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Universidad de Toledo

Universidad de Toledo

La Universidad de Toledo es una universidad pública centrada en los estudiantes, ubicada en 450 acres, a seis millas al noroeste del centro de Toledo, Ohio.La institución de investigación metropolitana integra el aprendizaje, el descubrimiento y la participación, lo que permite a los estudiantes alcanzar su máximo potencial en un entorno que Abraza y celebra la diversidad humana, el respeto por las personas y la libertad de expresión. Establecida en 1872, la institución mixta comenzó como la Universidad de Artes y Oficios de Toledo, una escuela privada de artes y oficios que ofrece pintura y dibujo arquitectónico como sus únicas asignaturas. fue fundada en 160 acres, donada por Wakeman Scott como donación para que la universidad capacite a los jóvenes de la ciudad. La escuela recibió su primer apoyo municipal en 1884 y se convirtió en la Escuela de Capacitación Manual. Para la década de 1920, la creciente institución expandió su oferta, convirtiéndose más en una escuela de educación superior y la población estudiantil aumentó. Durante los primeros años, las clases se llevaban a cabo en dos edificios del centro, estos lugares eran menos que ideales. En 1922, la escuela se trasladó a una instalación de capacitación en mecánica automotriz, que se construyó durante la Primera Guerra Mundial en la propiedad original de Scott, pero esto también fue En 1928, el presidente Henry J. Alrededor de 400 hombres trabajaron menos de un año para terminar el Salón y la Casa de campo conmemorativa en el diseño gótico colegiado. La universidad recibió su nombre actual en 1940 y se convirtió en una institución estatal en julio de 1967 El proceso de adquisición del estado aumentó los subsidios para estudiantes y los fondos de mejora de capital, ayudando a la universidad a agregar más de 15 edificios académicos y residencias al campus, antes del año 2000. Operando bajo un calendario semestral, Toledo ofrece más de 250 programas de estudio en ocho universidades, incluida la Facultad de Artes y Ciencias, la Facultad de Negocios, la Facultad de Educación, la Facultad de Ingeniería, la Facultad de Salud y Servicios Humanos , la Facultad de Derecho, la Facultad de Farmacia y la Facultad de la Universidad. La universidad inscribe a un total de 12,000 estudiantes universitarios de tiempo completo, la gran mayoría de los cuales provienen del estado. Las especialidades populares incluyen educación primaria, marketing y comunicación. Un instituto de polímeros, un centro de sistemas industriales y un centro de artes visuales son sus principales instalaciones de investigación. La biblioteca cuenta con una colección especial de materiales de Ezra Pound. El Centennial Mall es una pintoresca zona de césped situada en el corazón del campus. Según la Sociedad Estadounidense de Arquitectos Paisajistas, es uno de los "100 lugares con paisajes más hermosos del país". El Wolfe Hall de la Universidad, inaugurado en 1998, se encuentra entre las instalaciones científicas más avanzadas de su tipo en la nación para la farmacia. La Universidad de Toledo también tiene una instalación de investigación y enseñanza ambiental de alta tecnología: el Centro de Educación e Investigación del Lago Erie, ubicado a orillas del Lago Erie en Oregon, Ohio. , organización sin fines de lucro formada en 1990, es la organización oficial de recepción de obsequios de la Universidad de Toledo. Gobernado por un Patronato voluntario, la organización está formada por ex alumnos, miembros de la comunidad y otros amigos de la universidad. Además de los estudios, se anima a los estudiantes a participar en actividades extracurriculares y cocurriculares. Los equipos deportivos interuniversitarios compiten en la Conferencia Mid-American de la NCAA.


Universidad de Toledo

En 1868, el editor del periódico Jesup Wakeman Scott publicó un panfleto titulado `` Toledo: la futura gran ciudad del mundo '', en el que argumentó que Toledo se convertiría en un importante centro del comercio mundial en 1900. & # 160 Como resultado, Scott donó 160 acres de tierra a la ciudad para construir una universidad. & # 160Conocida como la Universidad de Artes y Oficios de Toledo, la escuela se incorporó en 1872 y ofreció sus primeras clases en 1875. & # 160La institución original nunca cumplió completamente la visión de Scott y finalmente tuvo que cerró en 1878 debido a problemas financieros.

En 1884, el sueño renació cuando la ciudad de Toledo tomó el control de los activos de la escuela. & # 160La ciudad reabrió la institución como Escuela de Capacitación Manual en el mismo año. & # 160Los estudiantes que asistían a la escuela recibieron un título de tres años en el que aprendieron tanto materias académicas como habilidades vocacionales. Los estudiantes debían tener al menos trece años para inscribirse.

A principios de la década de 1900, los administradores de la escuela movieron la institución hacia los estándares de las universidades modernas. Sin embargo, la escuela luchó financieramente durante esta era. & # 160La universidad reorganizó y expandió su oferta en las dos primeras décadas del siglo XX, formando la Facultad de Artes y Ciencias, la Facultad de Comercio e Industria (también conocida como la Facultad de Administración de Empresas) y la Facultad de Educación. & # 160Como resultado de sus programas de grado ampliados, se matricularon más estudiantes. & # 160A finales de la década de 1910, la matrícula de estudiantes era de aproximadamente 1.400. Las actividades extracurriculares también se expandieron y en 1917 la universidad formó su primer equipo de fútbol.

La matrícula siguió aumentando en los años posteriores a la Primera Guerra Mundial, lo que requirió un importante programa de construcción. & # 160 Desafortunadamente, Estados Unidos pronto entró en la Gran Depresión & # 160. dificultades financieras. La administración de la universidad finalmente pudo utilizar los programas federales del New Deal para ayudar a financiar las mejoras del campus.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la Universidad de Toledo firmó un contrato con el ejército de los Estados Unidos para ofrecer una serie de programas de capacitación y proporcionar alojamiento a las tropas. & # 160Los estudiantes de la institución formaron el primer capítulo universitario de la Cruz Roja en la nación durante la guerra y participaron en otras actividades para apoyar a los soldados estadounidenses. & # 160 La universidad creció enormemente después de que terminó la guerra cuando los veteranos se inscribieron en la universidad en el GI Factura. Además de otro aumento en la inscripción, la escuela pudo construir edificios adicionales y establecer la Fundación de Televisión del Gran Toledo, que se centró en la programación de televisión educativa.

Hasta 1967, la Universidad de Toledo era una universidad municipal y recibía una parte importante de su presupuesto de la ciudad. & # 160 Esta situación suponía una carga importante tanto para Toledo como para la universidad. Como resultado, la legislatura estatal votó, el 1 de julio de 1967, hacer de la Universidad de Toledo una universidad estatal. Los estudiantes participaron en una serie de protestas a fines de la década de 1960 y principios de la de 1970, relacionadas con la guerra en Vietnam y las reacciones a la violencia en el campus en otras instituciones, pero sus esfuerzos se mantuvieron pacíficos.

La Universidad de Toledo ha seguido creciendo tanto en número de estudiantes como en tamaño del campus a fines del siglo XX y principios del XXI. & # 160Hoy en día, la institución inscribe a más de veinte mil estudiantes cada año y se jacta de programas sobresalientes. en farmacia e ingeniería.


Contenido

Fundación e historia temprana Editar

La Universidad de Toledo comenzó en 1872 como una escuela privada de artes y oficios que ofrecía asignaturas como pintura y dibujo arquitectónico. [8] La idea detrás de la escuela fue impulsada por Jesup Wakeman Scott, editor de un periódico local, quien publicó un panfleto en 1868 titulado "Toledo: Futura gran ciudad del mundo". [8] La publicación de Scott expresó su creencia de que el centro del comercio mundial se estaba moviendo hacia el oeste, y para 1900 estaría ubicado en Toledo. En preparación para la esperada expansión hacia el oeste del comercio mundial a Toledo, Scott donó 160 acres de tierra como donación para una universidad y el Universidad de Artes y Oficios de Toledo fue incorporada el 12 de octubre de 1872. [9] La misión original de la universidad era "proporcionar a los artistas y artesanos las mejores instalaciones para una alta cultura en sus profesiones". [8] Scott murió en 1874, un año antes de que la universidad abriera en una antigua iglesia en el centro de Toledo. [8] A finales de la década de 1870, la escuela estaba en problemas financieros y después de treinta años en funcionamiento, la escuela cerró en 1878. [8] El 8 de enero de 1884, los activos de la escuela pasaron a ser propiedad de la ciudad de Toledo. La escuela reabrió como la subdirección de la ciudad como el Escuela de Formación Manual de Toledo. Ofreció un programa de tres años para estudiantes de al menos 13 años que recibieron instrucción tanto académica como manual. [8]

Jerome Raymond, el primer presidente de la universidad, amplió su oferta a principios del siglo XX al afiliarse al Conservatorio de Música de Toledo, la Facultad de Derecho de la YMCA y la Facultad de Medicina de Toledo. Raymond también creó la Facultad de Artes y Ciencias. [8] A pesar de la expansión, la escuela luchó financieramente y soportó varias batallas legales por el control. [8] A. Monroe Stowe se convirtió en presidente en 1914 y ayudó a organizar y estabilizar la universidad y el 30 de enero de 1914 la universidad se hizo conocida como Universidad de Toledo. [9] Stowe fundó la Facultad de Comercio e Industria (más tarde la Facultad de Administración de Empresas) en 1914 y la Facultad de Educación en 1916. [8] Durante el período, la inscripción aumentó de 200 estudiantes a alrededor de 1.500. [8] Junto con la oferta académica ampliada, las actividades extracurriculares aumentaron con la formación de los primeros programas deportivos interuniversitarios de la universidad en 1915, incluido el fútbol en 1917. Se formaron otras organizaciones, como la incorporación de un consejo estudiantil y el primer periódico estudiantil de la universidad, El Universi-Teaser, en 1919. [8] Los programas deportivos recibieron su apodo, los Rockets, en 1923 de un periodista, quien pensó que el nombre reflejaba el estilo de juego de los equipos. [8]

En la década de 1920, la Universidad de Toledo era una institución en crecimiento, limitada solo por los edificios que la albergaban. Las clases se llevaron a cabo en dos edificios del centro, pero ambos eran demasiado pequeños. [8] En 1922, la universidad se trasladó a una instalación de capacitación en mecánica automotriz que se había construido para la Primera Guerra Mundial en la tierra original de Scott después de que superaron los dos edificios del centro donde la universidad operó por primera vez. [8] A pesar de tener el doble de tamaño De los edificios antiguos, la ubicación en el terreno de Scott rápidamente quedó obsoleta después de que un aumento del 32 por ciento en la inscripción creara una escasez de espacio para las aulas. [8] En 1928, Henry J. Doermann se convirtió en presidente y pronto inició planes para un nuevo campus. Doermann recibió su financiación después de que una recaudación de bonos iniciada por la ciudad aprobada por 10,000 votos. [8] Doermann trabajó con una firma de arquitectura local para diseñar el nuevo campus utilizando elementos de diseño de las universidades de Europa, la esperanza era que la arquitectura inspirara a los estudiantes. [8] Menos de un año después, el University Hall y la Field House se completaron en estilo gótico colegial. [8] Aunque las inscripciones se mantuvieron estables durante la Gran Depresión, Philip C. Nash, quien se convirtió en presidente tras la repentina muerte de Doermann, instituyó medidas drásticas para recortar costos junto con fondos del New Deal del gobierno federal para ayudar a pagar nuevas construcciones y becas. [8]

El impacto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial afectó drásticamente a la universidad. [8] El ejército contrató a la universidad para ofrecer programas de entrenamiento de guerra para militares y civiles. [8] Las áreas de estudio para civiles incluyeron: clases del programa de entrenamiento de guerra en ingeniería, ciencia y administración, y clases de entrenamiento de pilotos civiles. [8] Los militares utilizaron la universidad para albergar y entrenar a un destacamento de la 27ª Tripulación Aérea del Ejército, mientras que el Cuerpo de Enfermeras de Cadetes de EE. UU. Capacitó a enfermeras para los hospitales de campaña del ejército. [8] La matriculación de mujeres creció durante la guerra y muchas organizaciones estudiantiles reflejaron los cambios, el baloncesto y el fútbol interuniversitarios se suspendieron mientras el capítulo de la Cruz Roja de la universidad, el primero de su tipo en una universidad, patrocinó abejas tejedoras para hacer suéteres para los soldados. [8]

La era de la posguerra y la década de 1960 (1946-1972) Editar

Después de la guerra, la GI Bill of Rights ayudó a los veteranos a pagar la matrícula universitaria después de la guerra y más de 3.000 veteranos aprovecharon el programa en UT. [8] En 1945, la universidad compró viviendas militares sobrantes para los veteranos y las trasladó al campus. El complejo, conocido como "Nashville", pasó a ser un alojamiento para estudiantes casados ​​hasta 1974 después de que el pico de veteranos disminuyó. [8]

En 1947, Wilbur W. White reemplazó a Nash. White propuso un plan de desarrollo progresivo de diez años, pero murió en 1950 antes de que se completara el nuevo desarrollo. [8] La universidad, bajo el nuevo presidente Dr. Asa Knowles, continuó el plan de White y completó un nuevo dormitorio para hombres en 1952 y la nueva biblioteca en 1953. La programación educativa para estudiantes adultos se expandió y creó la Greater Toledo Television Foundation para utilizar la televisión para propósitos educativos. [8]

En 1958, Knowles se reunió con el Ayuntamiento de Toledo para asegurar un nuevo plan para la financiación futura de la universidad, durante la década de 1940 el 12 por ciento del presupuesto de la ciudad se asignó a la universidad y este porcentaje resultó insostenible. [8] El consejo sugirió que la universidad adquiera asistencia financiera del estado de Ohio para aliviar la carga financiera de la ciudad. [8]

Asa Knowles renunció a la presidencia ese mismo año, pero William S. Carlson continuó con el tema y se introdujeron tres proyectos de ley en la legislatura estatal en 1959 para proponer un subsidio estudiantil para las tres universidades municipales más grandes del estado, la Universidad de Toledo, junto con la Universidad de Akron. y Universidad de Cincinnati. [8] Los proyectos de ley se estancaron, pero ese mismo año se aprobó un impuesto de 2 millones de dólares para ayudar a mantener la universidad. [8] Las tres universidades municipales más grandes de Ohio continuaron presionando para obtener ayuda financiera del estado y finalmente lo lograron el 1 de julio de 1967. La decisión convirtió a la universidad en una universidad estatal, después de operar como una universidad municipal durante más de 80 años. [8] Además del subsidio para estudiantes, el apoyo estatal proporcionó dinero para mejoras de capital para la construcción del edificio del campus, [8] la universidad cambió su nombre por el Universidad de Toledo. [9]

La década de 1960 vio un aumento del activismo político y social en el campus de UT. Como muchas universidades, el campus de UT experimentó frecuentes protestas estudiantiles. [8] Los estudiantes protestaron por una variedad de cuestiones, que van desde un motín pacífico por la comida en 1968 por la calidad de la comida, hasta protestas de estudiantes que se oponen a la guerra de Vietnam que condujeron a varios arrestos. [8] En 1970, los estudiantes de UT se mantuvieron en paz después de los tiroteos de manifestantes en Kent State. UT experimentó tensión racial cuando una protesta de estudiantes afroamericanos en mayo de 1970 en respuesta a los asesinatos de Jackson State cerró temporalmente el University Hall. [8] Nuevamente, la protesta de UT terminó pacíficamente cuando el rector de la universidad se reunió con los estudiantes. [8]

1973–1995 Editar

UT celebró su centenario en 1972 con un año de celebraciones. También ese año, el presidente Carlson se retiró, y Glen R. Driscoll fue seleccionado como nuevo presidente de la universidad y comenzó una mayor expansión de la universidad con la adición del Centro de Artes Escénicas y Savage Hall en 1976, el Centro de Educación Continua en 1978, y Stranahan Hall en 1984. [8] La universidad reemplazó los estacionamientos y los viejos cuarteles del ejército con Centennial Mall, un centro comercial de nueve acres en el centro del campus. [8] La construcción comenzó en 1985 en SeaGate Center en el centro de Toledo como parte de los esfuerzos de revitalización del centro. [8] McMaster Hall se completó en 1987 y los planes para el Centro de Recreación Estudiantil se hicieron en 1990. Ese mismo año, la Villa Griega y el Complejo Atlético Larimer se completaron y el Glass Bowl se sometió a renovaciones. [8]

Frank E. Horton, ex presidente de la Universidad de Oklahoma, fue elegido decimotercer presidente en octubre de 1988 y continuó el crecimiento de la universidad, impulsado por los presidentes anteriores. [8] Horton inició un gran esfuerzo de planificación estratégica y organizó el crecimiento de la universidad. [8] Para ayudar a lograr los planes, en 1993 la universidad lanzó una campaña de recaudación de fondos de $ 40 millones llamada UT40. [8] A mediados de la década de 1990, UT renovó los edificios comerciales en Dorr Street y Secor Road para las aulas. [8] En 1992 se construyó un nuevo Centro Académico y Residencia para albergar el Programa de Honores. [8] El Centro de Artes Visuales en el Museo de Arte de Toledo también se terminó ese mismo año, seguido por la Residencia de la Casa Internacional y la Sala Nitschke en 1995. [8] Y la construcción comenzó en 1995 en una Farmacia, Química y Ciencias de la Vida. complejo en el campus principal y un Centro de Investigación del Lago Erie en Maumee Bay State Park. [8] La década de 1990 también incluyó un crecimiento significativo de la tecnología. La universidad se unió a OhioLINK, una red de bibliotecas en todo el estado, en 1994. Los laboratorios de computación y las conexiones en dormitorios y oficinas proporcionaron acceso a Internet y la universidad estableció una página de inicio en la World Wide Web. [8]

Siglo XXI Editar

Después de una protesta prolongada de estudiantes, personal, profesores y miembros de la comunidad, la junta de fideicomisarios de la universidad acordó incluir los beneficios para parejas domésticas en la parte de atención médica del contrato para profesores y personal con una fecha de inicio efectiva el 1 de abril de 2006. Este desarrollo convirtió a la Universidad de Toledo en la primera universidad estatal en comenzar a cubrir a las parejas domésticas después de la aprobación del Número 1 de Ohio; varias otras tenían beneficios de pareja antes y continuaron después de la prohibición. La protesta cobró impulso después de noviembre de 2004, cuando el tema 1 se convirtió en ley como una enmienda constitucional de Ohio, pero comenzó más de una década antes con el trabajo de varios miembros de la facultad.

El 31 de marzo de 2006, el gobernador Bob Taft firmó el Proyecto de Ley 478 de la Cámara, que fusionó la Universidad de Toledo con la Universidad Médica de Ohio. [10] La fusión entró en vigor el 1 de julio de 2006. La institución conservó el nombre de la Universidad de Toledo, y las instalaciones de la antigua Universidad Médica de Ohio se conocen como el Campus de Ciencias de la Salud. [11] Toledo se convirtió en la tercera universidad pública más grande de Ohio en términos de su presupuesto operativo, así como en una de las 17 universidades públicas del país que tiene facultades de negocios, educación, ingeniería, derecho, medicina y farmacia. Como resultado de esta fusión, la Facultad de Farmacia será una de las 45 Facultades de Farmacia estadounidenses ubicadas en un centro académico de ciencias de la salud. La campaña "El futuro de la farmacia" de la universidad (2008-2010) se inició para recaudar fondos para becas y equipos para la expansión de la universidad a un nuevo edificio en el campus de ciencias de la salud, una expansión que aumentará las oportunidades educativas y de investigación para estudiantes y profesores. [12] Lo que solía llamarse Facultad de Artes y Ciencias se dividió en tres facultades, incluida la Facultad de Idiomas, Literatura y Ciencias Sociales, la Facultad de Comunicaciones y Artes y la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas.

Toledo es una universidad pública y está gobernada por una junta de fideicomisarios y la Junta de Regentes de Ohio, ambos nombrados por el gobernador de Ohio. La junta está compuesta por 14 miembros y actualmente está presidida por Joseph H. Zerbey, IV. [13] Los miembros de la junta, que son miembros de la comunidad no remunerados, delegan su poder ejecutivo al presidente. El actual presidente interino es Gregory Postel. [14]

La Universidad de Toledo está compuesta por los siguientes colegios y escuelas:

  • Facultad de Aprendizaje Permanente y de Adultos
  • Facultad de Artes y Letras
  • Facultad de Negocios e Innovación [15]
  • Escuela de Innovación y Empresa Empresarial Sanitaria
  • Facultad de Salud y Servicios Humanos
  • Facultad de Educación Judith Herb
  • colegio de Ingenieria
  • Facultad de estudios de posgrado
  • Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud
  • Facultad de Derecho
  • Escuela de Biomarcadores y Simulación Avanzada
  • Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas
  • Escuela de Química Verde y Energía Renovable Avanzada
  • Facultad de enfermería
  • Facultad de Farmacia y Ciencias Farmacéuticas
  • Facultad de Artes Visuales y Escénicas
  • Colegio de Honores Jesup W. Scott
  • UT en línea

La Universidad de Toledo ofrece más de 250 programas académicos en una amplia y diversa gama de estudios. Es la sexta universidad más grande de Ohio por inscripción y ofrece una proporción de estudiantes por docente de 20: 1 y un tamaño promedio de clase de 25.

Las sociedades de honor nacionales como Phi Kappa Phi y Tau Beta Pi tienen capítulos en UT. La universidad también ofrece varias formas en las que los estudiantes pueden enriquecer su experiencia académica. Estos incluyen el Honors College, estudios en el extranjero, aprendizaje de servicios e investigación de pregrado.

Rankings académicos
Nacional
ARWU [16] 155-175
Forbes [17] 619
LOS/WSJ [18] 492
U.S. News & amp World Report [19] 298-389
Washington mensual [20] 291
Global
ARWU [21] 601-700
LOS [22] 501-600
U.S. News & amp World Report [23] 834

Investigación Editar

La universidad cuenta con la Empresa de Investigación de la Universidad de Toledo y una serie de centros e institutos de investigación.

Ubicado en Maumee Bay State Park, el Lake Erie Center apoya la investigación interdisciplinaria que involucra problemas ambientales que afectan a los Grandes Lagos.

El Instituto de Polímeros de UT, que forma parte de la Facultad de Ingeniería, apoya la investigación en polímeros y tecnología plástica.

El Centro Wright para la Innovación y Comercialización de la Energía Fotovoltaica (PVIC) fue creado en enero de 2007 con una subvención de $ 18,6 millones del Departamento de Desarrollo de Ohio y $ 30 millones de agencias federales, universidades y socios industriales para realizar investigaciones que implican el establecimiento de plataformas de ciencia y tecnología, empleando segundas y materiales fotovoltaicos (PV) de tercera generación y dispositivos diseñados para aplicaciones en la generación de electricidad limpia. [24] Las tres ubicaciones principales del Centro Wright para la Innovación y Comercialización de la Energía Fotovoltaica (PVIC) incluyen la Universidad de Toledo, la Universidad Estatal de Ohio y la Universidad Estatal Bowling Green. [24]

La investigación del centro se centra en mejorar los materiales y dispositivos de grandes áreas, aumentar la eficiencia de las tecnologías solares y reducir los costos de producción, con el objetivo final de aumentar la cantidad de sistemas de generación eléctrica con energía solar en hogares, empresas y servicios públicos, así. como apoyo a las necesidades aeroespaciales y de defensa de la nación de sistemas avanzados de energía solar.

En 2012, la Universidad de Toledo se unió como miembros socios del Lowell Discovery Telescope (anteriormente Discovery Channel Telescope). [25]

Los equipos atléticos de la Universidad de Toledo juegan como los Rockets, y los uniformes lucen los colores azul medianoche y dorado. Los equipos deportivos de la universidad juegan en la Conferencia Mid-American. El equipo de fútbol de los Rockets tiene nueve campeonatos de la Conferencia Mid-American, en 1967 (co-campeón con Ohio) 1969, 1970, 1971, 1981, 1984, 1990 (co-campeones con Western Michigan), 1995, 2001, 2004 y 2017.

El fútbol de los Toledo Rockets se jugó en el Little Caesars Pizza Bowl de 2010 el 26 de diciembre de 2010 contra Florida International. Toledo perdió el juego 34–32. Toledo jugó en el Go Daddy Bowl 2015 contra Arkansas State el 5 de enero de 2015. Los Rockets ganaron 63–44.

En la temporada de 2009, el equipo de tenis masculino terminó segundo en la temporada regular con un récord de 17-10, y alcanzó la final del torneo MAC por primera vez en 35 años.

El equipo de baloncesto masculino de los Toledo Rockets fue el campeón de la Conferencia Mid-American 2006-07 bajo el entrenador en jefe Stan Joplin, un ex jugador estrella de los Rockets a fines de la década de 1970, y fue entrenador asistente de 1984 a 1990. Fue despedido después de caer a un récord de 11-19 en 2007-08. El equipo recibió un premio de la NCAA por su alto rendimiento académico. Toledo empató en la tercera mejor marca de APR en la nación y MAC por segundo año consecutivo. [ ¿Cuándo? ] El programa de baloncesto masculino de la Universidad de Toledo se ubica en la cima de la Conferencia Mid-American por segundo año consecutivo en la Clasificación de Desempeño Académico (APR) de la Asociación Nacional de Atletismo Universitario. [ ¿Cuándo? ] La calificación 994 de Toledo estaba empatada en el tercer lugar entre todos los programas de baloncesto masculino de la División I de la NCAA y solo está detrás de Columbia y Davidson. [ ¿Cuándo? ]

En la primavera de 2011, el equipo femenino de baloncesto de la Universidad de Toledo ganó el WNIT, convirtiéndose en el primer equipo MAC de cualquier deporte en ganar un Campeonato Nacional en los tiempos modernos.

El cross country femenino ha ganado cuatro Campeonatos MAC (2001, 2002, 2010, 2011) y tres Subcampeonatos MAC (2003, 2005, 2009). El equipo femenino de campo traviesa terminó 21º en los Campeonatos de la NCAA en 2011 y 28º en los Campeonatos de la NCAA en 2010. El equipo de atletismo femenino también terminó como Subcampeón de 2012 MAC Indoor y Outdoor.

La Universidad de Toledo tiene dos mascotas oficiales, Rocky the Rocket y Rocksy the Rockette. Rocky se introdujo en 1966 y Rocksy se introdujo en 2011. UT también tiene un equipo espiritual oficial conocido como Blue Crew. La Rocket Marching Band de la Universidad de Toledo realiza un espectáculo previo al juego y un espectáculo de medio tiempo en todos los partidos de fútbol en casa en el Glass Bowl.

Rivalidad en Bowling Green Editar

Los principales rivales de fútbol de Toledo son los Falcons de Bowling Green State University. Los dos equipos anteriormente jugaban por un trofeo cada año conocido como Peace Pipe, un premio que se originó en el baloncesto pero progresó al fútbol en 1980. Debido a las regulaciones de la NCAA y un acuerdo entre las dos escuelas, una nueva rivalidad será la "Batalla". del trofeo I-75 ", un trofeo de bronce otorgado al ganador del juego. Toledo ahora lidera la serie, y Toledo actualmente ha estado dominando la serie con un récord de 10-1 en los últimos once encuentros, incluyendo recientemente una victoria por 66-37 en el campo local de Bowling Green, el Estadio Doyt Perry. [26] [27]

Deportes de club Editar

La Universidad de Toledo también cuenta con varios clubes deportivos bajo la dirección de la División de Asuntos Estudiantiles de la universidad. Los deportes de club reciben fondos de la universidad como organizaciones estudiantiles, los gastos asociados en los deportes a menudo se complementan con las cuotas de pago de los estudiantes y las actividades de recaudación de fondos. Los deportes de club ofrecidos por UT incluyen: bolos, baloncesto femenino, tripulación, campo a través, hockey sobre hielo masculino, lacrosse masculino y femenino, quidditch, vela, fútbol masculino, tenis de mesa, tenis, pista y campo, ultimate disc masculino y femenino, esgrima, voleibol femenino, waterpolo y lucha libre. [28]

Algunos logros recientes de los clubes deportivos de la Universidad de Toledo incluyen: tres campeonatos nacionales consecutivos de lucha libre individual de 2006 a 2008 tres campeonatos de la Asociación de Vela Universitaria del Medio Oeste en 1950, 2008 y 2009 2 apariciones en el Campeonato Nacional de la Asociación de Vela Intercolegial en 2008 y 2009 un Campeonato Nacional de Fútbol de la División Abierta de NIRSA en 1996 y un Campeonato Nacional de la División I de la Asociación Americana de Hockey Colegiado (ACHA) en 1992.

Hockey sobre hielo Editar

El equipo masculino de hockey sobre hielo de los Toledo Rockets es miembro de la División II de la Asociación Americana de Hockey Colegiado (ACHA). Además de pertenecer a la ACHA, el equipo también es miembro original de una conferencia conocida como Tri-State Collegiate Hockey League (TSCHL) que se estableció en 2010. [29] El equipo juega un calendario de juegos de 30 a 35 contra otros equipos del club. en la región.


Historia de la Universidad de Toledo

Esta es una copia archivada del catálogo 2018-2019. Para acceder a la versión más reciente del catálogo, visite http://utoledo-public.courseleaf.com.

La Universidad de Toledo comenzó en 1872 como una escuela privada de artes y oficios que ofrecía pintura y dibujo arquitectónico como únicas asignaturas. En los 145 años transcurridos desde entonces, la Universidad se ha convertido en una institución integral que ofrece más de 300 programas de pregrado y posgrado a más de 21,000 estudiantes de todo el mundo. La historia de su desarrollo es una historia notable.

In a pamphlet published in 1868 titled “Toledo: Future Great City of the World,” Jesup Wakeman Scott articulated a dream that led him to endow what would become The University of Toledo. Scott, a newspaper editor, expressed his belief that the center of world commerce was moving westward, and by 1900 would be located in Toledo. To help realize this dream, in 1872 Scott donated 160 acres of land as an endowment for a university to train the city’s young people.

The Toledo University of Arts and Trades was incorporated on October 12, 1872, to “furnish artists and artizans [sic] with the best facilities for a high culture in their professions.” Scott died in 1874, a year after the university opened in an old church building downtown. The school was short-lived, however, closing in 1878 due to a lack of funds. On January 8, 1884, the assets of the university were given by Scott’s sons to the city of Toledo and the school reopened as the Toledo Manual Training School. It offered a three-year program for students who were at least 13 years old in academic and manual instruction.

Dr. Jerome Raymond was appointed the first president in 1908. He expanded the school’s offerings by affiliating with the Toledo Conservatory of Music, the YMCA College of Law and the Toledo Medical College, and he helped to create the College of Arts and Sciences. These changes moved the university toward becoming a baccalaureate-degree granting institution, but the school struggled through years of inadequate finances and legal battles over control.

In 1914, Dr. A. Monroe Stowe became president and led the University on its first organized path of development. He founded the College of Commerce and Industry (currently the College of Business and Innovation) in 1914, and the College of Education (today the Judith Herb College of Education) in 1916. Enrollment grew from 200 students to 1,400.

As evidence that the University was maturing, student participation in extracurricular activities increased. In 1919, Student Council was created, and two students started a newspaper called The Universi-Teaser. In 1915, the students petitioned for an intercollegiate athletic program. Football began in 1917, although the first game was a 145-0 loss to the University of Detroit. The sports teams received their nickname, the “Rockets,” in 1923 from a newspaper writer who thought the name reflected the football team’s playing style.

By the 1920s, Toledo University was a growing institution, limited only by the size of buildings that housed it. Classes were held in several small buildings downtown. In 1922, the university moved into an automobile mechanics training facility that had been constructed for World War I on the original Scott plot of land. While twice the size of the old buildings, this location was less than ideal. Its limitations became evident when an enrollment increase of 32 percent in one year produced a critical shortage of space.

The prospects for a new, permanent home for the university improved in 1928 when Dr. Henry J. Doermann became president. His first activity was to initiate plans for a new campus. To pay for the proposed buildings, that year the city placed a bond levy before Toledo’s voters. A campaign by faculty and students led to the levy’s passage by 10,000 votes and less than one year before the start of the Great Depression. Doermann wanted the new campus to reflect the best design elements of European universities because he felt such architecture would inspire students. It took 400 men less than one year to build University Hall and the Field House in the Collegiate Gothic style.

While enrollments remained stable at the university during most years of the Depression, its finances were strapped. Dr. Philip C. Nash, who became president following Doermann’s sudden death, instituted drastic measures to cut costs. Funds from the federal government’s New Deal programs helped by paying for new buildings and student scholarships.

While the Depression decade determined in many ways if the University would survive, it was World War II and its aftermath that transformed UT into the modern university it is today. The impact of the war was felt almost immediately. The military contracted with UT to offer war-training programs for military and civilian personnel. Student life also changed with the war. With a dwindling number of male students, women assumed leadership roles on campus, and intercollegiate basketball and football were suspended. And, tragically, more than 100 UT students were killed in the war. After the war, the GI Bill of Rights provided a way to reward veterans for their service by paying their college tuition, and more than 3,000 veterans took advantage of the program at UT.

In 1947, Wilbur W. White replaced Nash, who had died the previous year. White proposed a progressive 10-year development plan, but he died in 1950 before any new buildings were completed. His successor, Dr. Asa S. Knowles, oversaw the completion of several buildings, including a new library in 1953. Knowles resigned the presidency in 1958. His last official act was to meet with Toledo City Council to discuss the future financing of the university. As a municipal university, more than 12 percent of the city’s budget was allocated to it, and Knowles felt this was unsustainable. Council members suggested the university consider acquiring financial assistance from the state.

It was left to President William S. Carlson to pursue the issue. In 1959, bills introduced in the legislature for a state subsidy for Ohio’s three largest municipal universities stalled, and the university’s financial situation worsened. Fortunately, a 2-mill levy in 1959 passed by 144 votes, raising $1.7 million a year for the university. But the universities of Akron, Cincinnati and Toledo all continued to press for state financial assistance and finally, on July 1, 1967, The University of Toledo became part of the state’s system of higher education. In addition to tuition subsidies for students, state support provided capital improvement money for a campus building boom.

College students became more politically active in the 1960s, and student protests became frequent. Most at UT were peaceful, although protests in opposition to the war in Vietnam led to several arrests. In 1970, the campus remained calm following the deaths of four student protesters at Ohio's Kent State University. A protest led by African American students after the killing of students at Jackson State University in Mississippi temporarily closed University Hall in May 1970, but this ended when Carlson met with the students and reached a peaceful accord.

UT marked its centennial in 1972 with a year of celebration. That year Carlson retired, and Dr. Glen R. Driscoll was selected as his successor. Driscoll oversaw further expansion of the University’s physical plant. Centennial Mall, a nine-acre landscaped area in the center of Main Campus, replaced parking lots and Army barracks in 1980. In 1985, Driscoll retired and was replaced by Dr. James D. McComas, who continued the expansion of the University’s facilities. His tenure at UT was brief, however, as he resigned in 1988.

Dr. Frank E. Horton was selected to be The University of Toledo’s 13th president in October 1988. To meet the challenges of the 1990s, Horton began a lengthy strategic planning effort to chart a course of targeted, purposeful growth. To help achieve the plan’s many goals, in 1993 the University launched a successful $40-million fundraising campaign. The University continued to expand its physical environs with the renovation of commercial buildings into classrooms. The University also formalized its relationship with the Toledo Museum of Art with the completion of UT's Center for the Visual Arts on the museum’s grounds. The University also built its Lake Erie Research Center at Maumee Bay State Park.

Significant growth in the 1990s was not only in buildings, but also in technology. The University joined OhioLINK, a statewide library network, in 1994. The internet became accessible in residence halls and offices. Technological improvements enabled students to register for classes and check their grades online. The University also began to experiment with offering classes via distance (online) learning.

In 1999, Dr. Vik Kapoor became the University’s 14th president following Horton’s retirement. Kapoor embarked on a restructuring program that included major resource reallocation and administrative reorganization. The Community and Technical College, established in 1968 on the University’s Scott Park campus, was abolished. In June 2000, Kapoor resigned, and was replaced the following year by Dr. Daniel Johnson.

Johnson’s agenda focused on reconnecting the University to the community through outreach and engagement activities, and the University’s mission was rewritten to describe UT as a metropolitan research university. Planning began on a science and technology corridor to encourage research partnerships with businesses. Construction projects on Main Campus included renovations to several older buildings, including the Memorial Field House, which was transformed from a basketball arena into a classroom building it reopened in 2008 after several years of standing empty.

In 2006, the University saw another fundamental change with the merger of UT and the Medical University of Ohio, which had been founded as a separate state-supported institution in 1964. As part of the merger, Dr. Lloyd Jacobs, who had been president of MUO, was named president of the merged university. UT became one of few universities nationwide to offer degrees in medicine, law, engineering, business, nursing, pharmacy and education.

In 2015, UT welcomed its first female president, Dr. Sharon L. Gaber. As the University's 17th president, Gaber has worked to increase enrollment, retention, research and philanthropy, and has overseen the implementation of an agreement to partner UT’s medical education with ProMedica, a regional health-care system. Through increased collaboration with faculty, staff, students and the community, Gaber also has led the University in efforts to create and implement a new strategic plan, a diversity and inclusion plan, and a new multiple-campus master plan.

Despite the challenges facing higher education in the 21st century, The University of Toledo today is a success story. Many of its faculty and academic programs have worldwide reputations, and its Main Campus and Health Science Campus are recognized as architectural gems. If the past is any indication, future challenges will be met and the institution will continue educating its students as accountable citizens and global leaders.


University of Toledo - History

University Hall has been an iconic part of the University of Toledo and the City of Toledo since its conception in 1929. The building utilizes collegiate gothic architecture and stands as an inspiration to students to learn and reach for their goals. However, University Hall was not always apart of the University of Toledo.

Prior to the completion of University Hall in 1931, and the leadership of President Henry Doermann, the University was financially unstable, having changed its location multiple times. However, this all changed in 1928 when the University appointed Dr. Doermann President of the University. A bond levy which was placed on the ballot for the City of Toledo in the fall of 1928, which would give funds to the University for the purchase of a new land and the construction of a new campus. President Doermann, university alumni, and other volunteers were able to gather enough support for the bond levy to be passed. The bond issue that was agreed upon totaled $2,800,000, which in today’s (2018) currency would be close to $40 million.[1] After many locations throughout the Toledo area were proposed, it was finally agreed upon by City Council and the relocation board that the new location of the University would be on West Bancroft Street, where it is presently located. On January 31, 1929 the board approved the site and purchased, for a price of $275,00, land from the Rufus Wright Farm (80-acres on West Bancroft).[2] Additionally, another purchase was made to buy 34 acres of land in between the Wright Farm and Terminal Railroad tracks, for a price of $25,000.[3] In 1929, the architectural firm of Mills, Rhines, Bellman, and Nordhoff was chosen to design the University buildings. The contract for constructing University Hall, as well as the Field House went to the Henry J. Spieker Company. Construction finally started and took 11 months to be completed in 1931. With the completion of University Hall UT now has a stable educational environment.

He had chosen University Hall’s Gothic architectural design to reflect a few aspects from the Universities in Europe believing it would be an encouragement to the students attending. Due to this choice in design, it became a standard for all other buildings created on the main campus. Doermann brought more life to the school starting in 1928. At the age of 37, he was elected President of the University in the city of Toledo. After becoming President of the University his first task was to begin an expansion program to organize a new location for the University. Doermann collected the funding needed for this project given to him by a city-initiated bond levy having ten thousand votes. At the time of the new University President had to deal with a little flooding from the Ottawa River, but soon ground was broken for the University Hall in March of 1929 and the cornerstone ceremony began on June 12, 1930. Construction was completed with 400 construction workers in the span of 10 months and a five day open house was initiated in February of 1931.

Architectural Style: Collegiate Gothic

  • Standing 63 feet tall, includes a bell tower in the center which stands 205 feet tall.
  • The tower has four gargoyles which face outward on the four corners.
  • The front entrance is modeled after Daneway Hall, a 16 th century mansion.
  • Contains to courtyards in the east and west wings.
  • Features classical gothic architecture motifs, such as a turret in the front, pointed arch doorways, battlements, and vaulted ceilings.

Architects: Mills, Rhines, Bellman, and Nordhoff Inc.

Contractor: Henry J. Spieker Company (crew of 400 workers)

Ground Breaking: March 3 rd , 1929

Interior of University Hall:

  • Has 337 room, including a theatre which hold over 500 people (named after President Doermann), a cafeteria (removed now office space), 2,000 windows, 12 chimneys, and a library located on the 5 th floor (has been removed and is now class rooms and offices).
  • Home to various administrative and academic offices which consist of the Presidential office, college of arts and letters, office of the provost, college of graduate studies, and college of mathematics. Students who take their subjects in this building are given plenty of ranging activities such as foreign languages, religion, economics, and psychology.

Materials Used: 50,00 tons of Wisconsin Lannon stone and Indiana Limestone. Including 993 tons of Fave bricks, 1,048,600 Duplex bricks, 1,957,300 common bricks, and 6,000 tons of mortar.

Ivy in the front of the building comes from Heidelberg College of Germany. In the past it used to be tradition, in the United States, once a new campus was built a branch of ivy was brought over from a European Institution and planted in the new campus. Symbolizing continuing education.

Corner stone was laid on June 12 th , 1930, however Dr. Doermann left a sort of time capsule within the stone before it was laid. The stone contains a short history of the University, descriptions of the bond campaign, copies of the University’s annual Blockhouse, Campus Collegian, Toledo City Journal, and pictures from the ground breaking.

On the third floor there is a collection of 55 painted University seals, which represent the first faculty to occupy University Hall.

Bibliografía

Value of $2,800,000 in 1928. Inflation Calculator for Today's Dollars, www.saving.org/inflation/inflation.php?amount=2,800,000&year=1928.

Hickerson, Frank R. The Tower Builders the Centennial Story of the University of Toledo. University of Toledo Press, 1972.


University of Toledo

Nuestros editores revisarán lo que ha enviado y determinarán si deben revisar el artículo.

University of Toledo, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Toledo, Ohio, U.S. It offers more than 300 undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs through 13 schools and colleges. The main campus is in west Toledo in addition there are the Scott Park campus of Energy and Innovation, the Health Science campus, and academic facilities at the Lake Erie Center, the Toledo Museum of Art, and the Stranahan Arboretum. The university also provides a joint-study program with Bowling Green State University. Research centres and institutes include the Polymer Institute, the Legal Institute of the Great Lakes, and the Ritter Astrophysical Research Center. The University of Toledo enrolls approximately 23,000 students.

The Toledo University of Arts and Trades was founded in 1872 on the current Scott Park campus on lands donated by Jesup W. Scott, a citizen of Toledo. It was a municipal university from 1883 until 1967, when it began receiving state support. Pharmacy and law were added to the curriculum in the first decade of the 20th century, when the university became affiliated with Toledo Medical College and the Toledo YMCA College of Law. The university experienced marked growth beginning in 1928 with the creation of the campus in west Toledo. In 2006 the University of Toledo merged with the Medical University of Ohio the latter was renamed the University of Toledo Health Science Campus.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Rachel Cole, Research Editor.


27 comentarios

here’s another interesting link to some aku-aku stories:

my dad tuned the piano at the aku-aku and i sometimes went with him. i remember meeting count basie and other entertainers. i also remember watching all the beautiful girls hanging around the swimming pool on a weekday afternoon. ahem.
dad had a lot of slick shapiro stories, none of which i remember other than the fact that dad liked him because he paid and he paid on time.
that said, i really enjoy this site. keep it up!

¡Gracias! That is a GREAT link.

My grandparents basically lived right around the corner at “Phil Manor,” a brick apartment building at Robinwood and Bancroft, and we used to pass the Town House/Quality Inn there all the time. By then (late 60s, early 70s) the area was still sliding and the digging for Interstate 75 made it a pretty memorable mess anyway.

I worked as a sommelier at Tiffinanny’s in 1979. It was a wine only bar (about 120 different bottles) with one beer, Grolsch. The food was limited to a cheese plate ( bonbel, port salut, port wine cheddar, brie and apple slices. There was live music on the weekends, but it was more if a date place than a singles bar.
Great article. Good memories. I moved out of state that year.

Hi Mark, thanks for sharing your memories of Tiffinanny’s. I came to Tiffinanny’s frequently back in the mid to late 1970’s, and you are correct, Tiffinanny’s was a date place. It was unique and very special. The owner created spaces within his establishment just for couples partitioning tables with tall walls that split each table in fours to seat up to 4 couples per table. While I cannot recall the owner’s name, I recall his telling my then girlfriend and I that he named the place after his 2 ex-wives. Excellent wine and cheeses, and live music. All good memories.

I went searching on the Internet in search of any photos of Tiffinanny’s. So far, I have not found any. The only references of Tiffinanny’s found are from those that either worked or performed there. I hope to find a photo or of it someday. Thanks again for sharing.


Chapter 1: The Early Years, 1872-1910s

In a small pamphlet published in 1868 entitled “Toledo: Future Great City of the World,” Jesup Wakeman Scott articulated a dream that led him to endow what would become the University of Toledo. Scott, who served as editor of The Toledo Blade from 1844-1847, often used his writings to promote the city. In this publication, he expressed his belief that the center of world commerce was moving ever westward, and by 1900 would be located in Toledo. The city would become bigger than Paris, London, or New York. To help realize this dream, in 1872 Scott donated 160 acres of land on Nebraska Avenue near a proposed railroad terminal as an endowment for a university to train the city’s young people to assume roles in the Future Great City.

Articles of incorporation were drawn up on October 12, 1872 for the Toledo University of Arts and Trades. The institution was to “furnish artists and artisans with the best facilities for a high culture in their professions. ” Income from the lease of the Scott land, then valued at $80,000 but certain to increase rapidly when the railroad terminal opened, was to support the institution. The university was to offer its classes “free of cost to all pupils who have not the means to pay for the same, and all others are to pay such tuition and other fees as the trustees may require.”

Unfortunately for the struggling university, the railroad terminal never materialized. Jesup Scott died in 1874, a year before the university opened in the old Independent Church Building at 10th and Adams downtown. The building was named for trustee William Raymond, who gave the money needed to purchase it. The university’s curriculum centered on design courses, with painting and architectural drawing as the only subjects. The school was forced to close in 1878, however, because it was never able to gain appropriate finances.

Jesup Scott’s three sons—Frank, William, and Maurice—were disappointed by the failure of the school. They felt that the university might succeed if reorganized as a manual training school. But because they had no money, the sons turned over the university’s assets—including the 160 acres of land—to the city of Toledo on January 8, 1884. Three months later the city accepted the gift and agreed to use the assets to create a university, as was required by the Scott trust.

The city ordinance accepting the assets stated that the school was to be called Toledo University, and its first department was to be the Manual Training School. A Board of Directors was appointed, and the Toledo Board of Education provided the top floor of the Central High School to house the Manual Training School. The school offered a three-year program for students at least 13 years old, who divided their time evenly between academic and manual instruction.

The Manual Training School was a huge success. Soon the school was out of room, and the Board of Directors asked the Board of Education to provide land for a new building. The ensuing disagreements between these two governing bodies were the first in a long line of fights which would not be resolved until 1911. But the new building was constructed as an annex to Central High.

Toledo University passed up a great opportunity in 1900. An anonymous donor offered to provide a substantial gift of money to turn the Manual Training School into a technical university. However, the Board of Directors turned down the offer because they felt it had too many strings attached. They learned after rejecting the gift that their would-be benefactor was steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie gave his money a few years later for the establishment of the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh.

The Manual Training School changed its name to the Toledo University Polytechnic School in 1900. However, most people continued to call it the Manual Training School, and it continued a curriculum of traditional and vocational instruction to students in the 8th grade and higher. Another quarrel broke out between the Board of Directors and the Board of Education over space for the school. When it could not be resolved, the Board of Directors decided to exclude students in grades 8 and 9 from attending. With this move, the battles between the two bodies intensified.

Albert E. Macomber, one of the original trustees of the institution in 1872 and an ardent supporter, suddenly turned on the school and began a lengthy battle against it. He sought to have the Polytechnic School abolished and reestablished as the manual training department of Central High. Maurice Scott supported Macomber because he felt the Polytechnic School was not the intention of his father’s original endowment.

The university’s Board of Directors needed a new facility to relieve overcrowding, and proposed selling the Scott farm property to pay for it. Macomber and the Scott sons sued, stating that the city and the Board of Education had no right to sell the land. The university’s Board of Directors turned to the state legislature, which in 1904 enacted legislation stating the right to regulate municipal universities was a power of city council, not the Board of Education. A circuit court ruling upheld the legality of the Board of Directors.

The battle between the two governing boards continued, and escalated. In 1905, the Board of Education refused to levy taxes to support the school, and the Manual Training School could not open for one month due to lack of funds. The next year the Board of Education sought to strengthen its hand by seizing the building that housed the school. Several members barricaded themselves inside, refusing to leave. The Board of Directors asked the city to file a lawsuit to finally settle the question of who controlled the university.

Funding for the school continued to be tenuous. In 1908, when the city tried again to levy taxes to support the institution, Macomber vigorously attacked the effort. He published a scathing circular criticizing the university. City government was unwilling to turn over any money to operate the institution until Board member Dr. John S. Pyle pointed out the city had just spent $2400 to purchase an elephant for the zoo. Surely, Dr. Pyle argued, the university was as important as an elephant. The tactic worked, and on June 15, 1909, the city granted $2400 to fund the institution. This did not end the financial problems of the university, however, and operating expenses often had to be made up out of the pockets of the directors.

Dr. Jerome Raymond was appointed the first president of the university in 1908. Despite the financial headaches and the on-going questions concerning the legality of the university’s existence, Dr. Raymond was able to make some progress for the university. He expanded the university’s offerings by affiliating with the Toledo Conservatory of Music and the YMCA College of Law and creating the College of Arts and Sciences. Along with its affiliation with the Toledo Medical College, which had occurred in 1904, these changes were important in moving the institution from being a manual training school to becoming an institution of higher education.

However, Dr. Raymond found the stress of the situation too much, and resigned in 1910. No candidates came forward to replace him because of the political difficulties and an annual city appropriation of only $3600. The university appointed Dr. Charles Cockayne, then on the faculty, as acting president.

At this time, classes for the university were being held in both the Manual Training School facility and at the Toledo Medical College building at Cherry and Page. The Toledo Medical College building was nearly destroyed in a fire on January 9, 1911. This was a devastating blow for the directors. The university lost its laboratories, its library, and many classrooms. The directors were ready to give up and close the university. Fortunately, an arrangement was made to use the third floor of the Meredith Building at Michigan and Jefferson. The university continued to hang on.

On January 24, 1911, in the case of Toledo v. Seiders et al., the university finally got the legal decision it had eagerly sought settling the questions of ownership and control. A circuit court decision (upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court) clearly established the legal existence of the university and the Board of Directors as its governing body. The city raised its budget to $5000, and for the first time it appeared the institution might survive.

The Board of Directors realized after the court’s decision that it no longer needed the Manual Training School. The curriculum did not fit with an institution that provided baccalaureate education. In 1914, the directors worked out an agreement to give the building to the Board of Education in exchange for an empty elementary school at the corner of 11th and Illinois. However, this building was not without its problems. It needed extensive renovation it was in a bad neighborhood and it was a mile from the Cherry and Page street building which, after having been repaired following the fire, continued as the location for many classes.

With the new building came a new president. Dr. Cockayne was removed, although at first he refused to leave and his replacement, Dr. Allen Cullimore, had to change the locks on the president’s office door to keep him out. Dr. Cullimore served as acting president for five months until a permanent president, Dr. A. Monroe Stowe, took office on July 6, 1914.

Dr. Stowe faced many of the same challenges of his predecessors, and some new ones. In 1914, the Toledo Medical College closed, the victim of new regulations governing medical education issued by the American Medical Association. But despite this setback, Dr. Stowe seemed to have the vision to take the university on its first organized path of development. He established educational standards, admission requirements, and a formal curriculum. He founded the College of Commerce and Industry in 1914, and the College of Education in 1916. Enrollment grew from 200 students to 1400, and the budget increased to $200,000. Dr. Stowe took the first steps toward becoming accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, and in 1920 accreditation was granted.

Dr. Stowe’s tenure was not without controversy, however. In 1915, at the urging of Dr. Pyle, Dr. Stowe hired Scott Nearing as professor of economics and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Nearing was an economics professor who had been dismissed from the University of Pennsylvania for his radical views. With his national reputation, Nearing was sought after as a speaker, and came to be seen as the spokesperson for the working classes of Toledo. With the United States on the verge of entering World War I and the fear of Socialism on the rise, however, Nearing was attacked by many conservative groups in the city. They feared he was using his position in the classroom to teach Socialism to students. The groups and their influential leaders succeeded in getting Nearing dismissed from his position in 1917. His house was raided, many of his papers were confiscated, and the American Association of University Professors refused Nearing’s appeal for assistance.

When the United States entered the war in 1917, enrollment dropped as students left to serve their country. The Committee on Education and Special Training of the U.S. War Department proposed a program to the university to train automobile mechanics for the war effort. A machine shop and dormitory were built on the Scott property on Nebraska Avenue for this purpose, as was housing for the Toledo University Section of the Students Army Training Corps. This program, the forerunner of ROTC, provided army training for many soldiers. Many of these students returned to the university after the war and enrolled as full-time students.

At the end of nearly 50 years of existence, Toledo University had emerged as a growing municipal university.

While its critics, including Albert Macomber, continued to attack it, the institution had established the legality of its existence, had divorced itself from a manual training curriculum, and was accredited by a national agency. It continued, however, to be housed in several inadequate buildings, and in the next decade would be forced to find a permanent home.


Sexism Charges Challenged at the University of Toledo

Three sources within the department told HNN that Ruth Wallis Herndon is the professor who resigned. Professor Herndon could not be reached for comment, but these sources said that neither a sexist atmosphere nor the University&rsquos report led to her resignation. Rather, she left simply because she was offered a better position at Bowling Green State University, which is closer to her home.

Every female professor that I contacted declined to comment on the OID report for fear of worsening the situation. However, two female graduate students in the department, who wish to remain anonymous, both said that, to their knowledge, the accusations in the report are untrue. &ldquoIf the charges were true,&rdquo offered one student, &ldquoyou would think [sexism] would have trickled down to the graduate students, which it hasn&rsquot.&rdquo Another student believes that the problem is caused by one professor, &ldquoand it has been turned into sexism because she happens to be female.&rdquo If the department is &ldquotoxic&rdquo in the eyes of this professor, she continues, &ldquoIt is because she has made it so.&rdquo

My sources indicated that the divide within the department might be more related to politics than sexism. One source says &ldquothe problems in the department exist due to differences of opinion in how the department should be run.&rdquo Much of the animosity seems to stem from a vote of no confidence (8-4) in the former department chair, Timothy Messer-Kruse. A source within the department said that since the vote, &ldquothose that supported the former chair&helliphave an axe to grind.&rdquo Another female graduate student confirmed that &ldquothere is a lot of bitterness and hard feelings&rdquo over last year&rsquos vote. Professor Larry Wilcox says that Messer-Kruse was ousted because his critics believed he was not leading the department well.

Wilcox, who has been teaching at the University for almost forty years, admits that the History program is in dire condition. He claims that &ldquoadministrators who give little support to the humanities&rdquo are a big part of the problem. When Wilcox began teaching at Toledo in 1968, University enrollment was at 9,000 and there were twenty tenure track professors in the history department. Today, enrollment is just under 20,000 and there will be eight tenure track professors, one of whom is a woman, by the end of the academic year.

In the last three years, eight members of the teaching faculty have retired, but according to Wilcox, the administration has not permitted the department to replace them with new tenure track faculty. Both Wilcox and the graduate students I spoke to felt that if new faculty were hired, problems in the history department would be ameliorated.

In Wilcox&rsquos view, the University&rsquos treatment of the OID report has exacerbated the situation. He says that the allegations in the report have resulted in &ldquoarbitrary and capricious punishment of the Department of History by the current administration of the University of Toledo.&rdquo The University has repeatedly denied his requests to see the specific allegations made in the report, along with support and attribution. Instead, the administration has given the department a two page summary and conclusions of the OID investigation. In local newspaper articles, the administration has contended that faculty members were given anonymity so they would not be hindered in fully expressing their feelings about the department. Nevertheless, a graduate student remarked, &ldquoBy refusing to discuss the situation, the University is merely suppressing the problem.&rdquo

Wilcox also charged that his department has not been given the &ldquoright to respond to [the report] in a fair and public forum.&rdquo Consequently, he and five other male faculty members (or 2/3 or the remaining tenure track faculty) have filed a class action grievance against the administration of the University of Toledo. One male and one female professor refused to sign the suit. When contacted, a representative of the University administration said that it would be &ldquoinappropriate for the University comment under the circumstances.&rdquo

Given the recent developments, the atmosphere of the University of Toledo&rsquos history department is replete with tension and low morale. At least three Master&rsquos students are leaving after this year. Professor Wilcox complains that &ldquouniversity politics&rdquo have unduly intruded on his professional obligations and his devotion to his students. However, there is still some optimism that the department can weather the storm. One graduate student says, &ldquoI know we can get through this and that the quality of our program will carry us through.&rdquo


Post Modern Style

Post-Modern is the name given to recent developments in architecture. Its defining elements are not always clear, but it does represent a drastic change from the buildings of the International Style. For some architects, Post-Modern is a return to the styles of the 1920s and 1930s. To others it means an interest in the arbitrary geometry of the Beaux-Arts school of the 19th century. To still others it is completely radical and new. One could sum up the Post-Modern style by one word: eclectic.

9. Stranahan Hall

Architects: Munger, Munger, and Associates

Stranahan Hall, home of the College of Business Administration, fits the Post-Modern label well. It is modern, yet old. It is square, yet round. It is symmetrical, yet asymmetrical. It is eclectic.

Stranahan Hall has been one of the most acclaimed buildings constructed on campus. In 1986, the architectural firm won an American Institute of Architects/Society of Honor Award for the design. It has been described as "a sophisticated use of form and materials relating well to the campus's Collegiate Gothic roots."

Heaviness of walls, unlike sleek glass and steel of the International buildings.

Pointed dormer windows of the Gothic tradition.

Rounded northeast corner, balancing against other square and pyramidal sides.

Classical columns on south facade.

Five-story atrium, balanced against buried first floor.

Deeply recessed windows are a much simplified version of the leaded glass casement windows of University Hall.

10. McMaster Hall

Architects: Munger, Munger, and Associates

McMaster Hall is the second building on campus to be built in the Post-Modern style. Like Stranahan Hall, it encompasses elements of the old and the new, yet its roots are clearly in the Collegiate Gothic. It is less eclectic and more traditional than Stranahan Hall.

Features to note:

Heaviness of walls gives the feeling of permanence and tradition.

Pointed roofs and battlement decoration are Gothic elements.

Pointed arched doorways, chimney brick, casement windows, and slate on roofs are similar to University Hall.

Seven-story height of central portion reminiscent of University Hall tower.

Its traditional design contrasts with the building's intended purpose to provide a place for instruction in advanced physics and astronomy.

11. The Academic Center Residence Hall

Architects: Seyfang, Blanchard, Duket, Porter Inc.

Typical of the eclecticism of the Post-Modern movement, the Academic Center Residence Hall combines elements of both the Gothic and International styles of architecture. The outer walls combine modern aluminum with traditional brick. The Hall unites vertical, horizontal and diagonal surface areas, along with tall, narrow windows to provide a unique blend of the old and the new.

Slanted roofs reminiscent of University Hall design.

Aluminum roof design combines elements of the old and the new.

12. Student Union Addition

Much like the Academic Center Residence Hall, the latest Student Union Addition is a combination of the Gothic and International Styles. This is exemplified in the use of both buff-colored brick in the middle of the building and Indiana limestone at each end. This combination is also evident in the design and materials used on the roof, which is peaked and made of slate on each end and flat in the middle.

Middle of building is rounded showing interest in geometric shapes. This interest is reminiscent of the International as well as the Transitional styles of architecture.

Ends of building emphasize clean vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines, and include evidence of the Collegiate Gothic.

13. Center for Visual Arts

Architects: Frank O. Gehry and Associates

The Center for Visual Arts is located adjacent to The Toledo Museum of Art in Toledo's Old West End and is the first University building designed by world- renowned architect Frank Gehry. The design of the building provides an interesting and pleasing contrast to the classical appearance of the Museum.

The Center for Visual Arts is a building of metal and glass that exemplifies the contemporary style. In designing the complex, Gehry paid special attention to balancing different geometric shapes, particularly noting the flat roof and the rounded corners of the building. The Center for Visual Arts is often noted for its award-winning design and was also featured in Time magazine.


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