familiar fallecido recientemente por nombre y apellido, intente una búsqueda más amplia solo por su apellido para obtener más resultados

¿Qué puede decirle una búsqueda de obituarios de EE. UU. Sobre sus antepasados?

  • Los obituarios son exactamente como se publican en los periódicos locales, estatales y nacionales de EE. UU.
  • Recibimos el mismo "feed" de los periódicos que envían a las plantas de impresión.
  • Nuestro archivo de obituarios en línea se actualiza a lo largo del día e incluso incluye los obituarios que aparecerán en los periódicos de mañana de todo el país. Lee mas

Una breve historia de obituarios

Se han utilizado varios tipos de encabezados para obituarios a lo largo de los años, incluidos Defunciones, Obituarios, Muertos, In Memoriam, In Remembrance, Memoriales, etc.

Los obituarios han estado presentes en los periódicos durante siglos. A medida que los periódicos cambiaron a lo largo de los años, también lo hicieron los obituarios, pero su esencia sigue siendo la misma hasta el día de hoy.

Antes de que se inventara la máquina de linotipia en 1886, los editores solían configurar a mano el tipo para imprimir periódicos diarios. El proceso tomó tiempo, por lo que los periódicos solían tener varias páginas (solo cuatro páginas en la mayoría de los casos). Con menos páginas, había un espacio limitado para anuncios y artículos de noticias, por lo que los obituarios solían ser muy breves.

En la mayoría de los casos, un obituario era solo una frase que anunciaba que cierta persona había muerto. Los editores de los periódicos solían decidir quién debería tener un obituario más completo, basándose en el estado del difunto y su popularidad en la comunidad. Las personas famosas y aquellas que los editores pensaban que serían de gran interés general obtendrían obituarios más detallados.

    La duración del obituario del funeral de una persona dependía de varias cosas:
  • Que tan importantes fueron para la comunidad
  • Cuánto tiempo necesitaron los editores para investigar sobre el fallecido para escribir el obituario
  • Si el obituario necesita contar una historia importante

A medida que pasaban los siglos y los pueblos se convertían en ciudades, las familias empezaron a escribir obituarios por su cuenta para incluir detalles más importantes sobre sus parientes. La industria de los periódicos definió un nuevo término para estos obituarios escritos por los usuarios, "Death Notes". Los periódicos comenzaron a incluirlos como anuncios pagados y comenzaron a cobrar por publicar obituarios. El precio de un obituario generalmente dependía del recuento de palabras, el número de inserciones y la inclusión de fotos.

¿Qué podemos aprender de una búsqueda de obituarios?

Una búsqueda de obituarios puede brindarle muchos detalles sobre una persona en particular. Como anuncio de defunción publicado, puede ser un tributo con una biografía elaborada o un simple y breve aviso de defunción. A través de una búsqueda de obituarios, puede descubrir diversa información sobre el fallecido o sus familiares.

Por lo general, los obituarios contienen el nombre del difunto y la fecha del entierro. Aunque, es posible que no revelen la fecha de muerte. Por lo tanto, es posible que deba averiguarlo utilizando otros detalles, como la fecha en que se publicó el obituario. Sin embargo, como se dará cuenta al usar el buscador de obituarios, los obituarios también suelen contener información más detallada, como la fecha de nacimiento, los nombres del cónyuge, padres e hijos, fecha de matrimonio, estatus social, ocupación, educación y más. En muchos obituarios, puede encontrar la ubicación de los familiares del fallecido en el momento de su publicación.

La búsqueda de obituarios puede ser un proceso completo, pero la información que pueda encontrar podría valer la pena.

¿Por qué son importantes los archivos de obituarios?

Cada obituario cuenta una pequeña historia sobre la vida de una persona. A menudo, le dicen si la persona estaba casada o no, quiénes eran sus hijos, quiénes eran sus padres, los nombres de sus cónyuges y muchos otros detalles. Cuando busca obituarios, a menudo lo que encuentra es la única vez que una determinada persona ha aparecido en un periódico. Los obituarios se consideran un registro escrito duradero de la existencia de alguien. Los archivos de obituarios pueden reunir a familiares, antepasados, amigos, compañeros de vida y, a veces, incluso a extraños lejanos.

Desempeñan un papel crucial en la preservación de la historia. Un obituario representa un rastro escrito de la vida de una persona. Considerando que, muchos obituarios de la misma comunidad o del mismo período abrirán una ventana a las vidas de nuestros antepasados ​​y sus comunidades. Encontrar el obituario de una persona significa encontrar una puerta oculta que conduce a descubrimientos asombrosos. Los obituarios nos conectan a través del espacio y el tiempo, y nos ayudan a descubrir detalles importantes sobre familiares y amigos, preservando partes vitales de la historia y manteniéndolas seguras para las generaciones venideras.

¿Para qué se pueden utilizar las búsquedas de obituarios?

Los detalles que descubra pueden abrir una interesante aventura de investigación. Por ejemplo, el obituario de su antepasado inmigrante puede darle pistas sobre su lugar de nacimiento, de modo que pueda rastrear las raíces de su familia.

Si busca obituarios por nombre, es posible que pueda descubrir los apellidos de soltera de sus antepasados ​​femeninos. El obituario de un hombre puede contener el nombre de casada de su hermana o hija, y es posible que no pueda encontrar esa información en ningún otro lugar. Cuando encuentre obituarios de sus parientes, antepasados ​​o amigos, encontrará biografías detalladas. Podrá conocer sus antecedentes en su comunidad, qué hacían para ganarse la vida, si eran miembros de la iglesia o si pertenecían a una determinada sociedad o grupo distinguido.

Una búsqueda de aviso de defunción lo llevará atrás en el tiempo y le dará una idea de la vida de su antepasado y sus familiares más cercanos.


Los investigadores en el lugar del accidente de 1967 poco después de que un avión cohete X-15 de North American Aviation se rompiera a 62,000 pies mientras viajaba a 4,000 mph. (NASA) Más fotos

Peter Merlin y Tony Moore, fanáticos de la aviación confesos, encuentran y revisan los sitios de accidentes militares en Mojave como pasatiempo. A estas expediciones de fin de semana las llaman "arqueología aeroespacial".

Por W.J. Hennigan

Fotografía de Brian van der Brug

Video de Don Kelsen

Reportando desde Mojave

P eter Merlin camina penosamente por el desierto, esquivando la maleza de salvia y la creosota hasta que llega a un lugar estéril de vegetación. Señala una leve cicatriz en forma de media luna en la tierra de 100 pies de largo.

Merlín se arrodilla y recoge un puñado de arena y deja que se cuele entre sus dedos, dejando tres guijarros grises, cada uno no más grande que un cuarto.

"¿Ves estas rocas?" él pide. "En realidad son fragmentos de aluminio derretido. Este es el punto de impacto donde el ala voladora se estrelló y la tripulación perdió la vida. Aquí mismo. Este es el incidente que le dio su nombre a la Base de la Fuerza Aérea Edwards".

Los guijarros eran restos del YB-49, un bombardero experimental que se estrelló en 1948 con el capitán Glen Edwards y una tripulación de cuatro. Su prematura muerte llevó a los militares a cambiar el nombre de Muroc Air Force Base en su honor.

Encontrar y clasificar sitios de accidentes militares en Mojave es el pasatiempo y pasatiempo de Merlín. Él y Tony Moore, su socio en estas expediciones de fin de semana, lo llaman "arqueología aeroespacial".

"Vivir tan cerca de Edwards es como un egiptólogo que vive en Egipto", dijo Merlin. "Se le ha llamado el 'valle de los reyes'".

Los cielos sobre el desierto de Mojave son legendarios. El primer avión a reacción estadounidense voló aquí. La barrera del sonido se rompió aquí. Los transbordadores espaciales regresaron a la Tierra aquí. Pero menos anunciados son los fracasos y choques, trágicas notas al pie de estos notables logros.

Merlín y Moore se refieren a sí mismos como "Los X-Hunters", un guiño al uso de "X" de la Fuerza Aérea para nombrar aviones experimentales. Sus hallazgos han ampliado la comprensión de los militares sobre la historia aeroespacial del sur de California.

"Su valor para la oficina es excelente", dijo Richard Hallion, un funcionario jubilado que trabajó durante 20 años como historiador de la Fuerza Aérea. "En muchos casos, solo hubo una aproximación aproximada de dónde ocurrieron los accidentes".

Peter Merlin, en el centro, y Tony Moore, a la izquierda, en un monumento a la tripulación de un desafortunado vuelo de prueba YB-49 cerca de Mojave. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Más fotos

A pesar de la inmensidad del Mojave, hay pocos sitios de accidentes que Merlín y Moore aún no hayan encontrado. Han compilado una lista de más de 600 ubicaciones en medio de la arena y las rocas quemadas por el sol, y hasta ahora han examinado más de 100.

Merlín y Moore son unos confederados poco probables. Merlín, de 49 años, el introvertido, es propenso a pausas prolongadas al hablar. Tiene un fino bigote al estilo de Errol Flynn y es conocido por llevar un sombrero de safari y una chaqueta de cuero con "The X-Hunters" estampado en la espalda.

Moore, de 55 años, es un hombre corpulento y afable que camina con un bastón de trekking de metal debido a sus malas caderas. Creció en Northridge y durante mucho tiempo ha estado fascinado con Edwards, y parece tener una historia sobre cualquier avión que se haya construido.

Ambos trabajan en Edwards, pero en 1991, los fanáticos de la aviación confesos trabajaron en el aeropuerto de Burbank cuando tuvieron una conversación sobre la historia aeroespacial de la región. Moore le dijo a Merlín que había encontrado los restos del XB-70, un bombardero experimental que chocó con un F-104 en 1966.

Merlín estaba intrigado. Pero los aficionados a la aviación son reservados sobre la información que tienen, como los pescadores que no dirán dónde están los grandes, por lo que Moore le dio a Merlín instrucciones vagas sobre el sitio: unas 12 millas al norte de Barstow.

El lunes siguiente, Merlín llegó al trabajo sonriendo. Había encontrado el sitio.

"Me sorprendió", dijo Moore. "Debo haberle dado un área de dos millas para buscar. Pero lo encontró, para su crédito".

Ver el vídeo

Los aficionados a la aviación revisan la historia en el desierto

Merlin y Moore pasan su tiempo libre buscando y examinando los sitios de accidentes de aviones militares en Mojave.

Después de reconocer su enamoramiento compartido, decidieron unirse. Cuando los dos hombres comenzaron a investigar los restos de aviones, se basaron principalmente en archivos del museo de historia de Edwards y en un estudio de impacto ambiental de 1993 de la base que enumeraba solo 15 sitios.

En su primera expedición, Moore y Merlin recurrieron a un libro escrito por un ex piloto de pruebas que documentaba el accidente del mayor Michael Adams, quien murió en 1967 cuando el avión cohete North American Aviation X-15 que estaba pilotando se rompió en 62,000 pies mientras viaja a 4.000 mph.

Según el libro, los restos se ubicaron a varios kilómetros al noreste de Johannesburgo. Pero una vez que llegaron al lugar, el terreno no se parecía al que se mostraba en las fotografías granuladas en blanco y negro del libro.

Después de varias horas de búsqueda infructuosa, decidieron regresar a casa. Mientras conducían hacia la US 395, Moore notó una montaña en la distancia que se parecía a la que se muestra en el libro.

Se detuvieron en un camino de tierra y se dirigieron hacia la montaña. Más puntos de referencia comenzaron a alinearse. Había una cresta con un afloramiento de rocas blancas cerca de su cresta.

Salieron de su Jeep y comenzaron a caminar hacia la montaña, deteniéndose a intervalos para consultar el libro. Merlín luego miró al suelo y vio un trozo de tubo de metal desgastado por la intemperie.

"Estamos aquí", gritó, notando que el suelo estaba lleno de más fragmentos de metal.

Durante dos años, peinaron el campo de escombros y recuperaron 125 libras de piezas, incluida una luz de advertencia que probablemente brillaba en la cabina mientras Adams luchaba por salvarse a sí mismo y al avión. Estos artículos se encuentran en el museo de pruebas de vuelo en Edwards.

Un monumento ahora marca el sitio. Fue erigido en 2004. Más de 60 personas, incluidos Merlin, Moore y miembros de la familia de Adams, asistieron a la dedicación.

"A menudo nos acercamos a estos sitios desde una perspectiva histórica", dijo Merlin. "Pero hay un elemento humano que sigue vivo. Ver la reacción emocional de la familia realmente me mostró cuánto pueden significar los sitios para la gente".

Entre sus otros hallazgos se encuentra el lugar del accidente de otra ala volante, un bombardero experimental construido de madera, denominado N-9M. El avión cayó 12 millas al oeste de Edwards en 1943.

Los hombres también localizaron piezas del Bell X-2, que en 1956 se salieron de control, matando al piloto de pruebas Capitán Milburn Apt en el impacto en Kramer Hills en el borde este de la base.

Siete millas al oeste de la ciudad de California, encontraron la ubicación del accidente del NF-104A que habría matado a Chuck Yeager en 1963 si no hubiera sido expulsado a tiempo. Un accidente no fatal más reciente fue el X-31 que se estrelló a menos de media milla de California 58 en 1995.

Cuando un avión cae en el desierto, los militares intentan recuperar la mayor cantidad posible de restos. Recuperar piezas grandes y voluminosas es una prioridad.

He visto suficientes globos de Mickey Mouse desinflados para toda la vida ".

- Peter Merlin

La mayoría de las veces, Merlin y Moore buscan piezas más pequeñas, como revestimientos de acero inoxidable retorcidos, sujetadores y accesorios oxidados o solapas de capota aplastadas.

Exploran el horizonte en busca de metal reluciente cuando creen que están en el lugar correcto. Una vez descubrieron una parte de la aleta caudal. Pero encontrar tales artículos es raro y, a menudo, lo que piensan que es una pieza de un avión que brilla en la distancia termina siendo un globo de Mylar.

"He visto suficientes globos de Mickey Mouse desinflados para toda la vida", dijo Merlín.

Cuando encuentran algo que creen que pueden identificar, se lo llevan a casa y lo pesan y miden. Verifican la autenticidad de la pieza buscando números de serie, sellos de inspección o examinando un libro del fabricante en la aeronave. Después de documentarlo, lo donarán al museo de pruebas de vuelo u otras instituciones. Han escrito un libro sobre sus hazañas titulado "X-Plane Crashes".

Los críticos creen que la importancia de los hallazgos de los hombres es un poco exagerada. Raymond Puffer, historiador retirado de Edwards, dijo que su trabajo es más un pasatiempo que cualquier otra cosa.

Otros exploradores, como G. Pat Macha, prefieren dejar intactos los lugares del accidente.

"Ese es un gran problema en este campo: simplemente tomar una foto o llevarse las cosas a casa", dijo Macha, de 67 años, quien ha identificado y documentado sitios de accidentes en el sur de California durante 50 años.

Macha, sin embargo, aprecia que en lugar de aferrarse a lo que han recuperado, los dos hombres han devuelto sus hallazgos a la base.

Los turistas recorren el paisaje del desierto de Mojave en busca de escombros de un accidente X-15 de 1967 cerca de Johannesburgo. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Más fotos

Merlin y Moore se enorgullecen de ayudar a las familias que han perdido a un hijo o un padre en uno de estos accidentes fatales.

Mientras estaba de pie en el lugar del accidente YB-49 que mató a Edwards, Moore vio algo brillando en la tierra. Lo recogió: era un zafiro estrella, perfecto excepto por una pequeña astilla en un lado.

La pequeña piedra era un misterio hasta que Moore estaba hablando con un ingeniero que había estado en la base el día que se estrelló el YB-49.

El ingeniero mencionó que un miembro de la tripulación, el mayor Daniel H. Forbes, se había casado solo unas semanas antes del accidente. Su esposa le había regalado un anillo de zafiro. Los militares habían encontrado el engaste, pero no la piedra.

Moore se quedó atónito: "Encontramos la piedra", dijo. "Lo encontramos hace cinco años justo en el medio del sitio".

Envió por correo una fotografía del zafiro al personal de la Fuerza Aérea, que fue a visitar a la viuda de Forbes.

Había pasado medio siglo desde la tragedia. La viuda se había vuelto a casar y al principio no parecía recordar el anillo. Luego le mostraron las fotos.

Sin decir una palabra, se dirigió a su dormitorio y regresó con un anillo de zafiro en forma de estrella a juego en la mano. La piedra finalmente le fue devuelta en una ceremonia en la base aérea de Kansas que lleva el nombre de Daniel Forbes.

"Es increíble la cantidad de cosas que debían suceder para que ese anillo se reuniera con ella", dijo Moore. "Validó todo nuestro trabajo".


Estrella plateada

Los premios Silver Star Awards son el tercer premio más alto de los Estados Unidos exclusivamente para operaciones militares que involucran conflictos y ocupa el quinto lugar en la precedencia de premios militares detrás de la Medalla de Honor, las Cruces (Cruz de Servicio Distinguido, Cruz de la Armada y Cruz de la Fuerza Aérea), la Defensa Medalla de Servicio Distinguido (otorgada por el Departamento de Defensa) y Medallas de Servicio Distinguido de las distintas ramas de servicio. Es el premio más alto por valor de combate que no es exclusivo de ninguna rama específica que haya sido otorgada por el Ejército, la Armada, la Infantería de Marina, la Fuerza Aérea, la Guardia Costera y la Infantería de Marina Mercante. Puede ser brindado por cualquiera de los servicios individuales no solo a sus propios miembros, sino a miembros de otras ramas del servicio, aliados extranjeros e incluso a civiles por "valentía en acción" en apoyo de misiones de combate del ejército de los Estados Unidos. .

Debido a que la Estrella de Plata solo se otorga por valor de combate, los únicos dispositivos que se usan son:

    en lugar de premios adicionales Army / AF en lugar de un sexto premio Army / AF en lugar de premios adicionales Navy / USMC en lugar de un sexto premio Navy / USMC.

(Siete Premios de la Estrella de Plata, entonces, se mostrarían en la cinta como un OLC de Plata y 1 OLC de Bronce para el Ejército o la Fuerza Aérea. Para los Premios de la Armada / Infantería de Marina, sería una Estrella de Plata más 1 Estrella de Oro).

Establecido por el presidente Woodrow Wilson

La Medalla de la Estrella de Plata fue establecida por el presidente Woodrow Wilson como la "Estrella de la Citación" durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y fue otorgada únicamente por el Ejército de los EE. UU., Aunque fue entregada por el Departamento de Guerra a los miembros de la Marina y los Marines de los EE. UU. Originalmente, disponía que se usara una estrella de plata de 3/16 "en la cinta de la medalla de servicio para la campaña en la que se otorgó la mención. Basado libremente en el Certificado de mérito anterior, la Estrella de la mención estaba disponible retroactivamente para aquellos que se distinguieron mientras participaban en operaciones militares desde la Guerra Hispanoamericana. la "Citation Star" normalmente comenzaba:

"Por dirección del presidente, bajo las disposiciones de la ley del Congreso aprobada el 19 de julio de 1918 (Bul. No. 43, WD, 1918), los oficiales y soldados nombrados a continuación son citados por su valentía en acción y una estrella de plata puede colocarse en la cinta de las medallas de la victoria otorgadas a dichos oficiales y soldados ". (Una narración del acto o actos seguidos para cada hombre así citado).

El 22 de febrero de 1932, la fecha que habría sido el cumpleaños número 200 de George Washington, el Jefe de Estado Mayor del Ejército, general Douglas MacArthur, revivió la "Insignia al Mérito Militar (1782)" del general Washington como el Corazón Púrpura. Ese mismo año también defendió con éxito la conversión de la "Citation Star". Cuando su recomendación fue aprobada por el Secretario de Guerra, la estrella de plata de 3/16 'se convirtió de un dispositivo de cinta "a una medalla en toda regla.

Certificado de medalla al mérito - Predecesor de la estrella de plata

La Medalla de la Estrella de Plata fue diseñada por Rudolf Freund de Bailey, Banks y Biddle, y consistía en una estrella de bronce dorado de cinco puntas (apuntando hacia arriba en contraste con el diseño de punta hacia abajo de la Medalla de Honor) con una corona de laurel. en su centro. El diseño de la cinta incorporó los colores de la bandera y se parecía mucho al primer antecesor de la medalla, la Medalla del Certificado de Mérito. El reverso de la medalla está en blanco, salvo el texto en relieve "Por la valentía en acción", debajo del cual suele estar grabado el nombre del destinatario.

¿La estrella de plata está hecha de plata?

Técnicamente, Silver Star no está hecho de plata real. El tono dorado del bronce dorado. bronce dorado - La estrella parece estar en desacuerdo con el nombre del premio, Silver Star. El nombre Silver Star proviene de la historia de la Primera Guerra Mundial de la medalla y de la estrella plateada de 3/6 "que se muestra de manera prominente en el centro de la medalla.

La Medalla de la Estrella de Plata siguió siendo exclusivamente una condecoración del Ejército hasta el 7 de agosto de 1942, casi un año después de que comenzara la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En esa fecha, la Medalla de la Estrella de Plata fue ampliada por una Ley del Congreso para ser otorgada por el Departamento de Marina por acciones a partir del 7 de diciembre de 1941 (Ley Pública 702, 77 ° Congreso).

Estimamos que el número de medallas estrella de plata otorgadas durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y en la actualidad está entre 100.000 y 150.000. Si bien ese número parece bastante grande, en comparación con los más de 30 millones de hombres y mujeres estadounidenses que han servido en uniforme durante ese período de tiempo, es obvio que la Estrella de Plata es un premio poco común, otorgado a menos de 1 de cada 250 veteranos. del servicio militar.


ARTÍCULOS RELACIONADOS

Edwards dice que las mujeres deben teñirse el cabello con un color que requiera poco mantenimiento, como el moreno brillante (izquierda) y reservar para recortes regulares (derecha) para evitar las puntas abiertas.

Edwards dice que debe teñirse el cabello de un color que 'se fusione perfectamente con sus tonos naturales'

La elección de un tono cercano a su color natural también reducirá los tratamientos de aclarado y alta iluminación que pueden secar el cabello, agregó Edwards.

Debido a que el clima invernal aumenta la posibilidad de puntas abiertas, él dice que es una buena idea reservar para recortes regulares, una vez cada seis semanas aproximadamente, para mantener sus cerraduras en buenas condiciones.

Él dice que las herramientas de peinado calientes como alisadores y rizadores deben evitarse siempre que sea posible y reemplazarse con estilos creativos como trenzas que mantendrán el cabello saludable.

Edwards dice que las mujeres deben tratar su cabello como cuidan su piel porque ambos son dañados por el aire frío de la misma manera.

Y cuando se trata de proteger tu cabello de adentro hacia afuera, Edwards dice que todo se reduce a beber suficiente agua.

"Si está deshidratado por dentro, se verá por fuera", dijo.

Durante los meses más fríos del invierno, también recomienda cambiar el acondicionador por una mascarilla una o dos veces por semana y aplicar un suero ligero como Virtue Labs Healing Oil ($ 60) todos los días.

Las predicciones de la tendencia del cabello de Jaye Edwards para 2021

En una resurrección que pocos vieron venir, Edwards dice que el corte de pelo largo está de vuelta en una interpretación entrecortada y moderna del icónico peinado de la era disco.

Creado por el barbero Paul McGregor, el corte de pelo largo es un estilo que se ha acodado en varias longitudes y con plumas en la parte superior y los lados.

Los tonos castaños de aspecto natural y las rubias cobrizas están haciendo un gran regreso, dice Edwards, mientras que los tonos teñidos más obviamente han caído en desgracia.

'Timeless, classic and bold', Mr Edwards predicts a revival of the '90s-inspired pixie cut in 2021.

Short, layered bobs which grow out evenly over time are also making a comeback, as women opt for hassle-free styles that require little maintenance.

Curly hair is back in a big way as women embrace their natural waves and turn away from heated styling tools, according to Mr Edwards.

He previously told Daily Mail Australia the closure of beauty salons at the peak of the pandemic is responsible for the nationwide shift towards a more natural look.

Mr Edwards says if there's any hair colour that transcends season, it's bronde, a combination of brown and blonde-toned ombré shades and balayage that is flattering on almost anyone.

After years of platinum shades dominating the salon chair, this autumn Mr Edwards says he is getting more requests for warm blonde which helps to enhance the skin's natural glow, making you look younger.

'Shag' cuts (left) last popular in the 1970s and auburn colouring (right) are back in fashion, according to top Australian hairstylist Jaye Edwards


The prince found such restraints irksome, while his parents were upset by his refusal to marry and settle down. When the Prince’s choice fell on a twice-divorced American, Mrs Wallis Simpson, constitutional problems arose. Never steady or strong of will, the prince had to decide between Mrs Simpson and the Crown, which passed to him in 1936 on the death of his father George V. In the event, Edward VIII became the only British sovereign to resign the throne of his own will.

He abdicated on 10 December 1936, broadcasting a memorable farewell message by radio, and left the country to marry Mrs Simpson in France. He was made Duke of Windsor and lived abroad, maintaining friendly, if distant, links with his relatives until his death in 1972.

In this exclusive extract, we present a brief guide to Edward and Mrs Simpson’s relationship:

Mrs Simpson’s first introduction to Edward, Prince of Wales

In January 1931, Lady Furness held a weekend house party at Burrough Court, near Melton Mowbray, to which she invited the Prince of Wales. A married couple who were also on the guest list suddenly fell ill, and in their place she invited Mr and Mrs Ernest Simpson.

Like Lady Furness, Mrs Simpson was born in America, and was already once divorced. In 1928 she made a second marriage to Ernest Simpson, a native of New York who had served in the Coldstream Guards and become a naturalised British citizen. Though Mrs Simpson had lived in England for several years she still clung fiercely to her ‘American ways and opinions’, and her Baltimore accent was very pronounced. Hard-faced and by no means attractive, she was always elegant and well-dressed, and the Prince of Wales found her sympathetic, understanding and witty. Though she made little impression on him at their first meeting, she and her husband invited him to dine at their London flat a year later, and soon an invitation to spend a weekend at Fort Belvedere followed. The association, as she remarked in her memoirs, ‘imperceptibly but swiftly passed from an acquaintanceship to a friendship.’ Mutual friends and members of the household soon noticed that the Prince appeared to be infatuated by her as never before.

The King talks to the Prince of Wales about his future

Six days after the thanksgiving service for the 25th anniversary of the King and Queen’s accession to the throne, the King had a long and serious talk with the Prince of Wales about the future when he ascended to the throne, and regretting that he had never married. To this the Prince replied that he could never marry, as such a life had no appeal for him. When the King accused him of keeping Mrs Simpson as his mistress, the Prince reacted with anger and gave his word of honour that he had never had any immoral relations with her. He then begged the King to invite her to the Jubilee Ball at Buckingham Palace and to Ascot, which the King did with reluctance. It was a decision which caused the rest of the royal family as much mortification as it did the King to approve.

The Duke of York was especially shocked. He had already noticed with bitterness that Mrs Simpson was accepting large sums of money from the Prince of Wales, as well as jewellery – particularly family heirlooms bequeathed to the Prince by Queen Alexandra, who had taken it for granted that he would make a suitable marriage and would need them to give to his Queen Consort. On hearing about the interview that had passed between father and son he was aggrieved that the Prince of Wales should have lied to blatantly about his relationship with Mrs Simpson. He was sure that the two were lovers, suspicions soon to be confirmed by the Prince’s staff.*

*As Duke of Windsor, to the end of his days he denied that his wife had been his mistress during her second marriage. He successfully sued one author, Geoffrey Dennis, whose Coronation Commentary, published in 1937, referred to her having been his mistress, and some twenty years later threatened to take the official biographer of the late King George VI, John Wheeler-Bennett, to court if he did not drop the word ‘mistress’ from his book.

The Prince of Wales becomes King

On the afternoon of 16 January 1936, as he was shooting in Windsor Great Park, the Prince of Wales was handed a note written by Queen Mary. She had advised him that the royal physician, Lord Dawson of Penn, was ‘not too pleased with Papa’s state at the present moment’, and he should come to Sandringham, but in a casual manner so as not to alarm him.

Next morning, he flew to Sandringham in his private aeroplane. Later that day he telephoned Mrs Simpson to tell her that the King was unlikely to live for than two or three days. The Dukes of York and Kent joined them, leaving the Duke of Gloucester who was at Buckingham Palace, recovering from his laryngitis. On 20 January, shortly after midday, the King received his Privvy Counsellors for the last time. Propped up in an armchair, wearing his dressing-gown, he was too weak to do more than answer ‘Approved’ when the Lord President read out the order paper, and make two shaky marks signifying his initials G.R. on the document. Shortly before midnight, in the words of Lord Dawson, his life moved ‘peacefully to its close’.

Queen Mary’s first act as a widow was to kiss the hand of the eldest son, the new sovereign. Immediately afterwards, the new King telephoned Mrs Simpson with the news.

Edward’s relationship with his brother, the Duke of York, deteriorates

The new King’s penny-pinching (he had made cuts, dismissing members of staff and only telling the family once it was a hecho consumado) at a time when he was showering his mistress with lavish gifts lost him much sympathy from his servants and household. Shortly after his accession, a sanction was obtained that no man in royal employment should be dismissed without being offered alternative employment, but this rule was soon quietly dropped by the King. Servants resented having their wages cut when they spent much of their time loading furniture, plates and cases of champagne for despatch to Mrs Simpson’s flat. The King’s personal instruction that soap supplied for the guests in the royal residences, which was collected up after the guests had left and finished in the servants’ quarters, should in future be brought to his own rooms, was also ill-received below stairs.

At the time of her brother-in-law’s accession, the Duchess of York was in low spirits. Early in the new year she has been struck down with influenza, and was till very weak when the King died. She grieved for him, noting that unlike his own children she was never afraid of him, and in all the years she had known him ‘he never spoke one unkind or abrupt word to me.’ As yet she attached little importance to the King’s infatuation for Mrs Simpson, though a tasteless remark by the latter did nothing to raise her standing with the Duchess. She was told that in early February, during a conversation about court mourning, Mrs Simpson remarked that she had not worn black stockings since she gave up the Can-can.

It was noticed that the Yorks no longer visited Fort Belvedere, so much did they dislike what they heard of the King’s subservient behaviour towards Mrs Simpson. The Gloucesters did, but with deep misgivings. They were unhappy about the liaison, but the Duke felt personally obliged to go. The Kents did likewise, but the Duke was saddened that his eldest brother, who had always been so close, now appeared so remote and distant. Against her better judgement, the Duchess of Kent regularly invited her brother-in-law and Mrs Simpson to tea at Coppins and at their London home in Belgrave Square.

Mrs Simpson files for divorce

September 1936 had been a bad month for the royal family October was to bring more portents of the impending crisis. Edward VIII’s private secretary, Hardinge, was informed by the Press Association that Mrs Simpson’s divorce petition was to be heard at Ipswich Assizes on the 27th of the month. Aghast, he discussed the news with Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who went to see the King on 20 October to warn him what a scandal his ‘friendship’ with the lady was causing, and to ask him to try and prevent the divorce from going through. The King firmly declined. As yet, Baldwin took a less serious view of matters than Hardinge, who called upon the Duke and Duchess of York to warn them that the King’s abdication was a definite possibility.

Though the British press still adhered to a gentleman’s agreement that the name of Mrs Simpson should not appear in their columns, it was becoming an increasingly open secret that the King intended to marry her. Mrs Simpson’s decree nisi was granted on the grounds of Ernest’s adultery, but suspicion was rife that everything had been arranged for the convenience of her and the King. On 10 November, her name was publicly mentioned for the first time in the House of Commons. During question time, the Coronation was referred to, and Mr McGovern, Labour member for Shettleston, Glasgow, declared angrily that they need not bother to talk about it in view of the odds at Lloyd’s that there would be no Coronation. To cries of ‘Shame!’, he retorted, ‘Yes – Mrs Simpson!’

Abdication rapidly progressed from a grim but remote possibility, to inevitability. London was alive with rumours at all levels of society. Even friends of the King acknowledged, albeit with reluctance, that if the King married Wallis, he would have to abdicate immediately, otherwise there would be a renewed Socialist (and perhaps Republican) agitation, the formation of a King’s party, a Yorkist party, and a general election in which the King’s marriage and its acceptability or otherwise would be a major distraction at a time of recession and severe unemployment at home, and sabre-rattling from dictators abroad.

Abdication

On 16 November the King invited Baldwin to Buckingham Palace, and told him that he intended to marry Wallis Simpson at the earliest possible opportunity, whether his ministers approved or not. If they did not, he was prepared to abdicate. Later that evening he went to see Queen Mary at Marlborough House, and told her and the Princess Royal.

Since King George V’s death, mother and daughter had drawn very close to each other. Whenever she and her husband were at their London residence, the Princess Royal spent as much time as possible with the Queen, and during the crisis she was her mother’s greatest support. They were ‘astounded and shocked’ at his threat – or intention – to relinquish the throne. The Queen told him firmly that he must give up Wallis or the throne and it was his duty to give up the former. To this, he countered that he felt unable to function as King without marrying her, and therefore his ultimate duty was to leave the throne.

On the morning of 10 December, all four brothers were present at the signing of the Instrument of Abdication. With a degree of calmness which astonished the others, King Edward signed several copies of the Instrument and then five copies of his message to Parliament, one for each Dominion Parliament.

There were still difficulties to be resolved in what was an unprecedented situation. Never before had a British monarch voluntarily abdicated the British throne. The last King to be deposed, James II (in 1688, coincidentally also on 11 December), had never formally renounced the throne and still called himself King during his remaining twelve years of exile abroad. Edward was suddenly worried about how badly off he would be, and requested that the terms of his father’s will should be strictly observed as regards his life interest in Balmoral and Sandringham they should be treated as absolutely his, for him to dispose of as he saw fit. There was uncertainty as to whether he would be provided for by government, and whether the life or freehold interest in Balmoral passed to the crown under Scottish law. A few minor alterations were agreed and signed. Neither his brother nor Lord Wigram realised that he had made huge savings in his personal fortune for such an eventuality. When they did, it added to the anger and resentment they already felt at his rejecting his responsibilities as King and head of the family, while being unwilling to accept the financial consequences of doing so.

Another issue to be settled was the outgoing sovereign’s future title. As he was born the son of a Duke, he would be Lord (instead of a plain Mr) Edward Windsor, and under such a name he could stand for election to the House of Commons. The chance that Mrs Simpson might persuade him to do so did not escape their notice. Only be confirming him as HRH Duke of Windsor could he be barred from doing so, and the Duke of York maintained that he could not speak or vote in the House of Lords† but he would not be deprived of his position in the army, navy or Royal Air Force.

At 1:52 p.m. on Friday 11 December, ‘that dreadful day’, in the phrase of the new King, Britain witnessed her third sovereign in eleven months. Prince Albert, Duke of York, was now King George VI. He had chosen his regnal name a few days earlier preferring to take the same one as his father in order to demonstrate a sense of continuity with the latter’s reign, and in preference to the name of Albert, which he recognised had too Germanic a ring.

† This was technically incorrect. Royal dukes can speak in the House of Lords. The sons of King George III, and King Edward VII as Prince of Wale, had previously done so as would Prince Charles and Richard, Duke of Gloucester many years later. The former King Edward VIII’s title was created by Letters Patent on 8 March 1937.

The Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson marry

A week before King George’s 1937 Coronation, the Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson were reunited. On 3 May, she was informed that the decree had been made absolute, and she called the Duke in Austria. He caught the ‘Orient Express’ from Salzburg that afternoon and met her at the Château de Candé, central France, at lunchtime the following day.

Candé, which belonged to a very rich French-born naturalised American named Charles Bedaux, had been chosen for the Windsors’ marriage. The Duke had sadly resigned himself to the fact that none of his family would be attending, and Sir Edward Metcalfe accepted an invitation to be his best man. What rankled far more deeply, however, was King George VI’s refusal to raise Wallis to royal rank upon their marriage.

The wedding took place as arranged on 3 June. A civil marriage by the Mayor of Monts was followed by a religious ceremony at which the Reverend R. Anderson Jardine officiated. Jardine, vicar of St Paul’s Church, Darlington, was warned by the Bishop of Durham that he had ‘no episcopal licence or consent’ to conduct the ceremony, but went ahead anyway.

Extracted from George V's Children by John Van Der Kiste


Early life and ministry

Edwards’s father, Timothy, was pastor of the church at East Windsor, Connecticut his mother, Esther, was a daughter of Solomon Stoddard, pastor of the church at Northampton, Massachusetts. Jonathan was the fifth child and only son among 11 children he grew up in an atmosphere of Puritan piety, affection, and learning. After a rigorous schooling at home, he entered Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut, at the age of 13. He was graduated in 1720 but remained at New Haven for two years, studying divinity. After a brief New York pastorate (1722–23), he received the M.A. degree in 1723 during most of 1724–26 he was a tutor at Yale. In 1727 he became his grandfather’s colleague at Northampton. In the same year, he married Sarah Pierrepont, who combined a deep, often ecstatic, piety with personal winsomeness and practical good sense. To them were born 11 children.

The manuscripts that survive from his student days exhibit Edwards’s remarkable powers of observation and analysis (especially displayed in “ Of Insects”), the fascination that the English scientist Isaac Newton’s optical theories held for him (“ Of the Rainbow”), and his ambition to publish scientific and philosophical works in confutation of materialism and atheism (“ Natural Philosophy”). Throughout his life he habitually studied with pen in hand, recording his thoughts in numerous hand-sewn notebooks one of these, his “Catalogue” of books, demonstrates the wide variety of his interests.

Edwards did not accept his theological inheritance passively. In his “ Personal Narrative” he confesses that, from his childhood on, his mind “had been full of objections” against the doctrine of predestination—i.e., that God sovereignly chooses some to salvation but rejects others to everlasting torment “it used to appear like a horrible doctrine to me.” Though he gradually worked through his intellectual objections, it was only with his conversion (early in 1721) that he came to a “delightful conviction” of divine sovereignty, to a “new sense” of God’s glory revealed in Scripture and in nature. This became the centre of Edwards’s piety: a direct, intuitive apprehension of God in all his glory, a sight and taste of Christ’s majesty and beauty far beyond all “notional” understanding, immediately imparted to the soul (as a 1734 sermon title puts it) by “a divine and supernatural light.” This alone confers worth on humanity, and in this consists salvation. What such a God does must be right—hence Edwards’s cosmic optimism. The acceptance and affirmation of God as he is and does and the love of God simply because he is God became central motifs in all of Edwards’s preaching.

Under the influence of Puritan and other Reformed divines, the Cambridge Platonists, and British philosopher-scientists such as Newton and Locke, Edwards began to sketch in his manuscripts the outlines of a “ Rational Account” of the doctrines of Christianity in terms of contemporary philosophy. In the essay “ Of Being,” he argued from the inconceivability of absolute Nothing to the existence of God as the eternal omnipresent Being. It was also inconceivable to him that anything should exist (even universal Being) apart from consciousness hence, material things exist only as ideas in perceiving minds the universe depends for its being every moment on the knowledge and creative will of God and “spirits only are properly substance.” Further, if all knowledge is ultimately from sensation (Locke) and if a sense perception is merely God’s method of communicating ideas to the mind, then all knowledge is directly dependent on the divine will to reveal and a saving knowledge of God and spiritual things is possible only to those who have received the gift of the “new sense.” This grace is independent of human effort and is “irresistible,” for the perception of God’s beauty and goodness that it confers is in its very nature a glad “consent.” Nevertheless, God decrees conversion and a holy life as well as ultimate felicity and he has so constituted things that “means of grace” (e.g., sermons, sacraments, even the fear of hell) are employed by the Spirit in conversion, though not as “proper causes.” Thus, the predestinarian preacher could appeal to the emotions and wills of humankind.


10 All-Time Great Pilots

WHEN WE ASSEMBLED THE FOLLOWING LISTS OF GREAT PILOTS (and the list of milestone flights that follows), we faced the same dilemma that Von Hardesty, a National Air and Space Museum aeronautics curator, faced as author of Great Aviators and Epic Flights (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2003). "If you mention Jean Mermoz," Hardesty writes in the introduction, "Why not Henry Guillaumet, who crashed and survived a six-day ordeal in the Andes? If you cover the crossing of the English Channel by Louis Blériot, why not the transcontinental aerial trek of Cal Rodgers? When the chapter outline was shown to one curator, he remarked, 'The problem is who to omit!' Such an observation genuinely haunted all of us who designed and worked on this book."

1. James H. Doolittle

At age 15, Doolittle built a glider, jumped off a cliff, and crashed. Undaunted, he hauled the pieces home, stuck them back together, and returned to the cliff. After his second plunge, there was nothing left to salvage. In 1922, Lieutenant Doolittle made a solo crossing of the continental United States in a de Havilland DH-4 in under 24 hours. The Army sent him back to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where in 1925 he earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering. Two years later, he climbed to 10,000 feet in a Curtiss Hawk, pushed the stick forward until he saw red (negative Gs make blood pool in the head), and performed the first outside loop. In 1929, aided by Paul Kollsman’s altimeter and Elmer Sperry’s artificial horizon and directional gyro, he flew from takeoff to landing while referring only to instruments. “Aviation has perhaps taken its greatest single step in safety,” declared the New York Times.

He next took up air racing and collected the major trophies: the Schneider in 1925 with a Curtiss seaplane, the Bendix in 1931 with the Laird Super Solution, and the Thompson in 1932 in one of the treacherous Gee Bees, when he also set the world’s landplane speed record. With this triumph, he observed: “I have yet to hear of anyone engaged in this work dying of old age,” and retired from racing.

In 1942 Doolittle was sent off to train crews for a mysterious mission. He ended up leading the entire effort. On April 18, 1942, 15 North American B-25s staggered off a carrier and bombed Tokyo. Most ditched off the Chinese coast or crashed other crew members had bailed out, including Doolittle. Though he was crushed by what he called his “failure,” Doolittle was awarded the title Brigadier General and a Congressional Medal of Honor, which, he confided to General Henry “Hap” Arnold, he would spend the rest of his life earning.

2. Noel Wien

Thanks to Noel Wien, Alaska has a higher ratio of aircraft and pilots to residents than any other state. In the 1920s, almost single-handedly, Wien introduced the airplane to Alaska, and over some 50 years, aircraft became virtually the primary mode of transport in the vast and thinly populated state, which is twice the size of Texas and infinitely less hospitable in climate and geography.

Wien, a native of Minnesota, arrived in Anchorage in June 1924 at age 25 with his first aircraft, an open-cockpit Standard J-1 biplane. Being the only flier in Alaska that summer and the next, and with little competition for a number of years thereafter, just about every flight he made was a first, starting with a flight from Anchorage over the Alaskan Range to Fairbanks. Wien was the first in Alaska and Canada to fly north of the Arctic Circle, and made the first commercial flight between Fairbanks and Nome. He was first to fly the Arctic Coast commercially, the first to fly from North America to Siberia via the Bering Strait, and ultimately the first to fly a year-round service, throughout the vicious winters. All this with sketchy maps, no radio, and virtually no paved landing strips.

Wien got so good, writes author Ira Harkey in Pioneer Bush Pilot: The Story of Noel Wien, he could land the Standard in a mere 300 feet. Surveyor Sam O. White said: “I don’t belive there was ever anyone around here who could get everything out of an aiplane like Noel Wien did. It was like the wings were attached to his own shoulders.”

Wien’s flights broke other records as well. In 1927 he noted, “the last boat leaving in October didn’t mean isolation from the States until the first boat next June. For the first time ever, Nome got mail and fresh foods for Thanksgiving. Everybody looked forward to getting Christmas mail and foods, but they were disappointed—I was down on a lake in a blizzard Christmas Day.”

Wien flew everything and everybody to everywhere: bodies to burial sites, tourists to stunning views, gold dust from prospectors to market, sick folks to hospitals, trappers and dogs to hunting grounds. He lost an eye to infection in 1946, but he was able to hold on to his medical certificate and continued flying commercially until 1955. Wien stopped counting flight hours at 11,600.

3. Robert A. Hoover

After his Spitfire was shot down by a Focke-Wulf 190 over the Mediterranean in 1944, Hoover was captured and spent 16 months in the Stalag Luft 1 prison in Barth, Germany. He eventually escaped, appropriated an Fw 190 (which, of course, he had never piloted), and flew to safety in Holland. After the war Hoover signed up to serve as an Army Air Forces test pilot, flying captured German and Japanese aircraft. He became buddies with Chuck Yeager Hoover was Yeager’s backup pilot in the Bell X-1 program, and he flew chase in a Lockheed P-80 when Yeager first exceeded Mach 1.

Hoover moved on to North American Aviation, where he testflew the T-28 Trojan, FJ-2 Fury, AJ-1 Savage, F-86 Sabre, and F-100 Super Sabre, and in the mid-1950s he began flying North American aircraft, both civil and military, at airshows. Jimmy Doolittle called Hoover “the greatest stick-and-rudder man who ever lived.”

Hoover is best known for the “energy management” routine he flew in a Shrike Commander, a twin-engine business aircraft. This fluid demonstration ends with Hoover shutting down both engines and executing a loop and an eight-point hesitation slow roll as he heads back to the runway. He touches down on one tire, then the other, and coasts precisely to the runway center.

Despite the numerous awards accorded him, Hoover remains humble enough to laugh at himself. He notes in his autobiography, Forever Flying, that in the 1950s, after showing off his Bugatti racer to the neighborhood kids, he asked, “Well, what do you think?” One youngster’s reply: “I think you’ve got the biggest nose I’ve ever seen.”

4. Charles A. Lindbergh

The young man who would give aviation its biggest boost since the Wright brothers got his start in aviation as a wingwalker, barnstormer, and parachutist. His proficiency in the latter art paid off when he had to bail out of a trainer during his Army stint and another three times while flying the Chicago-St. Louis mail run for the Robertson Air Corporation.

Any collection of photos of Lindbergh can easily be divided into pre-Atlantic crossing and post. There are many broad smiles before he flew solo nonstop from New York to Paris in May 1927 not many thereafter. Lindbergh was assaulted by the media and besieged by the adulation of the entire United States. By 1929, when Lindbergh was surveying cross-country routes for Transcontinental Air Transport and posing with movie stars to publicize the airline, the smile had vanished.

Lindbergh made his greatest survey flight in 1931 for Pan Am, when he and his wife and radio operator/navigator Anne Morrow set out in a Lockheed Sirius on floats to establish the shortest air route from New York to China via Churchill in Canada, Nome, Petropavlosk, Tokyo, and Nanking. Two years later the pair scoped out north and south Atlantic cities for operational facilities on Pan Am’s transatlantic routes. This round-the-Atlantic flight in the Sirius encompassed landings in Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Scotland, Portugal, the Canary Islands, Brazil, and Puerto Rico.

In 1944, Lindbergh tested the Vought F4U Corsair in the field—the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific—and flew several missions with the U.S. Marines, downing a Japanese Zero. In New Guinea, he demonstrated to Army Air Forces pilots a fuel-saving technique that extended the range of the Lockheed P-38 from 575 to 750 miles. Charles Lindbergh’s flight to Paris was just the beginning of his career.

His daughter Reeve revealed Lindbergh’s method and his mastery when she recalled flying with him in an Aeronca Champion whose engine had quit: “He was persuading and willing and coaxing that airplane into doing what he wanted it to do, leaning it like a bobsled right down where it could safely land. He could feel its every movement as though it were his own body. My father wasn’t flying the airplane, he was being the airplane. That’s how he always done it.”

5. Charles E. Yeager

As a young Army Air Forces pilot in training, Yeager had to overcome airsickness before he went on to down 12 German fighters, including a Messerschmitt 262, the first jet fighter. After the war, still in the AAF, he trained as a test pilot at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, where he got to fly the United States’ first jet fighter, the Bell P-59, which he took on a joyride, flying low over the main street of his West Virginia hometown.

Yeager then went to Muroc Field in California, where Larry Bell introduced him and fellow test pilot Bob Hoover to the Bell XS-1. In his autobiography, Yeager, he says that Bell, in assuring them that a deadstick landing would be a piece of cake, bragged that “[W]ithout fuel aboard, she handles like a bird.”

“A live bird or a dead one?” Hoover asked.

In Yeager’s hands, the bullet-shaped XS-1 performed as advertised, and on October 14, 1947, ignoring the pain of two cracked ribs, he reached Mach 1.07 and lived to tell about it. The X-1 was not designed to take off under its own power it was air-dropped from a mothership. In January 1949, Yeager fired up the X-1’s four rockets on the runway. “There was no ride ever in the world like that one!” he later wrote. The aircraft accelerated so rapidly that when the landing gear was retracted, an actuating rod snapped and the wing flaps blew off.

He also managed to fly the Douglas X-3, Northrop X-4, and Bell X-5, as well as the prototype for the Boeing B-47 swept-wing jet bomber. The Bell X-1A nearly ate him for breakfast one December day in 1953. Yeager thought he could coax the X-1A to Mach 2.3 and bust Scott Crossfield’s Mach 2 record, achieved in the Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket. At 80,000 feet and Mach 2.4, the nose yawed, a wing rose, and the X-1A went berserk “in what pilots call going divergent in all three axes,” Yeager wrote. “I called it hell.” He was able to recover at 25,000 feet.

Yeager was sent to Okinawa in 1954 to test a Soviet MiG-15 that a North Korean had used to defect. When he stopped test-flying that year, he had logged 10,000 hours in 180 types of military aircraft.

6. Scott Crossfield

When Navy fighter pilot and flight instructor Scott Crossfield heard about the Bell Experimental Sonic XS-1 under construction in 1947, he wrote to its manufacturer proposing that he be named its first test pilot he offered to fly it for free. Bell did not reply, but no matter: In 1950 Crossfield was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and sent to Edwards Air Force Base in California to fly the world’s hottest X-planes, including the X-1, the tail-less Northrop X-4, the Douglas D-558-I Skystreak and D-558-II Skyrocket, the Convair XF-92A (which he pronounced “under-powered, under- geared, underbraked, and overweight”), and the Bell X-5. He made 100 rocket-plane flights in all. On November 20, 1953, he took the D-558-II to Mach 2.04, becoming the first pilot to fly at twice the speed of sound.

He gained a reputation as a pilot whose flights were jinxed: On his first X-4 flight, he lost both engines in the Skyrocket, he flamed out the windshield iced over in the X-1. After a deadstick landing in a North American F-100, he lost hydraulic pressure and the Super Sabre slammed into a hangar wall. Forever after, Chuck Yeager crowed, “The sonic wall was mine the hangar wall was Crossfield’s.”

Despite the many thrills at Edwards in the Golden Age of X-Planes, Crossfield was seduced by an aircraft on the North American drawing board. In 1955, he quit the NACA and signed on with the manufacturer, where he found his calling with the sinister-looking X-15. Crossfield made the first eight flights of the X-15, learning its idiosyncrasies, and logged another six after NASA and Air Force pilots joined the program. On flight number 4, the fuselage buckled right behind the cockpit on landing, but he had his closest call on the ground, while testing the XLR-99 engine in June 1960. “I put the throttle in the stowed position and pressed the reset switch,” Crossfield wrote in his autobiography Always Another Dawn. “It was like pushing the plunger on a dynamite detonator. X-15 number three blew up with incredible force.” Fire engines rushed to extinguish the blaze, and Crossfield was extracted from the cockpit. “The only casualty was the crease in my trousers,” he told reporters. “The firemen got them wet when they sprayed the airplane with water.” You sure it was the firemen? a reporter asked. Yes, he was sure, he aid. “I pictured the headline: ‘Space Ship Explodes Pilot Wets Pants.’ ”

7. Erich Hartmann

Unlike the rest of the pilots in “Ten Great,” Erich Hartmann flew only one aircraft type, and did almost all his flying during World War II. But his downing a mindboggling 352 enemy aircraft and earning the title of the Greatest Ace of All Time, No Kidding, places him on this list fair and square.

Hartmann’s mother taught him to fly gliders in his teens. He enlisted in the Luftwaffe in 1940, and his profiency at gunnery school marked him as a rising star. When he arrived on the Eastern Front at age 20, he was nicknamed Bubi (boy) by fellow pilots, and took to the Messerschmitt Me 109 like a duck to water. Hartmann’s winning technique was to fly so close to the enemy that he couldn’t miss. In November 1942 he scored his first victory, and within a year had downed 148 aircraft. The number of medals and awards seemed to keep pace with the number of fallen aircraft, which reached 301 in August 1944.

His superiors deemed him too valuable an asset to remain in combat (he was forced down 16 times) and called him back to test the Messerschmitt Me 262. But Hartmann was dedicated to fighting the Soviets and finagled a reassignment to the front. He was made a group commander and downed another 51 aircraft before Germany surrendered. In less than three years, he had flown 825 combat sorties.

Hartmann spent 10 years in a Russian prison. Three years after his release in 1955, he was commanding West Germany’s first all-jet fighter wing. He remained with the air force for another 15 years.

8. Anthony W. LeVier

Along with the P-38, the U-2, and the SR-71, Tony LeVier was one of Lockheed’s most prized legends. LeVier cut his teeth on air racing and placed second in the 1939 Thompson Trophy Race. The next year he was hired as a test pilot by General Motors then he moved to Lockheed.

LeVier flight-tested the P-38 Lightning to the ragged edges of its envelope and was sent to England to teach Eighth Air Force pilots how to get the most out of it. On one harrowing flight, in a 60-degree dive at over 500 mph initiated at 35,000 feet, the airplane started to nose over LeVier hauled back on the stick, trying to maintain dive angle. What saved him were dive-recovery flaps that engineers had just installed to prevent this very problem. At 13,000 feet, LeVier slowly regained control. “My strain gauges were set for 100 percent of limit load,” he reported in Test Pilots by Richard Hallion, “and they were all over 100 and all the red warning lights were on when I finally got out of the dive.”

Next up: the XP-80A, the nation’s first operational jet fighter. In 1945, by which time he was Lockheed’s chief test pilot, an XP-80’s turbine disintegrated and took the tail off the airplane. LeVier bailed out and crushed two vertebrae upon landing, an injury that grounded him for six months. He later called it “the most horrifying experience of my whole flying career.”

After World War II ended, LeVier worked with the model 75 Saturn and XR60-1 Constitution transports, and on the side bought a P-38 and got back into air racing. In 1946 he again placed second in the Thompson race. LeVier was the first to fly the XF-90, the YF-94 Starfire, the XF-104 Starfighter, and the U-2. (In Kelly: More Than My Share of It All, Lockheed designer Kelly Johnson recounts that when LeVier first saw the F-104, he asked, “Where are the wings?”—a question a great many others at least wondered about.) In 1950 he piloted the first Lockheed aircraft to surpass Mach 1, an F-90, which he dove at an angle of 60 degrees to reach 900 mph. When LeVier retired in 1974, he had made the first flights of 20 aircraft, had flown some 240 types of aircraft, and had survived eight crashes and a mid-air collision.

9. Jean Mermoz

In January 1921, on his third try, Jean Mermoz got his pilot’s license. Three years later, he signed up as a pilot with Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère, and set out to attain the goal of aircraft designer Pierre Latécoère: to create an airmail line linking Europe with Africa and South America.

In 1926, Mermoz had engine trouble over the Mauritanian desert and made an emergency landing. He was captured by nomadic Moors and held prisoner until a ransom was paid—a common practice and one of the many torments on the Latécoère airmail routes, which linked Toulouse to Barcelona, Casablanca, and Dakar. Mermoz was lucky—five Latécoère pilots were killed by Moors. Other hazards: the hostile Sahara, impenetrable Andes, and 150-mph winds that roiled over the southern Argentine coast.

In 1927, Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère became Compagnie Général Aéropostale, and Mermoz took charge of the South American routes. He made Aéropostale’s first South American night flight in April 1928 from Natal in Brazil to Buenos Aires in Argentina, along a route unmarked by any sort of beacon. After he showed the way, mail delivery was no longer restricted to daylight-only operations.

Mermoz next tackled shortening the Argentina-to-Chile route pilots had to make a thousand-mile detour to get around the Andes. With mechanic Alexandre Collenot, Mermoz set out in a Latécoère 25 monoplane and found an updraft that carried them through a mountain pass, but a downdraft smashed the aircraft onto a plateau at 12,000 feet. After determining that they could not hike out, Mermoz cleared a crude path to the edge of the precipice and removed from the aircraft anything that wasn’t bolted down. He and Collenot strapped themselves in, and Mermoz got the airplane rolling down the path. In effect, they dove off the mountain, and Mermoz pointed the nose straight down, hoping to gain flying speed. Again, luck was with him. And in July 1929, with the acquisition of Potez 25 open-cockpit biplanes that had a much higher ceiling than the Laté 25, Mermoz and Henry Guillaumet opened a scheduled route between Buenos Aires and Santiago.

In early 1930, Aéropostale looked to bridge the Atlantic. Mermoz, in a new Latécoère 28 float-equipped monoplane, took off on May 12 from St. Louis, Senegal, with a navigator, a radio operator, and a load of mail. As night fell, they flew into a series of waterspouts that rose into stormy clouds. In Wind, Sand and Stars, published in 1940, fellow Aéropostale pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote: “Through these uninhabited ruins Mermoz made his way, gliding slantwise from one channel of light to the next, flying for four hours through these corridors of moonlight. And this spectacle was so overwhelming that only after he had got through the Black Hole did Mermoz awaken to the fact that he had not been afraid….”

Mermoz flew 1,900 miles in 19.5 hours, and landed in the Natal harbor the next morning. “Pioneering thus, Mermoz had cleared the desert, the mountains, the night, and the sea,” Saint-Exupéry wrote. “He had been forced down more than once…. And each time that he got safely home, it was but to start out again.”

The U.S. press called Mermoz “France’s Lindbergh.” On December 7, 1936, Mermoz departed Africa in a fourengine seaplane, bound for Brazil, on the weekly mail run. It was his 28th Atlantic crossing. Neither he nor his crew were seen again.

10. Jacqueline Auriol

The daughter-in-law of Vincent Auriol, president of France from 1947 to 1954, Jacqueline Auriol learned to fly so she could escape the stuffy protocol of the Palais Elysée. Her mentor, instructor Raymond Guillaume, imbued her with a passion for aerobatics. After the crash of a Scan 30 amphibian in which she was a passenger, she faced 22 surgeries to put her face back together yet, her first words in the ambulance rushing her to the hospital were “Will it be long before I can fly again?”


21–23 June 1937

Work order for Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra at Bandoeng, 21–23 June 1937. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections) por


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