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Reconstrucción de Julio César

Reconstrucción de Julio César


Antistius entregó su hallazgo al pueblo romano en el lugar para importantes anuncios políticos: el foro. Además de ser el primer relato registrado de un médico actuando como testigo experto en un asesinato, el evento nos da la palabra & acirc & # 128 & # 152forensic & acirc & # 128 & # 152 - & acirc & # 128 & # 152desde el foro y rsquo. 2000 años después, ese término se estaba aplicando una vez más a un tipo de autopsia muy diferente.

En 2003, un equipo de expertos modernos dirigido por el investigador forense italiano Luciano Garafano decidió realizar su propia autopsia digital. Usando software especializado para crear una reconstrucción tridimensional del cadáver de César y rsquos, tomaron la evidencia antigua, incluida la autopsia original, y recrearon las circunstancias del asesinato. El equipo moderno de patólogos, perfiladores policiales e historiadores clásicos se dispuso entonces a ver qué podían deducir.

Utilizando el relato de Antistius & rsquos, se aplicaron las lesiones de Caesar & rsquos a la reconstrucción 3D. Hecho esto, Garafano usó su experiencia de violencia de masas para recrear el ataque.

Se aplicaron múltiples escenarios y Garafano concluyó que era imposible que 23 hombres tuvieran & acirc & # 128 & # 152 clavar sus cuchillos en & rdquo. De hecho, era más probable que entre 5 y 10 hombres participaran activamente en el asesinato, y que el resto formara una pantalla a su alrededor para evitar que otros senadores intervinieran.

La muerte de Julio César. Imágenes de Google


Contenido

Cayo Julio César nació en una familia patricia, la gens Julia, que afirmaba descender de Julus, hijo del legendario príncipe troyano Eneas, supuestamente hijo de la diosa Venus. [6] Los Julii eran de origen albanés, mencionado como una de las principales casas albanesas, que se asentaron en Roma a mediados del siglo VII a. C., tras la destrucción de Alba Longa. Se les concedió el estatus de patricio, junto con otras familias nobles de Albania. [7] Los Julii también existieron en un período temprano en Bovillae, evidenciado por una inscripción muy antigua en un altar en el teatro de esa ciudad, que habla de sus sacrificios de ofrenda según el lege Albana, o ritos de Alban. [8] [9] [10] El nombre "César" se originó, según Plinio el Viejo, con un antepasado que nació por cesárea (del verbo latino "cortar", caedere, ces). [11] El Historia Augusta sugiere tres explicaciones alternativas: que el primer César tenía una espesa cabellera ("cesarias") que tenía ojos grises brillantes ("oculis caesiis") o que mató a un elefante durante las Guerras Púnicas ("caesai" en morisco) en batalla. [12] César emitió monedas con imágenes de elefantes, lo que sugiere que estaba a favor de la última interpretación de su nombre.

A pesar de su antiguo pedigrí, los Julii Cesares no eran especialmente influyentes políticamente, aunque habían disfrutado de un cierto resurgimiento de sus fortunas políticas a principios del siglo I a.C. [13] El padre de César, también llamado Cayo Julio César, gobernaba la provincia de Asia, [14] y su hermana Julia, la tía de César, se casó con Cayo Mario, una de las figuras más prominentes de la República. [15] Su madre, Aurelia Cotta, provenía de una familia influyente. Poco se registra de la infancia de César. [dieciséis]

En el 85 a. C., el padre de César murió repentinamente, [17] convirtiendo a César en el cabeza de familia a la edad de 16 años. Su mayoría de edad coincidió con una guerra civil entre su tío Cayo Mario y su rival Lucio Cornelio Sila. Ambos bandos llevaron a cabo purgas sangrientas de sus oponentes políticos cuando estaban en ascenso. Marius y su aliado Lucius Cornelius Cinna tenían el control de la ciudad cuando César fue nominado como el nuevo flamen dialis (sumo sacerdote de Júpiter), [18] y estaba casado con la hija de Cinna, Cornelia. [19] [20]

Sin embargo, tras la victoria final de Sila, las conexiones de César con el antiguo régimen lo convirtieron en el objetivo del nuevo. Fue despojado de su herencia, la dote de su esposa y su sacerdocio, pero se negó a divorciarse de Cornelia y, en cambio, se vio obligado a esconderse. [21] La amenaza en su contra fue eliminada por la intervención de la familia de su madre, que incluía partidarios de Sulla y las Vírgenes Vestales. Sila cedió de mala gana y se dice que declaró que vio a muchos Marius en César. [16] La pérdida de su sacerdocio le había permitido seguir una carrera militar, ya que al sumo sacerdote de Júpiter no se le permitía tocar un caballo, dormir tres noches fuera de su propia cama o una noche fuera de Roma, o mirar a un ejército. [22]

César sintió que sería mucho más seguro lejos de Sila si el dictador cambiaba de opinión, por lo que dejó Roma y se unió al ejército, sirviendo bajo Marcus Minucius Thermus en Asia y Servilius Isauricus en Cilicia. Sirvió con distinción, ganando la Corona Cívica por su participación en el Asedio de Mitilene. Partió en misión a Bitinia para asegurar la ayuda de la flota del rey Nicomedes, pero pasó tanto tiempo en la corte de Nicomedes que surgieron rumores de un romance con el rey, que César negó con vehemencia por el resto de su vida. [23]

Al enterarse de la muerte de Sila en 78 a. C., César se sintió lo suficientemente seguro como para regresar a Roma. Carecía de medios desde que le confiscaron su herencia, pero adquirió una modesta casa en Subura, un barrio de clase baja de Roma. [24] Recurrió a la defensa legal y se hizo conocido por su oratoria excepcional acompañada de gestos apasionados y una voz aguda, y el enjuiciamiento despiadado de ex gobernadores notorios por extorsión y corrupción.

En el camino a través del mar Egeo, [25] César fue secuestrado por piratas y hecho prisionero. [26] [27] Mantuvo una actitud de superioridad durante su cautiverio. Los piratas exigieron un rescate de 20 talentos de plata, pero él insistió en que pidieran 50. [28] [29] Después de que se pagó el rescate, César levantó una flota, persiguió y capturó a los piratas, antes de encarcelarlos. Los hizo crucificar bajo su propia autoridad, como había prometido mientras estaba en cautiverio [30], una promesa que los piratas habían tomado como una broma. Como señal de indulgencia, primero les cortaron el cuello. Pronto fue llamado de nuevo a la acción militar en Asia, levantando una banda de auxiliares para repeler una incursión desde el este. [31]

A su regreso a Roma, fue elegido tribuno militar, un primer paso en una carrera política. El fue elegido cuestor en el 69 aC, [32] y durante ese año pronunció la oración fúnebre por su tía Julia, incluyendo imágenes de su esposo Marius, invisibles desde los días de Sila, en la procesión fúnebre. Su esposa Cornelia también murió ese año. [33] César fue a servir su cuestora en Hispania después del funeral de su esposa, en la primavera o principios del verano del 69 a. C. [34] Mientras estaba allí, se dice que se encontró con una estatua de Alejandro Magno y se dio cuenta con insatisfacción de que ahora estaba en una edad en la que Alejandro tenía el mundo a sus pies, mientras que había logrado relativamente poco. A su regreso en el 67 a. C. [35], se casó con Pompeya, nieta de Sila, de quien se divorció más tarde en el año 61 a. C. tras su participación en el escándalo de Bona Dea. [36] En el 65 a. C., fue elegido edil curul, y organizó lujosos juegos que le ganaron más atención y apoyo popular. [37]

En el 63 a.C., se presentó a las elecciones para el cargo de Pontifex maximus, sumo sacerdote de la religión estatal romana. Corrió contra dos senadores poderosos. Todas las partes formularon acusaciones de soborno. César ganó cómodamente, a pesar de la mayor experiencia y posición de sus oponentes. [38] Cicerón fue cónsul ese año, y expuso la conspiración de Catilina para tomar el control de la república. Varios senadores acusaron a César de estar involucrado en el complot. [39]

Después de servir como pretor en el 62 a. C., César fue designado para gobernar Hispania Ulterior (la parte occidental de la Península Ibérica) como propretor, [40] [41] [42] aunque algunas fuentes sugieren que tenía poderes proconsulares. [43] [44] Todavía tenía una deuda considerable y necesitaba satisfacer a sus acreedores antes de poder irse. Se volvió hacia Marco Licinio Craso, el hombre más rico de Roma. Craso pagó algunas de las deudas de César y actuó como garante de otras, a cambio de apoyo político en su oposición a los intereses de Pompeyo. Aun así, para evitar convertirse en un ciudadano privado y, por tanto, estar abierto a un proceso judicial por sus deudas, César partió hacia su provincia antes de que terminara su pretoría. En Hispania, conquistó dos tribus locales y fue aclamado como imperator con sus tropas reformó la ley en materia de deudas y completó su cargo de gobernador en alta estima. [45]

César fue aclamado imperator en el 60 a. C. (y nuevamente más tarde en el 45 a. C.). En la República Romana, este fue un título honorífico asumido por ciertos comandantes militares. Después de una victoria especialmente grande, las tropas del ejército en el campo proclamarían a su comandante imperator, una aclamación necesaria para que un general se postule al Senado por un triunfo. Sin embargo, César también deseaba presentarse como cónsul, la magistratura más importante de la república. Si iba a celebrar un triunfo, tendría que seguir siendo un soldado y permanecer fuera de la ciudad hasta la ceremonia, pero para presentarse a las elecciones tendría que dejar el mando y entrar en Roma como ciudadano privado. No pudo hacer ambas cosas en el tiempo disponible. Pidió permiso al Senado para ponerse de pie. en ausencia, pero Cato bloqueó la propuesta. Ante la elección entre el triunfo y el consulado, César eligió el consulado. [46]

En el 60 a. C., César buscó la elección como cónsul para el 59 a. C., junto con otros dos candidatos. La elección fue sórdida; se dice que incluso Catón, con su reputación de incorruptible, recurrió al soborno en favor de uno de los oponentes de César. César ganó, junto con el conservador Marcus Bibulus. [47]

César ya estaba en deuda política con Marco Licinio Craso, pero también hizo propuestas a Pompeyo. Pompeyo y Craso habían estado enfrentados durante una década, por lo que César trató de reconciliarlos. Los tres tenían suficiente dinero e influencia política para controlar los negocios públicos. Esta alianza informal, conocida como el Primer Triunvirato ("gobierno de tres hombres"), se cimentó con el matrimonio de Pompeyo con la hija de César, Julia. [48] ​​César también volvió a casarse, esta vez con Calpurnia, que era hija de otro poderoso senador. [49]

César propuso una ley para redistribuir las tierras públicas a los pobres —por la fuerza de las armas, si fuera necesario— una propuesta apoyada por Pompeyo y por Craso, haciendo público el triunvirato. Pompeyo llenó la ciudad de soldados, un movimiento que intimidó a los oponentes del triunvirato. Bíbulo intentó declarar desfavorables los presagios y así anular la nueva ley, pero los partidarios armados de César lo expulsaron del foro. A sus lictores les rompieron las fasces, dos altos magistrados que lo acompañaban resultaron heridos y le arrojaron un cubo de excrementos. Temiendo por su vida, se retiró a su casa durante el resto del año, emitiendo ocasionales proclamas de malos augurios. Estos intentos resultaron ineficaces para obstruir la legislación de César. Los satíricos romanos siempre se refirieron al año como "el consulado de Julio y César". [50]

Cuando César fue elegido por primera vez, la aristocracia trató de limitar su poder futuro asignando los bosques y pastos de Italia, en lugar de la gobernación de una provincia, ya que su deber de mando militar después de su año en el cargo había terminado. [51] Con la ayuda de aliados políticos, César aseguró el paso del lex Vatinia, otorgándole la gobernación de la Galia Cisalpina (norte de Italia) e Illyricum (sureste de Europa). [52] A instancias de Pompeyo y su suegro Pisón, se añadió la Galia Transalpina (sur de Francia) después de la prematura muerte de su gobernador, dándole el mando de cuatro legiones. [52] La duración de su cargo de gobernador, y por tanto su inmunidad procesal, se fijó en cinco años, en lugar del habitual. [53] [54] Cuando terminó su consulado, César evitó por poco ser enjuiciado por las irregularidades de su año en el cargo y rápidamente se fue a su provincia. [55]

Conquista de la Galia

César todavía estaba profundamente endeudado, pero se podía ganar dinero como gobernador, ya fuera mediante la extorsión [56] o mediante el aventurerismo militar. César tenía cuatro legiones bajo su mando, dos de sus provincias limitaban con territorio no conquistado y se sabía que partes de la Galia eran inestables. Algunos de los aliados galos de Roma habían sido derrotados por sus rivales en la Batalla de Magetobriga, con la ayuda de un contingente de tribus germánicas. Los romanos temían que estas tribus se estuvieran preparando para emigrar al sur, más cerca de Italia, y que tuvieran intenciones bélicas. César levantó dos nuevas legiones y derrotó a estas tribus. [57]

En respuesta a las actividades anteriores de César, las tribus del noreste comenzaron a armarse. César trató esto como un movimiento agresivo y, después de un compromiso inconcluso contra las tribus unidas, las conquistó poco a poco. Mientras tanto, una de sus legiones inició la conquista de las tribus del extremo norte, justo enfrente de Gran Bretaña. [58] Durante la primavera del 56 a. C., los Triunviros celebraron una conferencia, ya que Roma estaba en crisis y la alianza política de César se deshacía. La Conferencia de Lucca renovó el Primer Triunvirato y extendió el cargo de gobernador de César por otros cinco años. [59] La conquista del norte pronto se completó, mientras que algunos focos de resistencia permanecieron. [60] César ahora tenía una base segura desde la cual lanzar una invasión de Gran Bretaña.

En el 55 a. C., César repelió una incursión en la Galia de dos tribus germánicas, y la siguió construyendo un puente sobre el Rin y haciendo una demostración de fuerza en territorio germánico, antes de regresar y desmantelar el puente. A finales de ese verano, después de haber sometido a otras dos tribus, cruzó a Gran Bretaña, alegando que los británicos habían ayudado a uno de sus enemigos el año anterior, posiblemente los Veneti de Bretaña. [61] Su conocimiento de Gran Bretaña era pobre, y aunque ganó una cabeza de playa en la costa, no pudo avanzar más. Hizo una incursión desde su cabeza de playa y destruyó algunas aldeas, luego regresó a la Galia para pasar el invierno. [62] Regresó al año siguiente, mejor preparado y con una fuerza mayor, y logró más. Avanzó tierra adentro y estableció algunas alianzas, pero las malas cosechas llevaron a una revuelta generalizada en la Galia, lo que obligó a César a abandonar Gran Bretaña por última vez. [63]

Mientras César estaba en Gran Bretaña, su hija Julia, la esposa de Pompeyo, había muerto al dar a luz. César intentó volver a asegurar el apoyo de Pompeyo ofreciéndole a su sobrina nieta en matrimonio, pero Pompeyo se negó. En el 53 a. C. Craso fue asesinado liderando una fallida invasión del este. Roma estaba al borde de la guerra civil. Pompeyo fue nombrado cónsul único como medida de emergencia y se casó con la hija de un opositor político de César. El Triunvirato estaba muerto. [64]

Aunque las tribus galas eran tan fuertes militarmente como las romanas, la división interna entre los galos garantizaba una victoria fácil para César. El intento de Vercingetorix en el 52 a. C. de unirlos contra la invasión romana llegó demasiado tarde. [65] [66] Demostró ser un comandante astuto, derrotando a César en la Batalla de Gergovia, pero los elaborados trabajos de asedio de César en la Batalla de Alesia finalmente lo obligaron a rendirse. [67] A pesar de los estallidos de guerra dispersos al año siguiente, [68] Galia fue efectivamente conquistada. Plutarco afirmó que durante las guerras de las Galias el ejército había luchado contra tres millones de hombres (de los cuales un millón murió y otro millón fueron esclavizados), subyugó 300 tribus y destruyó 800 ciudades. [69] Los historiadores modernos cuestionan las cifras de bajas. [70]

Guerra civil

En el 50 a. C., el Senado (dirigido por Pompeyo) ordenó a César disolver su ejército y regresar a Roma porque su mandato como gobernador había terminado. [71] César pensó que sería procesado si entraba en Roma sin la inmunidad de que disfrutaba un magistrado. Pompeyo acusó a César de insubordinación y traición. El 10 de enero de 49 a. C., César cruzó el río Rubicón (el límite fronterizo de Italia) con una sola legión, la Legio XIII Gemina, y encendió la guerra civil. Al cruzar el Rubicón, se supone que César, según Plutarco y Suetonio, citó al dramaturgo ateniense Menandro, en griego, "la suerte está echada". [72] Erasmo, sin embargo, señala que la traducción latina más precisa del modo imperativo griego sería "alea iacta esto", dejar la suerte sea echada. [73] Pompeyo y muchos miembros del Senado huyeron hacia el sur, teniendo poca confianza en las tropas recién reunidas de Pompeyo. Pompeyo, a pesar de superar en número a César, que solo tenía a su Decimotercera Legión con él, no tenía la intención de luchar. César persiguió a Pompeyo, con la esperanza de capturarlo antes de que sus legiones pudieran escapar. [74]

Pompeyo logró escapar antes de que César pudiera capturarlo. Con rumbo a Hispania, César dejó Italia bajo el control de Mark Antony. Después de una asombrosa marcha de 27 días, César derrotó a los lugartenientes de Pompeyo, luego regresó al este para desafiar a Pompeyo en Iliria, donde, el 10 de julio de 48 a. C. en la batalla de Dyrrhachium, César apenas evitó una derrota catastrófica. En un enfrentamiento extremadamente corto más tarde ese año, derrotó decisivamente a Pompeyo en Pharsalus, en Grecia, el 9 de agosto del 48 a. C. [75]

En Roma, César fue nombrado dictador, [78] con Marco Antonio como su maestro de caballos (segundo al mando) César presidió su propia elección para un segundo consulado y luego, después de 11 días, renunció a esta dictadura. [78] [79] César persiguió a Pompeyo hasta Egipto, y llegó poco después del asesinato del general. Allí, a César se le presentó la cabeza cortada y el anillo de sello de Pompeyo, y los recibió con lágrimas. [80] Luego mandó ejecutar a los asesinos de Pompeyo. [81]

Luego, César se involucró en una guerra civil egipcia entre el niño faraón y su hermana, esposa y reina corregente, Cleopatra. Quizás como resultado del papel del faraón en el asesinato de Pompeyo, César se puso del lado de Cleopatra. Resistió el asedio de Alejandría y más tarde derrotó a las fuerzas del faraón en la batalla del Nilo en el 47 a. C. e instaló a Cleopatra como gobernante. César y Cleopatra celebraron su victoria con una procesión triunfal por el Nilo en la primavera del 47 a. C. La barcaza real fue acompañada por 400 barcos adicionales, y César conoció el lujoso estilo de vida de los faraones egipcios. [82]

César y Cleopatra no estaban casados. César continuó su relación con Cleopatra durante su último matrimonio —a los ojos de los romanos, esto no constituía adulterio— y probablemente engendró un hijo llamado Cesarión. Cleopatra visitó Roma en más de una ocasión, residiendo en la villa de César a las afueras de Roma al otro lado del Tíber. [82]

A fines del 48 a. C., César fue nuevamente nombrado dictador, con un mandato de un año. [79] Después de pasar los primeros meses del 47 a. C. en Egipto, César fue al Medio Oriente, donde aniquiló al rey del Ponto. Su victoria fue tan rápida y completa que se burló de las anteriores victorias de Pompeyo sobre enemigos tan pobres. [83] De camino al Ponto, César visitó Tarso del 27 al 29 de mayo de 47 a. C. (25-27 de mayo de greg.), Donde encontró un apoyo entusiasta, pero donde, según Cicerón, Casio planeaba matarlo en ese momento. . [84] [85] [86] Desde allí, se dirigió a África para ocuparse de los restos de los partidarios del Senado de Pompeyo. Fue derrotado por Tito Labieno en Ruspina el 4 de enero de 46 a. C., pero se recuperó para obtener una importante victoria en Tápsus el 6 de abril de 46 a. C. sobre Catón, que luego se suicidó. [87]

Tras esta victoria, fue nombrado dictador por 10 años. [88] Los hijos de Pompeyo escaparon a Hispania. César los persiguió y derrotó a los últimos restos de la oposición en la batalla de Munda en marzo del 45 a. C. [89] Durante este tiempo, César fue elegido para su tercer y cuarto mandato como cónsul en el 46 a. C. y el 45 a. C. (esta última vez sin un colega).

Mientras todavía estaba haciendo campaña en Hispania, el Senado comenzó a otorgar honores a César. César no había proscrito a sus enemigos, sino que había perdonado a casi todos, y no había una oposición pública seria contra él. En abril se llevaron a cabo grandes juegos y celebraciones para honrar la victoria de César en Munda. Plutarco escribe que muchos romanos encontraron de mal gusto el triunfo obtenido tras la victoria de César, ya que los derrotados en la guerra civil no habían sido extranjeros, sino compatriotas romanos. [90] A su regreso de César a Italia en septiembre del 45 a. C., presentó su testamento y nombró a su sobrino nieto Cayo Octavio (Octavio, más tarde conocido como César Augusto) como su principal heredero, dejando su vasta finca y propiedades, incluido su nombre. César también escribió que si Octavio moría antes que César, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus sería el próximo heredero en sucesión. [91] En su testamento, también dejó un importante regalo a los ciudadanos de Roma.

Entre su cruce del Rubicón en el 49 a. C. y su asesinato en el 44 a. C., César estableció una nueva constitución, que tenía la intención de lograr tres objetivos separados. [92] Primero, quería suprimir toda la resistencia armada en las provincias, y así devolver el orden a la República. En segundo lugar, quería crear un gobierno central fuerte en Roma. Finalmente, quería unir todas las provincias en una sola unidad cohesiva. [92]

El primer gol se logró cuando César derrotó a Pompeyo y sus seguidores. [92] Para lograr los otros dos objetivos, necesitaba asegurarse de que su control sobre el gobierno fuera indiscutible, [93] por lo que asumió estos poderes aumentando su propia autoridad y disminuyendo la autoridad de las otras instituciones políticas de Roma. Finalmente, promulgó una serie de reformas que estaban destinadas a abordar varios temas descuidados durante mucho tiempo, el más importante de los cuales fue su reforma del calendario. [94]

Dictadura

Cuando César regresó a Roma, el Senado le otorgó triunfos por sus victorias, aparentemente las sobre Galia, Egipto, Farnaces y Juba, en lugar de sobre sus oponentes romanos. [ cita necesaria ] Cuando Arsinoe IV, la ex reina de Egipto, desfilaron encadenada, los espectadores admiraron su porte digno y se sintieron conmovidos. [95] Se llevaron a cabo juegos triunfales, con cacerías de bestias en las que participaron 400 leones y concursos de gladiadores. Se llevó a cabo una batalla naval en una cuenca inundada en el Campo de Marte. [96] En el Circo Máximo, dos ejércitos de cautivos de guerra, cada uno de 2.000 personas, 200 caballos y 20 elefantes, lucharon hasta la muerte. Una vez más, algunos transeúntes se quejaron, esta vez por el derroche de extravagancia de César. Estalló un motín, y solo se detuvo cuando César hizo sacrificar a dos alborotadores por los sacerdotes en el Campo de Marte. [96]

Tras el triunfo, César se propuso aprobar una ambiciosa agenda legislativa. [96] Ordenó que se hiciera un censo, lo que obligó a reducir el subsidio de cereales, y decretó que los jurados sólo podían provenir del Senado o de las filas ecuestres. Aprobó una ley suntuaria que restringía la compra de ciertos lujos. Después de esto, aprobó una ley que recompensaba a las familias por tener muchos hijos, para acelerar la repoblación de Italia. Luego, proscribió los gremios profesionales, excepto los de fundación antigua, ya que muchos de estos eran clubes políticos subversivos. Luego aprobó una ley de límite de mandato aplicable a los gobernadores. Aprobó una ley de reestructuración de la deuda, que finalmente eliminó alrededor de una cuarta parte de todas las deudas. [96]

Luego se construyó el Foro de César, con su Templo de Venus Genetrix, entre muchas otras obras públicas. [97] César también reguló estrictamente la compra de cereales subvencionados por el Estado y redujo el número de destinatarios a un número fijo, todos los cuales fueron inscritos en un registro especial. [98] Desde el 47 al 44 a. C., hizo planes para la distribución de tierras a unos 15.000 de sus veteranos. [99]

El cambio más importante, sin embargo, fue su reforma del calendario. El calendario romano de la época estaba regulado por el movimiento de la luna. Al reemplazarlo con el calendario egipcio, basado en el sol, los agricultores romanos pudieron usarlo como base para la siembra estacional constante de año en año. Estableció la duración del año en 365,25 días añadiendo un día intercalario / bisiesto a finales de febrero cada cuatro años. [94]

Para alinear el calendario con las estaciones, decretó que se insertaran tres meses adicionales en el 46 a.C. (el mes intercalario ordinario a fines de febrero y dos meses adicionales después de noviembre). Por lo tanto, el calendario juliano se abrió el 1 de enero de 45 a. C. [94] [96] Este calendario es casi idéntico al actual calendario occidental.

Poco antes de su asesinato, aprobó algunas reformas más. [96] Nombró funcionarios para llevar a cabo sus reformas agrarias y ordenó la reconstrucción de Cartago y Corinto. También extendió los derechos latinos por todo el mundo romano, y luego abolió el sistema fiscal y volvió a la versión anterior que permitía a las ciudades recaudar tributos como quisieran, en lugar de necesitar intermediarios romanos. Su asesinato impidió más y mayores planes, que incluyeron la construcción de un templo sin precedentes a Marte, un enorme teatro y una biblioteca en la escala de la Biblioteca de Alejandría. [96]

También quería convertir Ostia en un puerto importante y abrir un canal a través del istmo de Corinto. Militarmente, quería conquistar a los dacios y partos y vengar la pérdida en Carrhae. Así, instituyó una movilización masiva. Poco antes de su asesinato, el Senado lo nombró censor vitalicio y Padre de la Patria, y el mes de Quintilis pasó a llamarse julio en su honor. [96]

Se le otorgaron más honores, que luego se utilizaron para justificar su asesinato como un futuro monarca divino: se emitieron monedas con su imagen y su estatua se colocó junto a las de los reyes. Se le concedió una silla dorada en el Senado, se le permitió usar un vestido triunfal cuando quisiera y se le ofreció una forma de culto semioficial o popular, con Mark Antony como su sumo sacerdote. [96]

Reformas políticas

La historia de los nombramientos políticos de César es compleja e incierta. César ejercía tanto la dictadura como el tribuno, pero alternaba entre el consulado y el proconsulado. [93] Sus poderes dentro del estado parecen haber descansado sobre estas magistraturas. [93] Fue nombrado dictador por primera vez en el 49 a. C., posiblemente para presidir las elecciones, pero renunció a su dictadura en 11 días. En el 48 a. C. fue reelegido dictador, solo que esta vez por tiempo indefinido, y en el 46 a. C. fue nombrado dictador por 10 años. [100]

En el 48 a. C., a César se le otorgaron poderes tribunicios permanentes, [101] [ verificación fallida ] lo que hizo su persona sacrosanta y le permitió vetar el Senado, [101] aunque en al menos una ocasión, los tribunos intentaron obstruirlo. Los tribunos infractores en este caso fueron llevados ante el Senado y despojados de su cargo. [101] Esta no era la primera vez que César había violado la sacrosanta santidad de un tribuno. Después de haber marchado por primera vez sobre Roma en el 49 a. C., abrió por la fuerza el tesoro, aunque un tribuno hizo que se le pusiera el sello. Después de la acusación de los dos tribunos obstructivos, César, tal vez como era de esperar, no enfrentó más oposición de otros miembros del Tribunician College. [101]

Cuando César regresó a Roma en el 47 a. C., las filas del Senado se habían agotado gravemente, por lo que utilizó sus poderes de censura para nombrar a muchos senadores nuevos, lo que finalmente elevó el número de miembros del Senado a 900. [102] Todos los nombramientos fueron propios. partisanos, que despojaron a la aristocracia senatorial de su prestigio e hicieron que el Senado estuviera cada vez más subordinado a él. [103] Para minimizar el riesgo de que otro general intente desafiarlo, [100] César aprobó una ley que sometía a los gobernadores a límites de mandato. [100]

En el 46 a. C., César se otorgó a sí mismo el título de "Prefecto de la Moral", cargo que era nuevo sólo de nombre, ya que sus poderes eran idénticos a los del censores. [101] Así, podía tener poderes de censura, aunque técnicamente no se sometía a los mismos controles a los que estaban sujetos los censores ordinarios, y usó estos poderes para llenar el Senado con sus propios partidarios. También sentó el precedente, que siguieron sus sucesores imperiales, de exigir que el Senado le otorgara varios títulos y honores. Se le dio, por ejemplo, el título de "Padre de la Patria" y "imperator". [100]

Las monedas llevaban su imagen y se le concedió el derecho a hablar primero durante las reuniones del Senado. [100] César luego aumentó el número de magistrados que eran elegidos cada año, lo que creó una gran cantidad de magistrados experimentados y permitió que César recompensara a sus partidarios. [102]

César incluso tomó medidas para transformar Italia en una provincia y vincular más estrechamente las otras provincias del imperio en una sola unidad cohesiva. Este proceso, de fusionar todo el Imperio Romano en una sola unidad, en lugar de mantenerlo como una red de principados desiguales, sería finalmente completado por el sucesor de César, el emperador Augusto.

En octubre del 45 a.C., César renunció a su cargo de cónsul único y facilitó la elección de dos sucesores para el resto del año, lo que teóricamente restableció el consulado ordinario, ya que la constitución no reconocía un solo cónsul sin un colega. [102] En febrero del 44 a. C., un mes antes de su asesinato, fue nombrado dictador a perpetuidad. Bajo César, una cantidad significativa de autoridad fue otorgada a sus lugartenientes, [100] principalmente porque César estaba con frecuencia fuera de Italia. [100]

Cerca del final de su vida, César comenzó a prepararse para una guerra contra el Imperio parto. Dado que su ausencia de Roma podría limitar su capacidad para instalar sus propios cónsules, aprobó una ley que le permitía nombrar a todos los magistrados y todos los cónsules y tribunos. [102] Esto, en efecto, transformó a los magistrados de representantes del pueblo a representantes del dictador. [102]

Asesinato

En los Idus de marzo (el 15 de marzo, véase el calendario romano) del 44 a. C., César debía comparecer en una sesión del Senado. Varios senadores habían conspirado para asesinar a César. Mark Antony, habiendo aprendido vagamente del complot la noche anterior por un aterrorizado libertador llamado Servilius Casca, y temiendo lo peor, fue a detener a César. Los conspiradores, sin embargo, lo habían anticipado y, temiendo que Antonio acudiera en ayuda de César, habían dispuesto que Trebonio lo interceptara justo cuando se acercaba al pórtico del Teatro de Pompeyo, donde se iba a celebrar la sesión, y lo detuviera afuera. (Plutarco, sin embargo, asigna esta acción de retrasar a Antonio a Brutus Albino). Cuando escuchó la conmoción en la cámara del Senado, Antonio huyó. [104]

Según Plutarco, cuando César llegó al Senado, Tillius Cimber le presentó una petición para que retirara a su hermano exiliado. [105] Los otros conspiradores se apiñaron para ofrecer apoyo. Tanto Plutarco como Suetonio dicen que César le indicó que se fuera, pero Cimber lo agarró por los hombros y le bajó la túnica. Entonces César le gritó a Cimber: "¡Vaya, esto es violencia!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). [106]

Al mismo tiempo, Casca sacó su daga y lanzó una estocada al cuello del dictador. César se dio la vuelta rápidamente y agarró a Casca del brazo. Según Plutarco, dijo en latín: "Casca, villano, ¿qué estás haciendo?". [107] Casca, asustada, gritó: "¡Socorro, hermano!" en griego ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει", "adelphe, boetheiEn unos momentos, todo el grupo, incluido Bruto, estaba golpeando al dictador. César intentó escapar, pero, cegado por la sangre, tropezó y cayó, los hombres continuaron apuñalándolo mientras yacía indefenso en los escalones inferiores del the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. [108]

According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. [109] The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase " καὶ σύ, τέκνον " [110] (transliterated as "Kai sy, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. [111]

Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. [112] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?") [113] [114] best known from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." This version was already popular when the play was written, as it appears in Richard Edes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke & etc. of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. [115]

According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators they, however, fled the building. [116] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it.

Caesar's body was cremated. A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. On the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). Only its altar now remains. [117] A life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds.

In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.

Aftermath of the assassination

The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. [118] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir (hence the name Octavian), bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. [119]

The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. [120] Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, [121] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. [122] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of the divine"). [123]

Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. [124] It engaged in the legally sanctioned killing of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. [125] Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. [126]

Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC and suicide in Egypt in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority. [127]

Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus, and Scythia, and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. [128] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Deification

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius (the divine/deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime: [129] and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his flamen (priest). [130] Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Caesar, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (Son of the Divine).

Health and physical appearance

Based on remarks by Plutarch, [131] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. [132] Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brain by a tapeworm. [133] [134]

Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures. [135] [136] [137]

In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. [138]

A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf". [139] No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence. [140]

Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his Historia Natural that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease. [141]

Suetonius, writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes". [142]

Name and family

The name Gaius Julius Caesar

Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J y U, Caesar's name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of GRAMO por C. The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A y mi, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)

In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuːl.i.ʊs ˈkae̯sar]. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ (Kaísar), reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Emperador.

In Vulgar Latin, the original diphthong [ae̯] first began to be pronounced as a simple long vowel [ɛː] . Then, the plosive /k/ before front vowels began, due to palatalization, to be pronounced as an affricate, hence renderings like [ˈtʃeːsar] in Italian and [ˈtseːzar] in German regional pronunciations of Latin, as well as the title of Tsar. With the evolution of the Romance languages, the affricate [ts] became a fricative [s] (thus, [ˈseːsar] ) in many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived.

Caesar's cognomen itself became a title it was promulgated by the Bible, which contains the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became, from the late first millennium, Emperador in German and Tsar or Czar in the Slavic languages. The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in 1946. This means that for approximately two thousand years, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.

Familia

  • Father Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul of Asia) (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC)
  • Mother Aurelia (one of the Aurelii Cottae)
  • First marriage to Cornelia (Cinnilla), from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Bona Dea scandal
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia, from 59 BC until Caesar's death
    , by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC , by Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
  • Posthumously adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood (grandson of Julia, his sister), who later became Emperor Augustus.
    (born 85 BC): The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. [144] Caesar would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born. (born California. 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover Servilia was believed by Cicero among other contemporaries, to be Caesar's natural daughter. (born California. 85–81 BC): On several occasions Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. This Brutus was also named an heir of Caesar in case Octavius had died before the latter. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus. [145]

Grandchild from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. [146]

    , mother of Caesarion , mother of Brutus , queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes
    (married to his paternal aunt Julia) (his relative through Antony's mother Julia) (his third cousin)

Rumors of passive homosexuality

Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar." [147] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion. [148] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents.

Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, [149] but later apologised. [150]

Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. [151]

During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin —even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. [152] Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. [153]

Memorias

  • los Commentarii de Bello Gallico, usually known in English as The Gallic Wars, seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years.
  • los Commentarii de Bello Civili (La guerra civil), events of the Civil War from Caesar's perspective, until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt.

Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt:

  • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria
  • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa and
  • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula.

These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front." They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. [154] As a model of clear and direct Latin style, The Gallic Wars traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students.

Historiografía

The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. [155] The Roman emperor Augustus began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. [156]

Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar. Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work Histoire de Jules César, which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the Guerras Galicas in 1480. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Comentarios, and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards. [157]

Política

Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. [158] Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. [159] [160] Bonaparte did not focus only on Caesar's military career but also on his relation with the masses, a predecessor to populism. [161] The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule.

Depictions

Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902


The first wife: Cornelia

The first of Julius Caesar’s wives was Cornelia, daughter of the four-time consul Lucio Cornelio Cinna. They were married in 84 B.C. when Caesar was fifteen or sixteen, and she was about thirteen or fourteen, until 69 B.C.

During the fifteen years that the marriage lasted (a third of which they spent separated), the young couple had to live challenging moments. When Caesar did not want to give in to pressure from Lucio Cornelio Sulla (the dictator at the time) to get a divorce, Cornelia’s dowry was confiscated, and they had to flee to avoid arrest. On that occasion, only the intervention of Aurelia’s family, Julio Caesar’s mother, saved them from losing their lives.

Sometime between 78 and 75 B.C., Cornelia gave birth to Julia the only legitimate descendant Julius Caesar would have in his entire life. Years later, in 59 B.C., Julia would marry Pompey the Great to strengthen the First Triumvirate ties.

It was likely a happy union, which does not mean that Caesar had numerous relationships with women of all walks of life. It was commonly accepted that aristocratic husbands sought to satisfy their libido in other women’s arms, often prostitutes. Still, this did not mean that many couples were not very much in love and had an active sex life.

In 69 B.C., before Caesar left Rome to serve as a quaestor (a public official) in Hispania, Cornelia died in childbirth, and her stillborn did not survive either.

It was not uncommon for older women from noble families to receive grandiose public funerals. Still, the decision to hold one for Cornelia drew attention because she was still very young.

Since many understood it as a sign of genuine affection from a man with a good heart to his wife, his gesture was very well received by the people. However, Caesar indeed took advantage of the event for political gain by reminding the crowd how honorable his lineage was and his family’s services to the state.


Why Julius Caesar Built a Bridge Over The Rhine And Destroyed it 18 Days Later

In the early summer of 55 BC Julius Caesar had already begun his conquest of Gaul three years earlier. At that time the eastern border of the new provinces was located on the Rhine. The Germanic tribes on the eastern side of the river launched incursions to the west under the protection provided by this natural border.

But on the other side of the river there were also tribes allied with Rome, like the Ubians. They offered Caesar ships for the legions to cross the river and attack the Germanic tribes.

The Ubians, too, who from all the nations beyond the Rhine, had sent ambassadors to Caesar and formed an alliance and given hostages, earnestly begged “to bring them help, because they were gravely oppressed by the Suebi or, if other matters prevented him, let him at least transport his army up the Rhine ' that this would be enough for their present help and their hope for the future (…) They promised a large number of ships to transport the army.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.16

Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)

However, Caesar rejected the offer and decided to build a bridge instead. In doing so, he would demonstrate not only his support for the Ubian allies, but also Rome's ability to carry the war whenever it wished across the border. Also, as he wrote, that he considered ships unsafe, this was more consistent with his own dignity and that of the Roman people.

Caesar, for the reasons I have mentioned, had resolved to cross the Rhine but not to cross it in ships that he did not consider sufficiently safe, nor did he consider consistent with his own dignity or that of the Roman people. Therefore, although he had the greatest difficulty in forming a bridge, due to the breadth, speed and depth of the river, he felt that he should try it himself, or that his army should not be led in any other way.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

The construction was carried out between present-day Andernach and Neuwied, downstream from Koblenz, an area where the depth of the river would be up to 9 meters. Watchtowers were erected on both banks to protect the entrances, and piles and barriers were placed upriver as a measure of protection against attacks and debris carried by the current.

Caesar's 40,000 soldiers built the bridge in just 10 days on double wooden piles that were driven into the riverbed, dropping a huge and heavy stone on them as a mace. The construction system ensured that the greater the flow, the harder the bridge was held together.

Illustration of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge from “History of Rome, and of the Roman people, from its origin to the invasion of the barbarians" (1883)

Two foot-and-a-half thick logs pointed at the bottom, and as long as the river was deep, were locked together with two feet of separation these were inserted and fitted with devices into the river, and were driven with mallets, not perpendicularly like posts, but inclined and stretched out towards the river current. Then further down, at a distance of forty feet, he would set in front of the first two others locked in the same way and struck against the force and current of the river. Both, in addition, were kept firmly separated by beams two feet thick (the space occupied by the junction of the piles), placed at their ends between two brackets on each side, and consequently that these were in different directions and fixed on opposite sides to each other, so great was the force of the work,

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

It is not known who was the engineer responsible for this new bridge construction technique, which had never been used before. Cicero suggests in a letter that his name was Mumarra, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it was Marcus Vitruvius Polio (the architect who was the author of the famous Ten Books of Architecture ), who was meeting Caesar. It is estimated that the length of this bridge could have been between 140 and 400 meters, and its width between 7 and 9 meters.

Once it was finished, Caesar crossed with his troops to the other bank, where the Ubians were waiting for him. Then he learned that the tribes of the Sicambrians and the Suevi had withdrawn to the East, in anticipation of his arrival. Not being able to present a battle and after destroying some villages, Caesar decided to turn around, cross again the bridge and knock it down behind him. It had lasted 18 days.

A scale model of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge at The Museo Della Civilta Romana in Rome. Foto: MrJennings/Flickr

Two years later history repeated itself. Near the place where the first bridge had been and about 2 kilometers to the north (possibly next to the current Urmitz), Caesar built a second, although this time he did not elaborate on the details.

Having decided on these matters, he began to build a bridge a little higher than the place where he had earlier transported his army. Once the plan is known and established, the work is carried out in a few days due to the great effort of the soldiers. Having left a strong guard on the bridge on the side of the Trier, so that no commotion would occur between them, he led the rest of the forces and the cavalry.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War VI.9

As before, the Suebi, seeing what was coming their way, retreated to the East again, abandoning their villages and hiding in the forests. Caesar returned to Gaul and again destroyed the bridge. Only this time he only knocked down the end that touched the eastern shore, erecting defense towers to protect the rest of the bridge.

In order not to completely free the barbarians from the fear of their return, and in order to delay his warriors, having driven back his army, he broke, over a distance of 200 feet, the far end of the bridge, which connected him to the Ubian shore, and at the end of the bridge he erected four-story towers, and placed a guard of twelve cohorts for the purpose of defending the bridge, and reinforced the place with considerable fortifications.

Julius Caesar, Commentary on the Gallic War VI.29

Reconstruction of a Roman pile driver, used to build the Rhine bridge at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz, Germany. Foto: Holger Weinandt/Wikimedia Commons

Caesar's strategy produced the desired effect. It demonstrated the power of Rome and her ability to cross the Rhine at will at any time. Thus Julius Caesar secured the borders of Gaul, and for several centuries the Germans refrained from crossing them.

It also allowed the Roman colonization of the Rhine Valley, where permanent bridges would later be built in Castra Vetera (Xanten), Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Colonia), Confluentes (Coblenz) and Moguntiacum (Mainz).

Archaeological excavations carried out in the late 19th century in the Andernach-Neuwied area found remains of pilings in the Rhine (their analysis in the 20th century showed that they had been cut down in the middle of the 1st century BC), which may belong to Caesar's bridges, although the place of its location has never been able to be determined exactly.

As for the Ubians, in 39 BC Marco Vipsanio Agrippa finally transferred them to the west bank of the Rhine in payment their longstanding loyalty, as they had been asking for a long time, fearing reprisals from neighboring tribes. They remained loyal to Rome throughout its history, eventually mixing with the Franks who gave rise to new kingdoms in Gaul during the Middle Ages.

This article was originally published in La Brújula Verde. It has been translated from Spanish and republished with permission.


3 Pics: What Julius Caesar actually looked like: New Science 3D reconstruction

[Spears sent me this one. This is fascinating. Most people don’t seem to have an idea of what real leaders and great generals actually looked like. They aren’t necessarily handsome. In this case, a birth problem may have affected the size of his head. One friend of mine has a theory that we’re ruled by people with big heads, and this new sculpture of Caesar would certainly fit his theory!! All that matters is that the work must be accurate. This then would be the face of one of the greatest white men who ever lived. His feats were incredible. The Romans were used to doing amazing stuff, but his feats exceeded even those! He was a true warrior and a great leader whom men died for willingly. You don’t get that kind of loyalty without extreme ability. In that sense, Caesar and Napoleon are identical. You’re looking at the face of one of the greatest military minds of all time.

The scientist says that Caesar was about corpses – and indeed that is true! The Romans were a white people who killed their enemies by the million even though they only had swords, spears and a few other devices! They created a civilisation that was 1,000 years ahead of the rest of Europe! We must become like them again! That is what Hitler was trying to do. WHITE WARRIORS create CIVILISATIONS!

NB: I’ve also put a translation of the original Dutch article below the first one because it contains a bunch of additional details. Jan]

Julius Caesar, the reviled and revered Roman emperor, has gotten a new look, thanks to a recent 3D reconstruction of his face and head.

The National Museum of Antiquities in the Netherlands unveiled the new bust Friday, giving viewers a fascinating image of what Caesar would have looked like in real life — complete with a huge bump covering part of his head.

“So he has a crazy bulge on his head,” said physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy, the person behind the reconstruction, according to Dutch newspaper, HLN.

The reconstruction was made on the basis of a 3D scan of a marble portrait in the museum’s collection.

“The piece of sculpture is pretty damaged,” the museum said in a news release. “That is why it was decided to supplement the disappeared parts, such as nose and chin, on the basis of second portraiti of Julius Caesar: the so-called Tusculum bust.”

The museum said the 3D reconstrcution will be on display until the end of August.

Here is a direct translation from the original Dutch because the other stories do not contain many details:-

The Roman ruler Julius Caesar, murdered on March 15 of the year 44 BC, has a new face. Physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy made it for the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, where it is unveiled today and can still be seen for free.

The bust was the idea of ??archaeologist Tom Buijtendorp, whose book “Caesar in the Low Countries” was published at the same time. D’Hollosy used, among other things, his research results that have now been published. She went on for the face of Caesar further from two busts, one from Leiden and one from Turin, and from coins with Caesar from his own time. Especially the head in Turin seems certain that it is made alive and reasonably realistic, says Buijtendorp. “So he has a crazy bulge on his head. A doctor said that such a thing occurs in a heavy delivery. You do not invent that as an artist. And realistic portraits were in fashion “.

The image in Leiden is very similar to that in Turin, although the most powerful man of his time lost a piece of his forehead, mouth and nose. D’Hollosy made a 3d print of the head from Leiden. There she took off the top layer and then applied a new one, using clay and silicone rubber. That way Julius got a lifelike face. “I do not let him look happy and friendly. He was a general who was about corpses, “says d’Hollosy.


New 3D reconstruction of Caesar

This is rediculous. They just guessed like anyone else. "Lets take all the descriptions and statues and then blow up his forehead like a hot air balloon. Sí. that's what he looked like." He looks like Mr. Mackey. There is zero chance in hell that he looked like an over-inflated beach ball. I choose to keep thinking about rugged, slightly balding Caesar with a human-sized head.

You're telling me thats not the face of somebody who demands the result of their soldiers? /s

This is the ideal caesarian head. You may not like it, but this is what peak gravitas looks like.

His face looks really small in comparison to his head lol

There’s no way this is accurate, right? It looks like a perfect model that someone inflated.

Coming from Pixar this summer. Finding Pompey

Tag line: “He just wanted to be Consul.”

I thought so too, but still interesting to see, I think. The dimensions need to be it a bit more balanced, as all things should be.

What is this reconstruction based on? Caesar was cremated and we have no remains or a skull from which to form something like this

Looks like they took the hundreds of relatively life-like statues and images of Caesar, turned them sideways, and adjusted the "freakish birdiness" factor upward by about four for no God-damned reason at all.

According to the article (Dutch), the Tusculum Portrait, except with some artist's interpretation.

Not my Caesar! Edit: spelling

No wonder the Senate hated him. He’s a heqing beach ball!!

Image from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Dutch Imperial Museum of Antiquity). More photos can be found in this article (also Dutch).

Sorry, I don't have the time to translate the articles right now.

3D reconstruction of face Caesar: 'Just someone you can come across at the supermarket'

A new 3D reconstruction of the head of Julius Caesar shows a remarkably ordinary man. The image is based on recent research, but leaves much to be guessed about.

His cheeks have sunken and deep lines are running through his skin. Despite his frown, his eyes are quite soft and his mouth is soft. In relation to his narrow face, his bald skull is strikingly large, and there is a strange bump on it.

This new performance by Julius Caesar takes some getting used to. It is a 3D reconstruction, presented yesterday at the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden. The everyday appearance, ostensibly of flesh and blood, looks a lot more approachable than the strict soldier on images from Antiquity or the angular manners from Asterix and Obelix. It fits into a trend of museums that bring (pre) historical persons to life through reconstructions based on excavated skulls. Only the reconstruction in Leiden does not have a skull, but antique busts as a starting point. Caesar's skull has been lost.

So, lean and with receding hairline, Caesar may have looked shortly before he was killed in 44 BC. Can, emphasize the archaeologists responsible for the reconstruction, Tom Buijtendorp and Maja d'Hollosy. They based their images on a bust in the archaeological museum in Turin. According to Buijtendorp, this is a rough copy of a fairly faithful, vanished image. "On the bust of Turin there is a lump on the right side of the skull," he explains. 'Such a bump is a typical remnant of a heavy birth,' showed pediatric surgeon Van Lindert of the Radboud UMC. A sculptor would not think of such a thing, so that argues for the veracity of the original. '

On the authority of Buijtendorp, d'Hollosy, specialist in facial reconstructions, used the Turin bust as one of her sources of information. A scan of a bust from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden served as a basis. A couple of millimeters were 'peeled off' and then they applied layers of 'skin' again by hand.

'In addition, there is always some interpretation', explains d'Hollosy. 'The space for the eyes on the bust of Leiden, for example, was ridiculously large. I have reduced it to a normal size. And the nose of the Turin bust was strangely narrow. It is now made just as wide as the remains of the nose on the statue from Leiden. '

That such an interpretation is necessary, says PhD student Sam Heijnen, who is doing research at the Radboud University on imperial portraits: ɽuring Caesar's life, it was in order to make really real images, including wrinkles. But that did not make them truthful yet. These images were also full of symbolism. "Saskia Stevens, senior of Utrecht University, explains:" Men like Caesar wanted to show that they had always worked hard for the Roman cause. That's why they liked to show themselves tough and wrinkly: that fitted in with the ideal of a dedicated, sober soldier. We do not know how well such an image represented the person. '

Buijtendorp acknowledges these uncertainties: 'This reconstruction mainly challenges the prevailing image of Caesar. He is truer than the well-known symmetrical Caesar statues with their full hairdo. But the image is not the absolute truth either. '

Stevens is enthusiastic about the result, with all the triumphs: 'I find this very attractive to a general public. Instead of those strict white images you suddenly see a person someone you might encounter in the supermarket. & quot


Mar 15, 44 BCE: Julius Caesar Assassinated

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, was stabbed to death by dozens of senators.

Arts and Music, Social Studies, World History

Death of Caesar

Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire.

Painting by Jean-Leon Gerome, courtesy the Walters Art Museum

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in Rome, Italy. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, and his assassins were Roman senators, fellow politicians who helped shape Roman policy and government.

Julius Caesar was immensely popular with the people of Rome. He was a successful military leader who expanded the republic to include parts of what are now Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. Caesar was also a popular author who wrote about his travels, theories, and political views.

Many members of the Senate, a group of appointed (not elected) political leaders, resented Caesar&rsquos popularity and arrogance. After Caesar attained the status of dictator for life in 44 B.C.E., these officials decided to strike the ultimate blow against his power. A group of as many as 60 conspirators decided to assassinate Caesar at the meeting of the Senate on March 15, the ides of March. Collectively, the group stabbed Caesar a reported 23 times, killing the Roman leader.

The death of Julius Caesar ultimately had the opposite impact of what his assassins hoped. Much of the Roman public hated the senators for the assassination, and a series of civil wars ensued. In the end, Caesar&rsquos grandnephew and adoptive son Octavian emerged as Rome&rsquos leader. He renamed himself Augustus Caesar. The reign of Augustus marked the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire.


The Battle of Gergovia

The Gallic tribes called a general council at Bibracte and declared Vercingetorix as the supreme commander of the allied Gallic forces. He demanded 15,000 cavalry which he planned to use to destroy the grain and hay supplies of the Romans. Vercingetorix also ordered his allies to burn their corn as part of his scorched earth policy. The next aim was to attack the Roman province in the knowledge that if the region fell, the Roman commander was marooned.

Lucius Caesar was in charge of defending the province, and he had 22 cohorts at his disposal. Vercingetorix began to shadow Julius Caesar&rsquos movements as the Roman commander was marching across the margins of Lingones territory. Caesar was attempting to get to the province to prevent any major attack. However, Vercingetorix was within nine miles of Caesar&rsquos camp and called a staff conference.

Statue of Vercingetorix &ndash Renegade Tribune

The Gallic leader thought that Caesar was looking to concede the campaign by retreating for safety. He believed the Romans would return with an even bigger force, so Vercingetorix called on his army to attack as soon as possible. The plan was to use cavalry to swoop down on the supply train and either slow the legionnaires down or force them to abandon their supplies.

Alas, Vercingetorix&rsquos plan backfired at the Battle of Gergovia when his initial cavalry charge failed. Caesar probably expected the Gauls to follow up with infantry but in reality, the Gallic infantry was too far from the action to have an impact. Caesar quickly realized the enemy&rsquos mistake and forced its cavalry to retreat. However, he refused to commit his infantry and Vercingetorix was able to retreat to Alesia, the capital of the Mandubii. The attack at Gergovia was poorly planned and executed, but worse was to come for Vercingetorix as he was totally outmaneuvered by Caesar in the next conflict.


Writing the First Long-Lived Extortion Law

Caesar's Lex Iulia De Repetundis (The Extortion Law of the Julians) was not the first law against extortion: that is generally cited as the Lex Bembina Repetundarum, and usually attributed to Gaius Gracchus in 95 BCE. Caesar's extortion law remained a fundamental guide for the conduct of Roman magistrates for at least the next five centuries.

Written in 59 BCE, the law restricted the number of gifts that a magistrate could receive during his term in a province and ensured that governors had their accounts balanced when they left.


Ver el vídeo: Desaparición forzada en Iguala: una reconstrucción forense (Diciembre 2021).