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Cronología de Sir Thomas More

Cronología de Sir Thomas More


El ascenso y la caída de Sir Thomas More

Thomas More nació en Londres el 7 de febrero de 1478, hijo de un destacado abogado. Fue a una de las mejores escuelas de Londres y luego estudió griego en Oxford. Su padre lo persuadió de que cambiara sus actividades académicas por leyes. Había considerado seriamente convertirse en monje en una etapa, pero en su lugar se convirtió en abogado. En 1504 fue elegido diputado.

Era amigo de Erasmo, mantenían correspondencia frecuente.

Probablemente influenciado por su lectura de la filosofía griega y por su contacto con los humanistas, escribió utopía en 1516.

Llegó a la atención del rey bastante temprano en el reinado. (A Henry le gustaba pensar que era un poco intelectual y se rodeaba de poetas, escritores y filósofos notables). More se vio invitado a cortejar cada vez con más frecuencia. Fue ascendido a canciller en 1529.

Wolsey cayó en parte porque no consiguió el divorcio del rey de Catalina de Aragón. Henry lo reemplazó con otro hombre que no estaba completamente comprometido con asegurarle el divorcio. More se encontraba cada vez más dividido entre lo que se le pedía como canciller y su propia conciencia. Dimitió en mayo de 1532 por motivos de salud.

Fue invitado al matrimonio de Enrique y Ana, pero declinó la invitación. Henry estaba enojado por esta afrenta. Aquellos que estaban cerca del rey y que buscaban mejorar sus posiciones aprovecharon esta oportunidad, y pronto More fue citado a la corte por acusaciones de aceptar un soborno. El cargo fue retirado.

En 1533, Enrique aprobó el Acta de Supremacía y el Acta de Sucesión, que lo convirtió en el Jefe de la iglesia católica en Inglaterra y todos los hijos de Ana herederos del trono. Se hizo que todos los adultos declararan un juramento aceptando los cambios. En el preámbulo del Acta de Sucesión, hubo una negación del Papa como cabeza de la iglesia católica en Inglaterra. More no contradijo el juramento, pero se negó a prestarlo (al igual que el obispo John Fisher).

Fue enviado a la Torre de Londres, donde permaneció prisionero durante 14 meses.

El 7 de mayo comenzó su juicio. Su principal argumento de defensa era que se estaba condenando a un hombre por guardar silencio, y esto no constituía traición. Se dice que dijo: `` Es solo Dios quien puede juzgar los secretos del corazón ''. Pero con testigos como Richard Rich (su antiguo alumno) testificando en su contra, y estando predeterminada la decisión del rey y el consejo, se puso de pie. pocas posibilidades, y probablemente él lo sabía. Hubiera sido demasiado peligroso para Henry, tan tarde en el juego, que el argumento de More ganara.

Fue ejecutado en la Torre y su cabeza fue colocada en el Puente de Londres durante muchas semanas, hasta que su hija la compró.

La reputación histórica de más

Thomas More's la reputación podría precederle. Se ha escrito, jugado y filmado tanto sobre él desde su muerte, que es difícil separar al hombre del mito y descubrir quién es el verdadero Tomás Moro lo era.

Fue canonizado por la Iglesia Católica en 1935.

Tiene un obelisco dedicado a él en Rusia.

Desempeñó el papel de un 'modelo moral' al comienzo del juicio político contra el presidente Clinton en enero de 1999.

William Roper escribió sobre él en 1557, "de conciencia limpia y sin mancha. más pura y blanca que la nieve más blanca & quot.

Desde hace mucho tiempo la imagen popular de Moro ha sido la de un hombre que vivía con una familia ideal, cariñosa y solidaria, que seguía su conciencia en todo lo que hacía todo esto contra la tiranía de Enrique VIII. El escenario para esto se estableció con sus primeras biografías, que fueron escritas en 1557 y 1558. Estas fechas son significativas, ya que lo fueron durante el reinado de María católica, y More fue utilizado como un ejemplo de un hombre que se mantuvo fiel a la fe. .

Sin embargo, este era un hombre que perseguía a los herejes. Creía plenamente que la herejía merecía la pena capital. Guy dice: "Si se invocan los valores morales y humanitarios posteriores a la Ilustración, él era un inquisidor".

Hay, lo que Guy denomina, "agujeros negros biográficos", en tanto que su muerte es el tema central de la mayoría de los libros, más que de toda su vida. Hay grandes lagunas en las fuentes, y las cartas que escribió More mientras estaba en prisión podrían no ser del todo fiables. Pudo haber sabido que de alguna manera se utilizarían para fines públicos después de su muerte. "Desde el principio, estaba claro que las cartas tenían más de una audiencia".


Cronología de Sir Thomas More:

1505: Se casa con Jane Colt en la iglesia parroquial de Royden.

1506: Thomas More se convirtió en miembro del parlamento y sub-alguacil de Londres durante el reinado del rey Enrique VII.

1511: Muerte de su primera esposa. Se casa con Alice Middleton en la iglesia parroquial de St. Stephen, Walbrook.

1514: Thomas Wolsey presentó a More al rey Enrique VIII y se convirtió en maestro de solicitudes.

1516: Escribió su obra más famosa, & # 8220Utopia & # 8221.

1521: Se convirtió en Tesorero de Hacienda.

1525: Más se convirtió en canciller del ducado de Lancaster. También es nombrado presidente de la Cámara de los Comunes y realizó varias misiones diplomáticas en la corte francesa del rey Francisco I.

1529: Más se crea Lord Chancellor tras la caída del cardenal Wolsey a pesar de su deseo de no asumir el cargo.

1532: Renunció a la Cancillería porque no estaba de acuerdo con los puntos de vista religiosos que estaba adoptando el Rey.

1534: El rey Enrique fue nombrado jefe de la Iglesia de Inglaterra y Defensor de la Fe. Más no reconocerían a ningún gobernante de la iglesia que no fuera el Papa y fueron juzgados por alta traición. Estuvo encarcelado en la Torre de Londres durante un año, pero aun así se negó a retractarse.

¿Cuándo y dónde murió?

El 6 de julio de 1535, fue ejecutado por decapitación en Tower Hill, Londres, Inglaterra.

Edad al morir:

Obras escritas:

1512: & # 8220La vida de John Picus, conde de Mirandula & # 8220 (traducción).
1513: & # 8220Historia del rey Ricardo III & # 8221.
1516: & # 8220Utopia & # 8221 (en latín) 1551 (en inglés).
1529: & # 8220Diálogo de asuntos diversos. & # 8221 & # 8220 La súplica de las almas (Contra Fisher & # 8217s La súplica de los mendigos). & # 8221
1532: & # 8220 Confutación de Tyndale. & # 8221
1533: & # 8220La disculpa de Sir Thomas More, Caballero. & # 8221
1543: & # 8220History of Richard the Third & # 8221 (Reproducido en Hardying & # 8217s Chronicle of England).
1553: & # 8220Diálogo de comodidad. & # 8221
1559: & # 8220Obras escritas en inglés & # 8221 (Editado por William Rastell).

Matrimonios:

  1. 1505 a Jane Colt en la iglesia parroquial de Royden.
  2. 1511 a Alice Middleton en la iglesia parroquial de San Esteban, Walbrook.

Sitio de la tumba:

St. Peter ad Vincula, Torre de Londres, Inglaterra (Cabeza en St. Dunstan & # 8217s Church, Canterbury, Kent, Inglaterra.

Lugares de interés:

La torre de Londres.
Estatua fuera de Chelsea Old Church, Chelsea Embankment.


Sir Thomas More y su controvertida historia

Cuando pensamos en Ricardo III y la Guerra de las Rosas, la mayoría de nosotros pensará primero en Sir Thomas More y su "La historia del rey Ricardo III". Probablemente sea una de las fuentes más controvertidas sobre las Guerras de las Rosas y, sin embargo, los historiadores todavía la utilizan. La pregunta es ¿por qué hay tanta atracción por este libro y por qué lo escribió Tomás Moro? Espero que con este artículo arroje algo de luz sobre este libro, sobre Más y cuáles fueron sus posibles intenciones cuando escribió este libro. Voy a dividir este artículo en dos partes sobre quién era Sir Thomas More y lo que dice el libro. Es importante comprender los antecedentes de More si queremos tener alguna esperanza de comprender "La historia del rey Ricardo III". Solo escribiré sobre la vida de More hasta el momento en que escribió este libro porque su vida posterior bajo Enrique VIII y su ejecución realmente no explican el propósito de por qué More escribió este libro.

Sir Thomas More: el hombre

Entonces, ¿quién era Sir Thomas More y por qué debería importar? Robert Whittington en 1520 dice:

More es un hombre con el ingenio de un ángel y un saber singular. No conozco a su compañero. Porque, ¿dónde está el hombre de esa dulzura, humildad y afabilidad? Como el tiempo requiere un hombre de maravillosa alegría y pasatiempos y, a veces, de una triste gravedad como un hombre para toda la temporada. (Murphy, 1)

Thomas More nació el 7 de febrero de 1478 (Ackroyd, 6) de John More y Agnes Graunger. La infancia de More vio la transición de Eduardo IV como rey a Ricardo III y finalmente a Enrique VII. Asistió a la escuela durante un tiempo en St. Anthony's y luego se convirtió en un paje de John Morton, arzobispo de Canterbury, un hombre que More admiraba profundamente y que aparecería en su Historia como un hombre sabio. (Ackroyd, 35 años)

Después de trabajar para John Morton, More estudió un poco en la Universidad de Oxford. Fue en Oxford donde pudo involucrarse en el humanismo, que es el estudio de la literatura clásica a través del estudio de los idiomas de la antigüedad y una vez que lo domina, utiliza la retórica para debatir ciertos temas. (Johnson, 34-35) El humanismo llegaría a dar forma a los escritos de More y su amigo Erasmo de Rotterdam, cuya traducción del Nuevo Testamento iría en contra de la Vulgata, cuestionaría la autoridad del papado e influiría en aquellos como Lutero, incluso aquellos Erasmo era un católico devoto. (Elton, 113). Para decirlo de otra manera, " Los humanistas se preocuparon por integrar, no separar, lo humano y lo cristiano ”. (Murphy, 7 años)

More dejó Oxford sin obtener un título y se fue a New Inn y más tarde fue admitido en el Lincoln's Inn de Londres en 1496. Las posadas no eran lo que considerábamos posadas hoy en día, eran donde iban a estudiar los hombres interesados ​​en derecho. (Ackroyd, 53 años). Tenía dieciséis años en ese momento. Peter Ackroyd explica cómo More pudo equilibrar sus estudios religiosos con sus estudios de derecho:

La religión y la ley no debían considerarse por separado, se implicaban mutuamente. Es por eso que la ley se consideró perfecta en sí misma, no dañada por los malos juicios de los practicantes individuales, el mismo argumento, sobre los méritos de la Misa en oposición a la virtud del sacerdote que la ofreció, estaba en el corazón de la fe eucarística católica. . Es por eso que la ley también se consideraba permanente, era lo que se sabía que era cierto, resistiendo el cambio o la decadencia. (Ackroyd, 63 años).

Esto debe entenderse para comprender Más. Para él, usar términos religiosos para describir eventos políticos era solo otra parte de la vida diaria. Otra parte de su vida diaria fue su familia en 1505, se casó con Jane Colt y tuvieron cuatro hijos: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecily y John (Murphy, vii). Cuatro años más tarde, en 1509, Enrique VIII se convirtió en rey de Inglaterra y en 1510, More fue nombrado Sub-Sheriff de Londres y elegido para el Parlamento. (Murphy, vii). Tres años después, More escribió su “Historia del rey Ricardo III”, pero nunca la terminó. (Más, 3).

Más "La historia del rey Ricardo III"

Muchos argumentan que More escribió su "La historia del rey Ricardo III" para la propaganda de la dinastía Tudor, especialmente para Enrique VII, sin embargo, Ackroyd señala algo muy interesante sobre su relación:

A menudo se ha sugerido que, en una fecha posterior, More manifestó hostilidad hacia las exacciones financieras que Enrique VII trató de imponer a Londres. No hay evidencia de ninguna disputa abierta pero ciertamente, en el momento de la adhesión de su tal, Moro compuso un fuerte ataque contra el rey muerto. (Ackroyd, 84 años)

Si este es el caso, ¿cuáles fueron las intenciones de More al escribir este libro? Antes de intentar responder a esa pregunta, tenemos que explorar el texto en sí.

“La historia del rey Ricardo III” de Sir Thomas More tiene aproximadamente menos de cien páginas. Relativamente corto para un texto tan controvertido. Cabe señalar que este texto se considera una "historia" en el sentido más amplio posible. De hecho, More no estaba usando historias recientes de su tiempo para formular su propia historia, pero siendo el humanista que era, usó historias de Salustio y Tácito como ejemplos. (Ackroyd, 161). Otra diferencia de una historia típica es que More se basa en fuentes orales para su historia. (Ackroyd, 161). Cualquiera que estudie historia sabe que las fuentes orales no siempre son la fuente más confiable porque las palabras pueden malinterpretarse.

More no comienza su historia de Ricardo III con su nacimiento, sino que comienza su libro con la muerte de Eduardo IV. Describe a Edward como " un personaje bueno, y muy principesco para ser sostenido: de corazón valiente ... ”(Más, 4). More luego describe al protector de los hijos de Edward, Ricardo III, obviamente comenzando con su apariencia física primero (More, 8) y luego describe quién era como:

& # 8230Cerrado y secreto, un disimulador profundo, humilde de semblante, arrogante de corazón, exteriormente abominable donde interiormente odiaba, sin dejar de besar a quien pensaba matar descorazonado y cruel, no por la maldad siempre, sino a menudo por ambición ... . Amigo y enemigo era, qué indiferente…. (Más, 9)

No es la forma más cortés de describir al hermano de un rey que sería rey él mismo, pero como señala Sylvester, no es porque Ricardo fuera un rey de York, sino porque era un “ tirano disimulante ”(Más, xv). Richard no fue la elección de Edward como protector, de hecho fue el hermano de la Reina, Sir Anthony Woodville, " un hombre honrado, tan valiente de mano como político en el consejo ” (Más, 15). Sin embargo, a Richard no le gustó esta sugerencia, por lo que envió a Lord Rivers y sus hombres a prisión y luego fue decapitado por “traición”. (Más, 21).

Por supuesto, en el libro de Sir Thomas More, no hay fechas, lo que hace que sea difícil precisar cuándo sucedieron exactamente estos eventos o si sucedieron, incluidos los discursos que More incluyó, como los del duque de Buckingham que está tratando de convencer. la ex reina Isabel Woodville para entregar a su otro hijo a Richard (Más, 29-33). Del mismo modo, cuando Isabel se niega a entregar a su hijo (More, 35-39) y luego, cuando acepta de mala gana hacerlo (More, 41-42). Estos son discursos muy icónicos en este libro que están llenos de pasión y angustia.

Entonces, ¿por qué More incluyó estos discursos fácticos o ficticios? Peter Ackroyd nos da una idea interesante de esa pregunta:

También es significativo que los pasajes más elaborados de la narrativa de Moro se conciban como discursos, por ejemplo, los méritos del santuario para los niños reales son objeto de un largo debate, mientras que el derecho de Ricardo a ser rey se explica en varios oraciones. "La historia de Ricardo III" puede entenderse, entonces, como una lección en las artes de la disputa y el debate retórico similar a aquellas en las que More se involucró como escolar y erudito ... En su obra gramatical, More estaba instruyendo a quienes bien podrían ser elegidos para administrar el gobierno de el estado: la gramática era parte de la retórica y la retórica era parte del deber público. (Ackroyd, 162-163).

Este libro no es solo una “historia”, sino también una lección de retórica para quienes están en el gobierno. Más pudo haber sido un fanático de la lectura de historia, pero su verdadero amor era el humanismo y el gobierno, en los que la retórica y la gramática eran inmensamente importantes. Es ese amor por el humanismo y el gobierno lo que vemos a lo largo de todo el libro.

More continúa con el caso de Richard sobre por qué debería ser rey. Después de que Richard se deshace de su antiguo amigo traidor Lord Hastings (More, 49-54), pasa a la parte importante de su argumento de que su hermano Edward ya estaba casado con una Mistress Shore antes de casarse con Elizabeth Woodville (More, 55 -58). Dado que su hermano ya estaba casado, eso significaba que cualquier hijo que tuviera con Elizabeth Woodville sería considerado bastardo, incluido el joven rey Eduardo V. Esto era bastante condenatorio, pero Richard quería asegurarse de que tuviera respaldo legal, hizo un documento, que declaró bastardos a los hijos de Eduardo IV y Elizabeth Woodville. (Más, 60-61). Richard también le pide al Dr. Shaa que predique un sermón contra los hijos de Edward con Elizabeth y el duque de Buckingham dando su discurso sobre lo grandioso que es Richard (More, 70-76). Esto lleva a la conclusión épica en la que Richard "a regañadientes" toma el trono, ya que él es la opción obvia para tomar la corona, ya que los herederos de su hermano fueron declarados bastardos. Ricardo III se ha convertido en rey de Inglaterra.

Pero hay una pieza más en el rompecabezas. ¿Qué pasó con el joven rey y su hermano? Más nos deja cuestionando qué les sucedió porque habla de rumores de que Richard III ordenó a John Green, Sir Robert Brackenbury, el alguacil de la Torre, Sir James Tyrell y John Dighton que mataran a los hermanos (Más, 85-90). . Uno tiene que preguntarse si esta es una teoría creíble o solo retórica, ya que More solo escuchó esta teoría y el hecho de que no hay evidencia escrita. More no entra en más detalles sobre esto y “termina” el libro con el obispo Morton tratando de convencer a Ricardo III de que lidere el país con sabiduría. (Ackroyd, 35 años). Este es un final muy inusual para alguien que se supone que está escribiendo el libro como propaganda de la dinastía Tudor.

Entonces, sabiendo que More estaba escribiendo esto como más un ejercicio de humanismo y no terminó este libro, ¿cómo deberíamos abordar “La historia del rey Ricardo III”? No creo que debamos simplemente tirarlo. No era propaganda de la dinastía Tudor, ya que fue escrito en 1513, antes de que despegara realmente la carrera política de More. Los discursos pueden verse como ejemplos de retórica. Hay algunos hechos históricos como la muerte de Lord Hastings y Lord Rivers, la entrega de Elizabeth Woodville a su hijo a Richard, un documento legal y el sermón del Dr. Shaa. Aquellos coinciden con otras fuentes. En cuanto a Mistress Shore y el asesinato de los príncipes de la torre, es un poco más difícil de probar ya que no tenemos pruebas reales en papel que respalden ninguna de las teorías.

En general, creo que la historia de More debe entenderse como una visión de la historia desde una perspectiva humanista. Es una pieza importante de leer porque algunos de los hechos en esta pieza son de hecho verdaderos y nos da una visión interesante de lo que pensaba un erudito Tudor sobre aquellos que vinieron inmediatamente antes de los Tudor. “La historia del rey Ricardo III” de Sir Thomas More es una lectura fascinante para cualquiera que esté interesado en la Guerra de las Rosas, una visión más oscura de Ricardo III o sobre cómo el humanismo podría aplicarse en un sentido escrito. Le recomiendo que lea este libro.

¿Quiere aprender más sobre más? (Fuentes)

Ackroyd, Peter y Diarmaid MacCulloch. La vida de Tomás Moro. Londres: Folio Society, 2017.

Elton, G. R. Inglaterra bajo los Tudor . Londres: Methuen, 1956.

Johnson, Paul. El Renacimiento: una breve historia . Bridgewater, Nueva Jersey: distribuido por Paw Prints / Baker & amp Taylor, 2008.

Más, Thomas. La historia del rey Ricardo III . Editado por Richard S. Sylvester. New Haven: Prensa de la Universidad de Yale, 1976.


Sir Thomas More

“Muero el rey y el siervo fiel, pero Dios es primero”.

Ninguna frase resume mejor a un hombre que se dedicó al servicio de la Corona y estaba destinado a ser venerado como santo por la Iglesia católica.

Sir Thomas More vivió en la Inglaterra Tudor. Ocupó una variedad de cargos que incluyen abogado, canciller, miembro del parlamento y escritor. Su influencia en muchos de estos campos fue bastante notable, en particular su famoso texto, "Utopía".

Lamentablemente para More, su vida terminó de una manera dramática y característicamente Tudor cuando se negó a reconocer el divorcio del rey Enrique VIII, así como la drástica ruptura de la iglesia inglesa con Roma.

Un devoto defensor de la Iglesia Católica, More sintió que ya no podía servir como canciller de Enrique VIII y renunció a su cargo. Desafortunadamente, este fue el comienzo del fin para More, quien continuó argumentando contra el protestantismo y, por lo tanto, fue juzgado y ejecutado en julio de 1535.

Figura católica en Inglaterra, un país que se estaba embarcando en un gran cambio hacia el protestantismo, Moro se convirtió en un mártir de la Reforma, una de las muchas bajas, en ambos lados, que luchó y defendió su fe.

En 1935, la vida de More fue reconocida formalmente por el Papa Pío XI cuando decidió canonizar a More. Tal es su importancia que en el siglo XXI, el Papa Juan Pablo II lo nombró santo patrón de los estadistas y políticos.

Su historia comienza en 1478 en Londres, hijo de Agnes Graunger y su esposo, Sir John More, un hombre que tenía una carrera estimada en derecho. Uno de seis hijos, la ilustre carrera de su padre beneficiaría al joven Thomas, quien recibió una excelente educación en una de las mejores escuelas de la zona.

En 1490 estaba sirviendo al arzobispo de Canterbury, John Morton (también Lord Canciller de Inglaterra) como su paje familiar. Esta experiencia fue para servir a los jóvenes más grandemente, ya que Morton era un seguidor de una filosofía en evolución sobre la vida y la educación, cuyas raíces podrían describirse como humanismo. Morton pronto reconoció su talento y nominó a More para un lugar en la Universidad de Oxford.

Después de asistir a la universidad durante dos años y recibir una educación clásica típica, dejó Oxford para seguir los pasos de su padre y seguir una carrera en derecho. Así se convirtió en estudiante en Lincoln's Inn y fue llamado al Bar en 1502.

Mientras prosiguió su vocación de abogado, la atracción que sintió hacia su fe y su vida espiritual fue fuerte. Uno de sus amigos cercanos, Desiderius Erasmo, había dicho que ponderaba la posibilidad de seguir una vida espiritual a tiempo completo y abandonar su carrera jurídica. Si bien no siguió este camino en particular, la piedad por la que se sintió atraído guiaría su carrera y serviría como motivo de su desaparición.

En 1505 se casó con Jane Colt y tuvo cuatro hijos con ella antes de su triste y prematura muerte. More tenía una actitud particularmente inusual hacia la vida familiar, inusual para la época: por ejemplo, pretendía educar a su esposa dándole tutoría y luego insistió en que sus hijas recibieran una educación clásica, la misma que recibiría su hijo.

Este enfoque de la educación de sus hijos, aunque poco ortodoxo, comenzó a ganarse la admiración de otras familias nobles e incluso del propio Erasmus, quien se maravilló de la elocuencia y la destreza académica de la hija de More.

La familia de Sir Thomas More

More tenía una familia numerosa, se volvió a casar rápidamente después de la muerte de su esposa y tuvo otro hijo para criar, además de actuar como tutor de otras dos niñas. Demostró ser un padre cariñoso y devoto con todos los niños, animándolos y comunicándose con ellos mientras estaba fuera.

De regreso al mundo de los negocios, decidió abandonar su carrera en derecho en favor de un papel como político, logrando su primer éxito como miembro del Parlamento por Great Yarmouth en 1504 y más tarde representando distritos electorales en Londres.

Durante su carrera política se desempeñó en una variedad de roles, incluido el de alguacil de Londres, cargo que le valió un gran respeto. Con el tiempo se convirtió en Consejero Privado y emprendió un trabajo adicional de naturaleza más diplomática en el continente, lo que le valió el título de caballero y un nuevo puesto como Sub-Tesorero del Tesoro.

A medida que ascendía de rango, también llegó a estar mucho más cerca del rey Enrique VIII, sirviendo como asesor personal. En esta posición tan prominente, daría la bienvenida a diplomáticos y serviría de enlace entre Enrique VIII y otras figuras, incluido el canciller Wolsey.

Durante este período de logros, More también encontró el tiempo para producir su texto más famoso, "Utopía", que se publicó en 1516. Este fue un libro escrito desde la perspectiva de More como una especie de sátira, que cuenta la historia de una sociedad ficticia. en una isla. Compuesto en latín, la narrativa describe las costumbres culturales de la sociedad, representando el orden, la justicia y la propiedad comunal de la isla. Se puede considerar que algunos de estos temas tienen sus raíces en la vida monástica, mientras que, de manera más general, la descripción de una sociedad segura y que funciona en condiciones de igualdad, atraería siglos más tarde a personas como Karl Marx y Friedrich Engels.

Xilografía de título para & # 8216Utopia & # 8217 por Thomas More.

La obra de ficción, en su propio tiempo, dio lugar a todo un género propio, una ficción distópica en la que las sociedades ideales fueron el centro de la narrativa, incluyendo obras como “New Atlantis” de Francis Bacon y “Candide” de Voltaire. .

Mientras tanto, mientras que su destreza literaria se hizo evidente, More logró un gran éxito cuando sucedió a Wolsey como Lord Canciller en 1529. Marcando un pináculo en su carrera, era trabajador y diligente en su oficina. Sin embargo, esto estuvo a punto de estropearse ya que su cancillería coincidió con un momento enorme en la historia del cristianismo: la Reforma Protestante.

Mientras se desempeñaba en su cargo, dejó en claro su posición, declarando su apoyo a la Iglesia Católica y ayudando a Wolsey a obstaculizar la importación de textos luteranos a Inglaterra. También se sintió muy ofendido por la Biblia de Tyndale, considerándola hereje.

Además, mientras se desempeñaba como Lord Canciller, hay referencias a su uso de la fuerza y ​​la violencia al tratar con aquellos a los que etiquetó como herejes, sin embargo, todavía hay mucho debate sobre si estas acusaciones son ciertas. Bajo su control, seis personas fueron quemadas en la hoguera, sin embargo, en este período, este fue un castigo común por herejía. De hecho, cualquier rumor sobre violencia excesiva fue refutado por el propio hombre en su "Apología" de 1533.

Sin embargo, sus puntos de vista se oponían cada vez más al parlamento y, lo que es más importante, al rey. En 1529 se tipificó como delito para respaldar la afirmación de que existía cualquier otra autoridad más allá de la supremacía legal del rey.

Rey Enrique VIII

En 1530, el conflicto de Moro con Enrique VIII llegó a un punto crítico. Se negó a firmar una carta pidiendo al Papa que anulara el matrimonio de Enrique y Catalina de Aragón, al tiempo que entablaba un feroz debate con Enrique sobre la imposición de leyes de herejía.

Al año siguiente se anunció un decreto real, exigiendo que el clero reconociera a Enrique VIII como el Jefe Supremo de la Iglesia de Inglaterra. Más desafiante se negó a firmar el juramento, sin embargo, no se pronunció públicamente en contra de su monarca.

Finalmente, en mayo de 1532 renunció como canciller, sintiendo que ya no podía continuar en su cargo.

Un año más tarde, le escribió a Henry expresándole su felicidad por haber encontrado una esposa en Ana Bolena, sin embargo, se negó a asistir a la coronación, que finalmente fue vista como un desaire público y requirió una respuesta.

En los meses siguientes, More se encontró en el extremo receptor de varias acusaciones, algunas de las cuales le fueron dirigidas por Thomas Cromwell. Varios intentos de acusarlo fracasaron, hasta que el 13 de abril de 1534 se le pidió a Moro que jurara lealtad al Acta de Sucesión.

La negativa de More fue la última gota. Cuatro días después lo llevaron a la Torre de Londres y lo acusaron de alta traición.

& # 8216Thomas More despidiéndose de su hija Margaret Roper & # 8217, por Edward Matthew Ward

El 1 de julio de 1535 se celebró su juicio. Fue llevado ante un panel de jueces, que también incluía a una gran parte de la familia de Anne Boleyn, incluidos su tío, su hermano y su padre. En solo quince minutos, More fue declarado culpable.

El caso se cerró, More fue sentenciado a ser ahorcado, dibujado y descuartizado, un castigo esperado dadas las circunstancias, sin embargo, mostrando cierta indulgencia, Enrique VIII ordenó que lo decapitaran.

El 6 de julio de 1535, la ilustre carrera de Tomás Moro, su incipiente talento para la escritura, su voracidad política y su piedad religiosa llegaron a un abrupto final. Fue ejecutado, un hombre que había servido con devoción al rey Enrique VIII y, sin embargo, se había mantenido fiel a sus creencias y convicciones hasta el final.

Jessica Brain es una escritora autónoma especializada en historia. Con sede en Kent y amante de todo lo histórico.


Intro

Sir Thomas More (1477-1535) fue la primera persona en escribir sobre una "utopía", una palabra que se usa para describir un mundo imaginario perfecto. El libro de More imagina una comunidad compleja e independiente ubicada en una isla, en la que las personas comparten una cultura y una forma de vida comunes. Acuñó la palabra "utopía" del griego ou-topos que significa "ningún lugar" o "ninguna parte". Era un juego de palabras: la palabra griega eu-topos casi idéntica significa "un buen lugar". Entonces, en el corazón mismo de la palabra hay una pregunta vital: ¿se puede realizar un mundo perfecto? No está claro si el libro es una proyección seria de una mejor forma de vida o una sátira que le dio a More una plataforma desde la cual discutir el caos de la política europea.

More era un abogado, escritor y estadista inglés. En un momento, fue uno de los funcionarios públicos de mayor confianza de Enrique VIII, y se convirtió en canciller de Inglaterra en 1529.


Intro

Sir Thomas More (1477-1535) fue la primera persona en escribir sobre una "utopía", una palabra que se usa para describir un mundo imaginario perfecto. El libro de More imagina una comunidad compleja e independiente ubicada en una isla, en la que las personas comparten una cultura y una forma de vida comunes. Acuñó la palabra 'utopía' del griego ou-topos que significa 'ningún lugar' o 'ninguna parte'. Era un juego de palabras, la palabra griega casi idéntica eu-topos significa 'un buen lugar'. Entonces, en el corazón mismo de la palabra hay una pregunta vital: ¿se puede realizar un mundo perfecto? No está claro si el libro es una proyección seria de una mejor forma de vida o una sátira que le dio a More una plataforma desde la cual discutir el caos de la política europea.

More era un abogado, escritor y estadista inglés. En un momento, fue uno de los funcionarios públicos de mayor confianza de Enrique VIII, y se convirtió en canciller de Inglaterra en 1529.


Cronología de Sir Thomas More - Historia

No soy un descendiente, pero tengo una linda historia sobre un niño pequeño que fue parte de una gira de campo que estaba dando en el trabajo hace varios años. Los niños estaban haciendo fila y la maestra dijo: "Todos detrás de Thomas More" y cuando llegué al frente pregunté "Entonces, ¿tu nombre es Thomas More?" Me miró, sonrió y dijo: "¡Me llamo así por un tipo al que le cortaron la cabeza!"

Entonces, no responde totalmente a tu pregunta, pero siempre me hace sonreír. Pero revisaré algunos libros esta noche y veré si puedo encontrar una respuesta real para ti, ¡si nadie más se me adelanta!

Bueno, no es una respuesta, pero encontré una referencia a un libro (publicado este año) titulado "La familia y los descendientes de St. Thomas More" de Martin Wood. Parece que podría tener buena información si puede conseguirla.

Recientemente descubrí que soy descendiente directo de Thomas More, ya que él es mi décimo bisabuelo.

Publique una respuesta o un correo electrónico directamente a través de mi página web si desea ver la descendencia. www.loganisle.com

Soy el autor del libro "La familia y los descendientes de Santo Tomás Moro" mencionado en una respuesta a Mary Anne sobre los descendientes vivos. Thomas More es mi 14 x bisabuelo.
El libro está disponible en la editorial 'Gracewing' y en Amazon.co.uk.
Cada capítulo del libro trata sobre una generación diferente de la familia hasta mediados del siglo XIX.
Ayudaré a cualquiera que se ponga en contacto conmigo.

Gracias por sus respuestas. He pedido el libro del Sr. Wood y espero leerlo.

Para todos los fans de & # 8220The Tudors & # 8221 y más. Aquí hay una vista fascinante de los descendientes en la audiencia ... ¡Yo podría ser uno de ellos y usted también!

Descendientes Tudor en la audiencia. ¿Es usted uno de ellos?

Vea las listas de fans de los personajes de The Tudors:
http://www.familyforest.com

Soy un descendiente dirigido. I forget how many greats are in there, but he is my great-grandfather to some degree.

I am a direct descendant of Thomas More. He is my 17th great grandfather. My line comes into Virginia, West Virginia, and now in Ohio. Surnames associated are: Foster, Terrill, Burns, and Burch.

I am a direct descendant via the Roper and Winn line. My great grandmother was Lucy Strickland-Constable who was the great-great-great-great granddaughter of Elizabeth Henshaw, nee Roper.

I had just the direct linage of my husbgand done by a geneologist 2 years ago. It showed my husband was a direct descendant of Sir Thomas More.
Unfortunately, I had my computer compromised and lost all my information. I have been able to work Out all lines of his family except the More one.
Could somebody set me right , as far as the first generation to be born in America.

I also discovered through Ancestry.com, that Sir Thomas More was my 12th great grandfather, through my father's line.
I'm so amazed!

I'm a direct descendant through my father's line. Sir Thomas More is my 12th great-grandfather and Captain Myles Standish is my 9th great grandfather.

From Ancestry.com I found out that Sir. Thomas More is my 17th great-grandfather on my father's mother side.

he is my 13th great grandfather from my mother's line

Thomas More is my 14th great grandfather according to Ancestry.com This is on my fathers side. . .from the US

Same here, Ancestry.com says he's my 16th Great Grandfather. kinda cool. I never did like that Henry Tudor anyway.

He Is My 19Th Great Grandfather On My Father's Mother's Side. Ancestry.Com

I descend from Sir Thomas More, starting with his paternal grandfather, as follows:

William More Esquire (died 1467)
is my 16th great grandfather
Sir John More (1451 - 1530)
son of William More Esquire
▽Sir Thomas More (1478 - 1535)
son of Sir John More
▽John More II (1509 - 1547)
son of Sir Thomas More
▽Thomas "The Younger" More III (1538 - 1606)
son of John More II
▽Thomas More (1568 - 1616)
son of Thomas "The Younger" More III
▽Alice More (1593 - 1628)
daughter of Thomas More
▽Thomas Vail (1620 - 1687)
son of Alice More
▽Samuel Vail (1654 - 1695)
son of Thomas Vail
▽Rev. John J. Vail (1685 - 1774)
son of Samuel Vail
▽Joseph Vail (1717 - 1804)
son of Rev. John J. Vail
▽Joseph "John" Vail (1741 - 1818)
son of Joseph Vail
▽James Vail (1796 - 1825)
son of Joseph "John" Vail
▽Solomon Vail (1825 - 1906)
son of James Vail
▽Merida Marlow Vail (1854 - 1925)
son of Solomon Vail
▽Byron Solomon Vail (1878 - 1949)
son of Merida Marlow Vail
▽Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail (1911 - 1978)
son of Byron Solomon Vail
▽Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail (1940 - 1998)
son of Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail
▽Douglas Micah Vail (born 1970)
the son of Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail

Unfortunately Ancestry has mistakes which lead some (especially in America)to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas More when they are not. If you make such a claim, I can help. Contact me at [email protected]
[Martin Wood: Author "The Family and Descendants of St. Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.

I thought I was a descendent of Sir Thomas More as well until Martin showed me I was incorrect. I never got an answer from Martin about DNA testing though. Have you had your DNA tested? If so I have done 23andme& AncestryDNA and would love to compae! Gracias.

Many comments from people claiming to be direct descendents of Thomas More, yet online genealogical charts say that there have been no direct descendents from the male OR female line since the late 18th century.

Some of the most used internet genealogy sites have led a number of people to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas ore, when they are not.
There are no early descendants who went to America.
The Vail line, fro0m which some claim descent is far from proved and has involved a good deal or name and place changes to make it look authentic.
Some claim descent from a John Moore who went to Virginia in 1620, but his English ancestry is unknown. He was most certainly not the son of Mary More (b.1553) and her husband Edward Moore/More who (beside five daughters)only had two sons, Henry and Thomas, both of whom became Jesuit priests. The claim that a Thomas More married a Martha Brookes is a pure fabrication.
Martin Wood
[Author: "The Family and Descendants of St Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.]

Attention of Mr martin Wood, author of the book related to the descendants of st Thomas More.
My Granbd grand mother, born Marie-Antoinette-Jeanne Onffroy de Verez used to relate the fact that we are descendants from Thomas More by claire Pike de Barbuth who married Pierre-Rolland Onffroy de Verez. can you tell me if any of these names is appearing in your research before I purchase youir book ?

My mother told me when I was young that sir Thomas more is my 5th great uncle or so and I have been trying to find others but I'm not sure if all of these people here are actually related since ansetery is not a good resource.

After researching myself, the late Martin Wood of England was correct on clear proof needed to connect the Vail line with Sir Thomas More. Martin Wood's prevailing book is well researched and countervails travails. Possibly an archive will surface, but to no avail so far. The Vail family did marry into the More and Moore families in England and America in the 16th and 17th centuries, but evidence is still vital for exact descent from any of the family of Sir Thomas More.

He is a well missed author.

My second cousin researched the Roper family tree. When tracing his father's family tree (Edward Roper) he discovered that the Roper's from Reading in Berkshire were decendents of William Roper and Margaret Moore (Sir Thomas's daughter). Does anyone have any info on the Moore-Roper anvestry ?

¡Hola! Thomas More is my 14th-Great-Grandfather. I'm 16, and my grandfather, who is British (TM's 12th-great-grandson), found an old family tree in his childhood home when he was cleaning it out following his mother's death about 20 years ago and made this discovery. I don't have the full line right now, but I'll try to find it.

Thank you for your post. I am new to tracing my ancestors so I can only go on snippets of info. I did contact my cousin but he didn't respond. The last piece of information I can find was that William and Margaret had 2 son's Thomas and Anthony. They both married and Thomas had 2 daughters who married so that was the last of the Roper name. Anthony married Lucy Cotton but I don't know if they had any children. There is a huge gap overy the centuries until you get to my Gt Grandfather Edward Roper who died in 1966.

I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him by his son John More.

I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him thru his son John More.

My family genealogy shows that we too are from the More/Moore line. But I tend to be a bit skeptical, therefore will continue to research the lineage. Things that I do know is that a side of the family were very much into ministry of the Christian Faith in England and in America. Late 1500's (Eng) thru 1800's (USA). so, anything is possible. Member of the Champion Family

I am James More, and my family thinks that we have relations with Sir Thomas More. I am also a male. ¿Qué piensas? You think the descendants are still alive my last name is spelled More also, which is a peculiar thing. Tell me what you think. Thanks

I am a decendant of the George Moore family of Moore Hall in County Mayo, Ireland. Family lore has said that they (and therefore I) are descended from Sir Thomas More, bUt I have never been able to find the direct connection. I would appreciate if you know. [email protected]

I am also 17th great granddaughter of St. Thomas Moore. Would love to connect with other descendants! We have a lot to live up to! [email protected]

I am a 12th descendant to Christopher Cresacredit Moore, he was Sir Thomas Moores Grandson. :-)

I have been researching my maternal line and was given this list of grandparents which leadds back to Sir Thomas More. I have similar facial features to the paintings I have seen of him. Here is the list I was given. Thomas is the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen
1. Kathleen is the daughter of Lillian (Cauldwell) Rogan [unknown confidence]
2. Lillian is the daughter of Vesta Elizabeth Ann Kinnear [unknown confidence]
3. Vesta is the daughter of Millicent Alberta (Noble) Kinnear [unknown confidence]
4. Millie is the daughter of Thomas Henry Noble [unknown confidence]
5. Thomas is the son of Hezekiah Noble [unknown confidence]
6. Hezekiah is the son of Thomas Smith Noble [unknown confidence]
7. Thomas is the son of Stephen Noble [unknown confidence]
8. Stephen is the son of Ruth (Church) Noble [confident]
9. Ruth is the daughter of Ruth Hitchcock [confident]
10. Ruth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Walker) Hitchcock [unknown confidence]
11. Elizabeth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Wheeler) Walker [unknown confidence]
12. Elizabeth is the daughter of Miriam (Hawley) Wheeler [unknown confidence]
13. Miriam is the daughter of Katherine (Booth) Hawley [unknown confidence]
14. Katherine is the daughter of Ann (Revel) Booth [confident]
15. Ann is the daughter of Ann More [unknown confidence]
16. Ann is the daughter of John More II [unknown confidence]
17. John is the son of Thomas More [unknown confidence]
This makes Thomas the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen.
[email protected]

I am not a descendent, just an admirer of this Catholic Saint and Martyr. And if his portrait is trustful, he was very cute too.

This family tree from the 19th century shows descent from Thomas Moore, through Anthony Roper's daughter Isabel to Isabella Wiseman, wife of Sir Henry Bosville (d 1638), so (if true) all descendants of Sir Henry are descended from Thomas More

The brewer James Hinton Baverstock (my great^4 grandfather) commissioned the genealogy, and many of his descendants took the name Bosville.

Hola! Me podrías pasar el árbol de los Roper? En mi familia aparece una Mary Anne Fernandez Ropero, casada con Manuel del Castillo Negrete y según nuestras abuelas somos descendientes de Santo Tomas Moro. Mi mail es [email protected]

I’m a direct descendant of Sir Richard Rich, sooo, my apologies

My 15th great grandpa was Sir Richard Rich. mea culpa.

He is my 14th Great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and soon. Also my family lived in Virginia and West Virginia.

Saint Thoomas More is my 14th times great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and back. Also they lived in Virginua and West Virginia.


Sir Thomas More Timeline - History

"The King's good servant, but God's first." 1

Thomas More was born in Milk Street, London on February 7, 1478, son of Sir John More, a prominent judge. He was educated at St Anthony's School in London. As a youth he served as a page in the household of Archbishop Morton, who anticipated More would become a "marvellous man." 1 More went on to study at Oxford under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn. During this time, he wrote comedies and studied Greek and Latin literature. One of his first works was an English translation of a Latin biography of the Italian humanist Pico della Mirandola. It was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1510.
Around 1494 More returned to London to study law, was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1496, and became a barrister in 1501. Yet More did not automatically follow in his father's footsteps. He was torn between a monastic calling and a life of civil service. While at Lincoln's Inn, he determined to become a monk and subjected himself to the discipline of the Carthusians, living at a nearby monastery and taking part of the monastic life. The prayer, fasting, and penance habits stayed with him for the rest of his life. More's desire for monasticism was finally overcome by his sense of duty to serve his country in the field of politics. He entered Parliament in 1504, and married for the first time in 1504 or 1505, to Jane Colt. 2 They had four children: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely, and John.
More became a close friend with Desiderius Erasmus during the latter's first visit to England in 1499. It was the beginning of a lifelong friendship and correspondence. They produced Latin translations of Lucian's works, printed at Paris in 1506, during Erasmus' second visit. On Erasmus' third visit, in 1509, he wrote Encomium Moriae, o Praise of Folly, (1509), dedicating it to More.
One of More's first acts in Parliament had been to urge a decrease in a proposed appropriation for King Henry VII. In revenge, the King had imprisoned More's father and not released him until a fine was paid and More himself had withdrawn from public life. After the death of the King in 1509, More became active once more. In 1510, he was appointed one of the two under-sheriffs of London. In this capacity, he gained a reputation for being impartial, and a patron to the poor. In 1511, More's first wife died in childbirth. More soon married again, to Alice Middleton. They did not have children.
During the next decade, More attracted the attention of King Henry VIII. In 1515 he accompanied a delegation to Flanders to help clear disputes about the wool trade. Utopia opens with a reference to this very delegation. More was also instrumental in quelling a 1517 London uprising against foreigners, portrayed in the play Sir Thomas More, possibly by Shakespeare. More accompanied the King and court to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. In 1518 he became a member of the Privy Council, and was knighted in 1521.
More helped Henry VIII in writing his Defence of the Seven Sacraments, a repudiation of Luther, and wrote an answer to Luther's reply under a pseudonym. More had garnered Henry's favor, and was made Speaker of the House of Commons in 1523 and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1525. As Speaker, More helped establish the parliamentary privilege of free speech. He refused to endorse King Henry VIII's plan to divorce Katherine of Aragón (1527). Nevertheless, after the fall of Thomas Wolsey in 1529, More became Lord Chancellor.
While his work in the law courts was exemplary, his fall came quickly. He resigned in 1532, citing ill health, but the reason was probably his disapproval of Henry's stance toward the church. He refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn in June 1533, a matter which did not escape the King's notice. In 1534 he was one of the people accused of complicity with Elizabeth Barton, the nun of Kent who opposed Henry's break with Rome, but was not attainted due to protection from the Lords who refused to pass the bill until More's name was off the list of names. 3
In April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17. More was found guilty of treason and was beheaded alongside Bishop Fisher on July 6, 1535. More's final words on the scaffold were: "The King's good servant, but God's First." More was beatified in 1886 and canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935.

1. Last words on the scaffold, 1535, according to Paris Newsletter, August 4, 1535:
"qu'il mouroit son bon serviteur et de Dieu premierement."
2. Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. New York: Anchor Books., 1999.
3. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Ian Ousby, Ed.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Other local biographical resources:

Bibliography:
Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. (1998)
Fox, Alistair. Thomas More: History and Providence. (1983)
Fox, Alistair. Utopia: An Elusive Vision. (1992)
Logan, George M. The Meaning of More's Utopia (1983)
Marius, Richard. Thomas More: A Biography (1984)
Pineas, Rainer. Thomas More and Tudor Polemics (1968)
Reynolds E. E. Sir Thomas More (1965)
Reynolds E. E. Thomas More and Erasmus. (1965)
Reynolds E. E. The Field Is Won: The Life and Death of Saint Thomas More. (1968)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More : A Portrait of Courage. (1995)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More on Statesmanship. (1996)

Jokinen, Anniina. "The Life of Sir Thomas More." Luminarium.
6 July 2012. [Date you accessed this article].

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Indictment, trial, and execution

More’s refusal to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn, whom Henry married after his divorce from Catherine in 1533, marked him out for vengeance. Several charges of accepting bribes recoiled on the heads of his accusers. In February 1534 More was included in a bill of attainder for alleged complicity with Elizabeth Barton, who had uttered prophecies against Henry’s divorce, but he produced a letter in which he had warned the nun against meddling in affairs of state. He was summoned to appear before royal commissioners on April 13 to assent under oath to the Act of Succession, which declared the king’s marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid. This More was willing to do, acknowledging that Anne was in fact anointed queen. But he refused the oath as then administered because it entailed a repudiation of papal supremacy. On April 17, 1534, he was imprisoned in the Tower. More welcomed prison life. But for his family responsibilities, he would have chosen for himself “as strait a room and straiter too,” as he said to his daughter Margaret, who after some time took the oath and was then allowed to visit him. In prison, More wrote A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation, a masterpiece of Christian wisdom and of literature.

His trial took place on July 1, 1535. Richard Rich, the solicitor general, a creature of Thomas Cromwell, the unacknowledged head of the government, testified that the prisoner had, in his presence, denied the king’s title as supreme head of the Church of England. Despite More’s scathing denial of this perjured evidence, the jury’s unanimous verdict was “guilty.” Before the sentence was pronounced, More spoke “in discharge of his conscience.” The unity of the church was the main motive of his martyrdom. His second objection was that “no temporal man may be head of the spirituality.” Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn, to which he also referred as the cause for which they “sought his blood,” had been the occasion for the assaults on the church: among his judges were the new queen’s father, brother, and uncle.

More was sentenced to the traitor’s death—“to be drawn, hanged, and quartered”—which the king changed to beheading. During five days of suspense, More prepared his soul to meet “the great spouse” and wrote a beautiful prayer and several letters of farewell. He walked to the scaffold on Tower Hill. “See me safe up,” he said to the lieutenant, “and for my coming down let me shift for myself.” He told the onlookers to witness that he was dying “in the faith and for the faith of the Catholic Church, the king’s good servant and God’s first.” He altered the ritual by blindfolding himself, playing “a part of his own” even on this awful stage.

The news of More’s death shocked Europe. Erasmus mourned the man he had so often praised, “whose soul was more pure than any snow, whose genius was such that England never had and never again will have its like.” The official image of More as a traitor did not gain credence even in Protestant lands.


Sir Thomas More: Biography, Facts and Information

Today we know Sir Thomas More primarily as the author of Utopia, and as one of the more famous martyrs of Henry VIII’s reign. The popular image is of a man – principled, steadfast, courageous – who placed his own conscience above his king’s demands.

Yet if you were to ask More’s contemporaries to describe him, their words would be as conflicted and contradictory as the man himself. He was a brilliant scholar of the Renaissance who died rather than betray the Catholic church. As a young man, he seriously contemplated joining the priesthood, only to become one of the most successful politicians of his time. And he was a father who insisted his three daughters have the same education as his son. Perhaps more than any other courtier of Henry’s reign, More embodied the searching, troubled spirit of the early 16th century.

After his death, and for centuries thereafter, Sir Thomas More was known as the most famous victim of Henry VIII’s tyranny. It was More’s execution – far more than those of Anne Boleyn or Thomas Cromwell or Margaret Pole – which established the king’s reputation for capricious cruelty. This was partly due to More’s intellectual prominence he was perhaps the most famous Englishman on the continent, with a wide and varied correspondence. It was also due to Henry’s deep and unfeigned friendship with More. (We should note, however, that More – brilliant and perceptive – was never especially comfortable in his king’s good graces. “If my head should win him a castle in France,” he told his son-in-law in 1525, “it should not fail to go.”)

More’s beginnings, however, hardly predicted his spectacular career. In Utopia, he identified himself as a “citizen of London”, and it was in London that he was born on 7 February 1477, the only surviving son of John More and his first wife, Agnes Graunger. John More was a successful lawyer who was later knighted and made a judge of the King’s Bench he was prosperous enough to send his son to London’s best school, St Anthony’s at Threadneedle Street. And he was well-connected enough to later secure his son’s appointment as household page to John Morton, the archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England. There is an apocryphal story that Morton predicted his bright and lively page would grow into a “marvelous man”.

More’s adolescent years were spent under the reign of Henry VII, the first Tudor king. And his patron Morton was infamous as the architect of that king’s very successful – and subsequently very unpopular – tax policy. Morton’s tax philosophy was a marvel of inescapable logic: “If the subject is seen to live frugally, tell him because he is clearly a money saver of great ability, he can afford to give generously to the King. If, however, the subject lives a life of great extravagance, tell him he, too, can afford to give largely, the proof of his opulence being evident in his expenditure.” And while this reasoning worked to replenish the royal treasury for Henry VII, it also provided the second Tudor king with a chance to curry popular favor when he – in one of his first acts as Henry VIII – imprisoned and later executed Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson, who were Morton’s (and his father’s) tax collectors.

However, we should not assume that Morton’s politics had any profound impact upon More. Todo lo contrario. Both men were enthusiastic Humanist scholars, but they parted ways with regard to the king’s prerogative. In 1504, More was elected to Parliament and one of his first acts was to oppose Henry VII’s request of a “grant” of three-fifteenths. It was More’s impassioned speeches against this large and unjust burden that made the king reduce it by more than two thirds. And the king was not pleased with the young lawyer he promptly imprisoned More’s father in the Tower until he paid a substantial fine.

That was the beginning of Thomas More’s public career, and it was a telling one. More’s connection to Morton had earlier secured him admittance to Oxford, where he studied for two years, mastering Greek and Latin with “an instinct of genius”, and studying a wide variety of subjects, including music. His father recalled him to London and he trained as a law student at New Inn and later Lincoln’s Inn. The governors of Lincoln admired him enough to appoint him lecturer on law for three consecutive years. More’s brilliance of mind and curious, kindly character gained him many friends and admirers. Yet even as his legal future seemed assured, More was deeply conflicted about his future. He had long felt a calling to the priesthood. Now he decided to seriously test his religious convictions.

He moved into the Carthusian monastery adjoining Lincoln’s Inn and participated in the monks’ way of life as much as he could, while still pursuing his legal career. His father was not supportive, but More was fully prepared to be disowned rather than disobey God’s will. To that end, he spent the next three years in study and prayer, wearing a hair shirt next to his skin (a practice he never abandoned), and struggling to reconcile his genuine religious fervor with the demands of the outside world. In the end, he decided, in the words of his friend Erasmus, “to be a chaste husband rather than an impure priest.”

It should be noted that More’s affinity for the monastic life never left him, despite his later marriages, family, and career. Even as he secretly wore a hair shirt, he openly and consistently fasted, prayed, and maintained a relatively modest household. When he later built his ‘Great House’ in Chelsea, its rooms were specifically designed to encourage quiet study and prayer. More’s piety was the defining aspect of his character even as the circumstances of his life changed, it remained constant and unyielding.

His decision to become a lay Christian now made, More quickly married. His choice was Jane Colt, the eldest daughter of a gentleman farmer. His son-in-law William Roper, whose biography of More is one of the first biographies ever written, tells us that More chose his wife out of pity: “[A]lbeit his mind most served him to the second daughter, for that he thought her the fairest and best favored, yet when he considered that it would be great grief and some shame also to the eldest to see her younger sister preferred before her in marriage, he then, of a certain pity, framed his fancy towards” Jane. True or not, the marriage proved to be happy and fruitful, though of brief duration. After bearing More three daughters (Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely) and one son (John), Jane died in 1511. More later memorialized her as “uxorcula Thomae Mori” her gentle personality is attested to by Erasmus’s letters, as he was a frequent visitor to More’s home. The two men had first met in 1497 and remained close friends until More’s death.

More’s wife had been – like most women of her time – ill-educated, and during their brief marriage, he taught her Latin and other subjects. She was an apt enough pupil to later converse with visitors in Latin. And More determined that their daughters would receive the same education as their son. The symbolism and importance of this decision cannot be underestimated. More’s eldest daughter Margaret would become the first non-royal Englishwoman to publish a work in translation.

More was thus in his early thirties, successful, happily married, when the tax collectors Dudley and Empson were beheaded on Tower Hill at the command of the new king, Henry VIII. As a newly elected representative for London in Parliament and an undersheriff in the city, he was deeply involved in public life. He worked eight years as undersheriff and proved himself an impartial judge and able administrator. Contemporary chroniclers often referred to him as a friend of the poor. The one potentially scandalous act of his life was his quick second marriage to a widow seven years his senior, Alice Middleton. They married less than a month after Jane Colt’s death and More had to seek special dispensation from the church. It was granted, and the wealthy widow became stepmother to his four children, and More stepfather to her daughter and son. It proved to be another happy marriage, though More’s friends remarked upon Alice’s sharp tongue and occasionally brusque ways. Perhaps the contrast with the quiet, gentle Jane was too striking. For More’s part, he undoubtedly appreciated his second wife’s superb housekeeping skills for they allowed him the freedom to pursue his increasingly successful career.

It is at this moment that we must step back and consider the England in which More now lived. There was a new king, – a handsome, athletic young man who had once been destined for the church. But his older brother perished and the younger brother was crowned at 18 years old, and quickly wed his brother’s widow. She was the Spanish princess, Katharine of Aragon, one of the daughters of the Catholic rulers of Spain. She was a devout and learned young woman, and though we primarily know her as the older wife who could not bear Henry his desired son and heir, she was once young and pretty and well-liked. Henry VIII’s later statements to the contrary, his marriage to Katharine began happily and continued so for some years. There was a feeling in England that a new era had begun.

Henry VIII was a Catholic ruler, and enjoyed friendly relations with the papacy until he sought to divorce Katharine. But that was years in the future. As a young king, he was named “Defender of the Faith” by the pope for defending the church against Protestant heresy his Lord Chancellor was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. And because of his early education in religious matters, Henry was no mere spectator in religious debate.

For these reasons, More had no cause to suspect his monarch of anything less than fealty to their shared faith. And as his own reputation grew in London, he attracted the notice of the all-powerful Cardinal Wolsey. In May 1515, More was sent to Bruges as part of a delegation arranged by Wolsey to revise an Anglo-Flemish commercial treaty. It was during this trip that he began to write Utopia, his most famous work. It was More who coined the term, a pun on the Greek words for ‘no place’ and ‘good place’. More had already begun writing his History of King Richard III as well it is considered the first masterpiece of English history and is wholly pro-Tudor. Its influence upon William Shakespeare’s Richard III is immense.

Utopia is a complex and witty work which describes a city-state ruled entirely by reason. It is meant to contrast with the reality of European rule, divided by ideologies and greed and self-interest. More essentially argued that communal life is the only way to end the ill effects of self-interest on politics. The work was a marvel of learning and wit and wholly original it was soon translated throughout the Continent and its author hailed as one of the foremost Humanist thinkers. It is no exaggeration to state that its publication ensured More a stature that no other Englishman of his time enjoyed.

Cardinal Wolsey – and the king – needed no further reason to bring More into the king’s service. His work at Bruges and, later, Calais, as well as his continuing duties as undersheriff in London, were clear evidence of his skill and popularity. More’s letters indicate that he was not particularly keen to enter royal service. This was not due to any dislike of the king. Rather, he felt that he could be more effective in the city itself, not closeted away amongst the nobles and councilors of Henry’s court. But polite prevarications only worked for so long and soon More was a genuine courtier, with all its attendant duties – and benefits.

He was first appointed a Privy Councilor and accompanied Wolsey to an important diplomatic mission to Europe. He impressed the cardinal enough that he was knighted upon his return and made under-treasurer of the Exchequer. More importantly, he developed a personal relationship with Henry VIII, and because known as the king’s “intellectual courtier”. Soon he was acting as Henry’s personal secretary and adviser, delivering official speeches, greeting foreign envoys, drafting treaties and other public documents, and composing the king’s responses to Wolsey’s dispatches. More also engaged in a public war of words – on the king’s behalf – with Martin Luther, the father of the Reformation.

In April 1523, he was elected speaker of the House of Commons. His position at court meant that he was to be the king’s advocate before parliament. But to More’s credit, he made an impassioned plea for greater freedom of speech in parliament. Such was his reputation that the the great universities – Oxford and Cambridge – made him high steward. His personal life remained placid and content. His eldest daughter Margaret married the lawyer William Roper in 1521, and More continued his practice of prayer and supervision of learning at his home.

His home at Chelsea was as close as Tudor England would come to an 18th century French salon. Intellectuals from England and Europe visited More was a generous and kind host. He collected books and rare objects, but he gave away his possessions freely as well. He had a true gift for friendship and inspired deep loyalty amongst his family and friends. Among his guests, in fact, was the king himself. He would arrive unbidden, to either eat with the family or walk in the garden with More, his arm slung casually about More’s shoulders.

Despite such evidence of royal favor, it is likely that More chafed at his service to the king. He was no fool he noted Wolsey’s great – and increasingly ostentatious – wealth. His natural piety was at odds with other courtiers, all of whom jockeyed ceaselessly for the king’s favor. Ironically, it was his own honesty and probity which ensured his continued service to Henry.

We come now to the great event of Henry’s reign. By 1527, the king was in his mid-thirties, and his wife six years older. The queen had suffered a series of miscarriages throughout their marriage their only surviving child was the Princess Mary. Henry needed a son and heir. He had an illegitimate son, called Henry Fitzroy, by one of his early mistresses. The boy, born in 1519, was welcome proof to Henry that he could father a son – and that his lack of an heir was entirely Katharine’s fault. Even special physicians summoned from Spain could not help the queen to conceive again.

And so, when More returned from a diplomatic mission to France in summer 1527, the king laid the open Bible before his favorite councilor. It was, Henry told him, proof that his marriage to Katharine was incestuous due to her previous marriage to his brother. It was unlawful before man and God and thus void. The king added that his lack of a legitimate son was clear proof of God’s displeasure.

Was More surprised by this speech? No sabemos. We do know that he tried in vain to support the king’s position. He read anything and everything he could find on the subject. In the end, he could not be persuaded. Katharine was the king’s true wife. He did not share his opinion with the king. And the king did not force the issue. Certainly Henry wanted More’s support. As England’s premier intellectual, More’s opinion mattered. It mattered to London shopkeepers, and to great churchmen. If the great Sir Thomas More believed the king’s marriage to be unlawful, why, it must be so! But if the great Sir Thomas More believed the king to be wrong? Henry was wise enough to state his case and let it go, – for a little while at least. And More was more convinced than ever that he needed to leave royal service.

Unfortunately, Cardinal Wolsey was unable to secure an annulment for the king. The reasons were various, but the most important was Katharine’s position as aunt to the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Charles would not let his aunt be cast aside (he was also considering the dynastic appeal of her daughter with Henry), and he pressured the pope to deny Henry’s petition. Wolsey, for all his brilliance and cunning, could not compete with that influence. And the king was now newly enamored of a young noblewoman called Anne Boleyn. His desire for an annulment was now not merely to secure a legitimate heir it was also spurred by his desire to marry Anne.

Anne’s personal religious feeling was unimportant. She was by necessity hostile to the Catholic church. They were preventing her marriage to the king. Likewise, Henry became understandably angry at the papacy’s refusal to repudiate Charles. Perhaps his earlier justification for the annulment had been a matter of self-interest, a selective interpretation of opaque text. But time and impatience had made him emphatic in his righteousness. It was perfectly clear to any objective observer that the marriage was unlawful before God! The king raged. He sent envoys. He dictated letter after letter. He badgered Katharine ceaselessly. Nothing worked. The pope would not relent. Meanwhile, time was passing and a king used to instant obedience was determined to wait no longer. Wolsey was destined to die for his failure to secure the annulment. Fortunately for the old cardinal, he died before the king could kill him. Unfortunately for More, Henry appointed him Lord Chancellor of England. The honor was tremendous notably, More was the first layman to hold the office. He handled his responsibilities with his usual skill, but it was a balancing act, and an increasingly dangerous one. For example, as Lord Chancellor, More proclaimed the opinion of the English universities as favorable to the king’s annulment. But he himself did not sign the letter in which most of England’s nobles and prelates petitioned the pope to declare the marriage unlawful. And when the English clergy were forced to acknowledge Henry as the supreme head of their church, More attempted to resign his office.

His resignation was at first not accepted. Henry still hoped for More’s support. But eventually the break between the king and his chief minister could not be ignored. More suffered a sharp chest pain, possibly angina, and begged the king to release him from his duties. This was on 16 May 1532, the date on which the archdiocese of Canterbury, as head of the English clergy, sent a document to Henry VIII in which is promised to never legislate or even convene without royal assent, thus making the king – a lay person – head of the spiritual order in England.

Henry accepted More’s resignation. Their old friendship was past the king’s new advisors were anti-Catholic and pro-Protestant, most notably among them was Thomas Cromwell. He had once served under Wolsey and knew More well. Cromwell was an astute politician whose beliefs changed at the whim of his royal master. He was even more aware than the king of More’s popular appeal and this was to More’s detriment for it meant that his refusal to publicly support the king was not something that could be forgiven or forgotten. More would have to either acknowledge the king’s spiritual supremacy and marriage to Anne Boleyn, or he would die. That was clear to Cromwell almost from the first, and perhaps to More, too.

But in the meantime, More had eighteen months of seclusion and study at his home in Chelsea. He lived in relative poverty, for he held no office and relied solely upon the hundred pounds per annum he collected from a property rental. He did not struggle with the reduction in means, and busied himself with planning a tomb for himself and his wives , as well as defending his faith in various pamphlets. He never explicitly courted controversy, but he felt compelled to answer the ‘reformers’ such as William Tyndale. His months of peace ended in 1533, when he refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn.

This blatant disrespect could not be tolerated and More’s name was included in a Bill of Attainder against Elizabeth Barton, the ‘Holy Maid of Kent’, who had prophesized against the king’s annulment. More’s only communication with Barton had been to warn her against meddling in affairs of state. It did not matter. His name was on the attainder and he was brought before the Privy Council in February 1534. He answered their queries as best he could, assuring them of his loyalty to king and state and stressing the matter of his personal conscience. It was his great popularity that saved him. It gave the king pause, and More was allowed to return home. But he knew what was coming. And his old friend, the duke of Norfolk, took care to warn him of his danger, “Indignatio principis mors est.” To which More famously replied, “Is that all, my lord? Then, in good faith, between your grace and me is but this, that I shall die today, and you tomorrow.”

It was the Act of Succession, passed the following month, that sealed his fate. It stated that all who were called upon must take an oath acknowledging Anne as Henry’s wife and their future children as legitimate heirs to the throne. This More was fully prepared to do. Anne was the anointed queen. But – and of course this clause was added simply to trap More – the Act also required a repudiation of “any foreign authority, prince or potentate.” More could recognize Anne as the crowned queen of England. But he could not recognize the king’s authority as head of the new church of England. And so he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 17 April 1534.

More was not a man to be broken by prison, but he suffered physically. His spirits were high when visited by family and friends, though they were only permitted to see him if they took the Oath which he had refused. He encouraged them to do so. After several months, he was visited by Cromwell, but More refused to engage him in debate and merely declared himself a faithful subject of the king. In June 1535, after he had been imprisoned for over a year, Cromwell’s servant, Richard Rich, now solicitor general, stated that he had spoken with More and More had denied Parliament’s power to make Henry head of the church. This was an obvious lie More had never said anything of the sort to any other visitor, – why Rich? And why such an obvious and clumsy admission?

Despite widespread belief, even amongst Protestants, that Rich was lying, his statement was enough for a fresh inquiry to begin. It was then discovered that More had written to John Fisher, the bishop of Rochester, who was also imprisoned in the Tower for not taking the oath. This discovery resulted in removal of More’s books and writing materials. He could now only write to his wife and favorite daughter Margaret with a piece of coal or burnt stick on scraps of paper.

El 1 de julio de 1535, fue acusado de alta traición. El juicio resultante fue un mero espectáculo, a pesar de su apasionada y brillante defensa, nadie esperaba que More fuera declarado culpable. Y así fue. Fue sentenciado a la muerte de un traidor: ser dibujado, ahorcado y descuartizado, pero el rey lo cambió por decapitación. Fue una pequeña misericordia.

La historia de los últimos días de More es tremendamente conmovedora. No es necesario compartir sus convicciones religiosas para apreciar su fuerza interior y su carácter noble. Esperó cinco días antes de que lo llamaran al cadalso de Tower Hill. “Búsqueme a salvo”, le dijo al teniente que lo escoltaba, “y para que baje déjeme cambiar por mí mismo”. Se vendaró los ojos y exhortó a la multitud reunida a presenciar su fin "en la fe y por la fe de la Iglesia Católica, buen siervo del rey pero primero de Dios". Incluso los enemigos protestantes de More no lo creyeron un traidor, su muerte fue considerada casi universalmente como nada menos que un martirio. Erasmo lamentó a su amigo y escribió que el "alma de More era más pura que la nieve" y su "genio era tal que Inglaterra nunca tuvo y nunca volverá a tener algo parecido". More fue beatificado por la Iglesia Católica en 1886 y canonizado por Pío XI en 1935.


Ver el vídeo: The Story of Sir Thomas More (Diciembre 2021).